18th century European scholarly societies and academies

Module Overview


As an experiment using online databases and reference works to mine for data, this project will investigate the scale of literary, artistic, and scientific academies and societies across Europe in the eighteenth century. Some of this material has been organized by the University of Waterloo Library through their Scholarly Societies Project. However, there is much more to be done. Students will create entries to academies and societies, either by linking to pre-existing wiki pages or by creating their own. Most societies will require a new entry to the Wiki site.



To be useful, we will need to keep an index of these societies and academies. For the moment, we will keep the index on this page. Academies and societies will be listed by state, which means that a Roman academy, such as the Pontificia Accademia degli Arcadi will be listed under Italian StatesǀRome. When you enter a new academy to out index, either by adding a link to a pre-existing wiki page or to a new page that you have created, put your name next to it. This is how I will be able to grade your entries.

Creating New Pages


To get started on a new page, we will want to use a standard format to organize our entries. I have created a template in my entry for the Society of the Virtuosi of St Luke, London.

To create a new page, all you need to do is enter the society that you want to add in the search field. If a page does not exist, you will be asked if you would like to create a new page. If so, go ahead. Be sure to add your entries to Wikiversity, not Wikipedia. We can always add our entries to Wikipedia in the future, but since this is a class project, let's keep it on Wikiversity.




Academy of Fine Arts Vienna (LNJ)
Freimaurerloge "Zur wahren Eintracht"/Free Masonic Lodge "True Harmony" est. 1781 (BJG) (Josh Anderson)
Gesellschaft des Ackerbaues und Nützlicher Künste im Herzogthume Steyermarkt/Imperial and Royal Society of Agriculture and the Useful Arts in the Duchy of Steyermark est. 1764 (BJG)
Kaiserl. Konigl. Gesellschaft des Ackerbaues und Nutzlicher Kunste im Herzogthume Steyermarkt, Imperial and royal Society of Agriculture and the Useful Arts in the Duchy of Steyemark (Amanda Thompson)


Academy_of_ancient_music (TLMJ)
Honourable_Society_of_Cymmrodorion Anrhydeddus Gymdeithas y Cymmrodorion/Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion est. 1751 (BJG)
Academy in Soho Square, London ca. 1740? (BJG)
Anti-Slavery Society, London(MRB)
Bath and West of England Society (Matt Parrish)
w:Blue_Stockings_Society (MRB)
Board of Agriculture, England 1793 (Matt Parrish)
Century_Club (MRB)
Chemical Society of Glasgow (Matt Parrish)
Cosmopolitan_Club (MRB)
Highland Society of Edinburgh, Royal Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland [1] (Amanda Thompson)
Juridical_Society_of_Edinburgh (BJG)(Katherine Hinkle)
w:Kit-Cat_Club (MRB)
w:Linnean_Society_of_London London est. 1788 (BJG) present web site
Literary and Antiquarian Society of Perth (Matt Parrish)
Literary_and_Philosophical_Society_of_Manchester (Katherine Hinkle)
Literary Society in Exeter (Katherine Hinkle)
w:London_Corresponding_Society (TLMJ)
w:Lunar_Society_of_Birmingham (MRB)
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, Manchester est. 1781 [[2](BJG)
w:Medical_Society_of_London (TLMJ)
Peterborough Gentlemen's Society (also known as Gentleman's Society at Peterborough (AJS) (Kristin R. Diggs)
Philosophical Society of Edinburgh (Matt Parrish)
w:Royal_academy_of_arts Royal Academy of Arts [3]| est. 1768 (BJG)
w:Royal Bath and West of England_Society [4] est. 1777 (BJG) :
w:Royal_College_of_Physicians (of London?) (JMK)
w:Royal_College_of_Surgeons_of_Edinburgh (JMK)
w:Royal_Humane_Society (Allison N. Osen)
Royal institution of great britain (Matt Parrish)
Royal Lancashire Agricultural Society (Allison N. Osen)
Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh (Matt Parrish)
Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce (Matt Parrish) (Kristin R. Diggs)
Royal Society of London (LNJ)
w:St._Martin's Lane Academy London]] (LNJ)
Society for Philosophical Experiments and Conversations (Matt Parrish) (Kristin R. Diggs)
Society for the Improvement of Medical and Chirurgical Knowledge (Matt Parrish)
w:Society_of_Antiquaries_of_London (TLMJ)
w:Society_of_Antiquaries_of_Scotland (Allison N. Osen)
w:Society_of_Artists of Great Britain, London]] (MRB)
Society of civil engineers (Matt Parrish)
Society of Improvers in the Knowledge of Agriculture in Scotland (Amanda Thompson) (Kristin R. Diggs)‎‎
Society of Physicians in London (Matt Parrish) (Kristin R. Diggs)
Society_of_the_Virtuosi_of_St_Luke London]] (JMK)
Society for Promoting Religious Knowledge Among the Poor (AKA The Book Society)(MRB)
w:Society_for_the_Reformation_of_Manners London (LNJ)]]
w:Society_of_Dilettanti London (LNJ)
w:Spalding_Gentlemen’s_Society London]] (TLMJ))
w:Worshipful_Society_of_Apothecaries London (TLMJ)


Kongelige Akademiet for de Skønne Kunster/Royal Academy for the Fine Arts | KASK | est. 1754 (BJG)w:Royal_Danish_Academy_of_Fine_Arts
Kongelige Danske Landhusholdningsselskab/Royal Danish Agricultural Society est. 1769 (BJG)
Kongelige Danske Selskab for Fædrelandets Historie/Royal Danish Society for National History est. 1745 (BJG)
Danske Videnskabernes Selskab/Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters | KDVS | est. 1742 (BJG)w:Royal_Danish_Academy_of_Sciences_and_Letters
Kongelige Medicinske Selskab/Royal Medical Society est. 1772 (BJG) (Josh Anderson)
Kirurgiske Privatselskab/Private Society of Surgeons est. 1771 (BJG)
Íslenzka Lærdóms-Lista Félag/Islenzka Laerdóms-Lista Felag/Icelandic Scholarly Society est. 1779 (BJG)
Naturhistorie-Selskabet/Natural History Society est. 1789 (Amanda Lanning-Ziegler)
Societas Exercitatoria Medica, Medical Training Society of Copenhagen (Amanda Thompson)


w:Académie_des_Beaux-Arts Academy of Fine Arts (TLMJ)
w:Académie Française French Academy , Paris (LNJ)
Académie_Delphinale Delphinale Academy, Grenoble (TLMJ)
w:Académie de Marine Naval Academy (LNJ)
w:Henri_Louis_Habert_de_Montmor Académie de Montmor (LNJ)
Académie de Belles-Lettres, Sciences et Arts de Las Rochelle, Acadamy of Humanities, Sciences and Arts of La Rochelle [5](Amanda Thompson)
Académie of Montauban: Sciences, Humanities, Arts, Promotion of Good Citizenship [6] (Amanda Thompson)
Academy of Humanities of Marseille [7] (Amanda Thompson)
Académie de Sciences, Lettres et Arts d'Arras (Academy of Sciences, Letters and Arts of Arras} [[8] (Amanda Thompson)
Académie des Sciences, Arts et Belles-Letters de Dijon (Academy of Sciences, Arts and Humanities of Dijon) [9] (Amanda Thompson)
AAcadémie des Sciences, Bellas-Lettres et Arts de Rouen, (Academy of Sciences, Humanities and Arts of Rouen) [10] (Amanda Thompson)
des Sciences, Bellas-Lettres et Arts de Clermont-Ferrand, Academy of Sciences, Humanities and Arts of Clermont-Ferrand (Amanda Thompson)
des Sciences, Bellas-Lettres de Nancy, Royal Society of Sciences and Humanities of Nancy (Amanda Thompson)
Academy of Agriculture of France est. 1761 (Amanda Lanning-Ziegler)
Academy of Stanislas est. 1750 (Amanda Lanning-Ziegler)
Académie des Sciences et Lettres de Montpellier (Matt Parrish)
Académie Nationale de Metz, National Academy of Metz (Amanda Thompson)
Académie Royal de Peinture, Sculpture et Architecture de Toulouse, Royal Academy of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture of Toulouse (Amanda Thompson)
Académie Royale d'Architecture, Paris (TLMJ)
Académie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris (LNJ)
Académie Royale de Musique, Paris (LNJ)
Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, Paris (TLMJ)
Royal Academy of Humanities, Sciences and Arts of Bordeaux (Amanda Thompson)
Académie Royale des Sciences et Beaux-Arts de Pau (Matt Parrish)
Académie des Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts de Lyon (A. Satchwill)
Royale des Sciences, Paris (TLMJ)
Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques (AJS)
L'Académie Royal de Chirurgie/Royal Academy of Surgery, Paris (LNJ) (Josh Anderson)
Société Philomatique de Paris (TLMJ)
Société d'Agriculture de Commerce et des Arts de Bretagne, Society of Agriculture Commerce and Arts of Brittany (Amanda Thompson)
Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris (AJS)
Société d'Histoire et d'Archéologie de Senlis(AJS)
Société Nationale Academique de Cherbourg, National Academic Society of Cherbourg (Amanda Thompson)
Société Royal de Medecine, Royal Society of Medicine (Amanda Thompson)
Société Royale d'Agriculture de la Généralité d'Orléans(AJS)

German States

Abhandlung über die Nerven und deren Krankheiten. Frankfurth und Leipzig 1782 (MAA)
Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen/Academy of Sciences and Humanities in Göttingen est. 1751 (BJG)
Akademie Gemeinnütziger Wissenschaften zu Erfurt/Academy of the Arts and Sciences Useful to the Public in Erfurt | AGWE | est.1754 (BJG)
Königliche Landwirthschaftsgesellschaft zu Celle (LNJ)
[Patriotische Gesellschaft von 1765/Patriotic Society of 1765] est. 1765
Teutsche Gesellschaft in Jena, German Society in Jena (Amanda Thompson)

German States ǀ Bavaria

Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften/Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities | BAdW |,Bavaria est. 1759 (BJG)
Churpfalzbaierische Sittlich-Landwirthschaftliche Akademie zu Burghausen/Palatinate-Bavarian Electoral Moral-Agricultural Academy in Burghausen est. 1765 (BJG)
Churpfälzische Physikalisch-Ökonomische Gesellschaft/Palatinate Physical and Economic Society est. 1769 (BJG)

German States ǀ Bohemia


German States ǀ Bremen


German States ǀ Brunswick


German States ǀ Cologne


German States ǀ Hanover

Societas Scientiarum, Gottingen

German States ǀ Hesse-Cassel


German States ǀ Oldenburg


German States ǀ Magdeburg


German States ǀ Mecklenburg


German States ǀ Moravia


German States ǀ Prussia

Akademie der Künste, Berlin (est 1696)
Academia Natura Curiosorum, Breslau (est. 1652)
Académie Royale de la Prusse (est. 1745)
Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin (est. 1700)
Berlin Society of Friends of Natural Science
Histoire de l'Académie royale des sciences et des belles lettres de Berlin
Nouvelle Société Littéraire
Königlich Preußische Sozietät der Wissenschaften, Berlin
Societas Scientiarum of Berlin, 1700 (LNJ)

German States ǀ Saxony

Churfürstliche Sächsische Physikalisch-Ökonomische Bienengesellschaft in der Oberlausitz/Electoral Saxony Physical-Economic Bee Society in Oberlausitz est 1766 (BJG)
Gesellschaft in Leipzig (TLMJ)

German States ǀ Silesia

Academia Natura Curiosorum, Breslau (est. 1652)

German States ǀ Trier


German States ǀ Wǖrttemberg

Kurtze Anleitung von Formund Stahlschneiden Erfurt 1740 (Book Review(Lemma Gonfa)


Royal Irish Academy, Dublin [JMK] (Josh Anderson)
Apothecaries' Hall est. 1791 (BJG)
Royal Dublin Society (LNJ)
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland | RCSI |(BJG)
Royal_Military_and_Marine_Academy (Allison N. Osen)
Icelandic Scholarly Society (Amanda Lanning-Ziegler)
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) (Amanda Thompson)

Italian States

[11]Accademia di Scienze, Lettere e Arti di Palermo/Academy of Sciences, Letters, and Arts of Palermo (Amanda Thompson)
[12] Societa per la Compra di Libri/Society for the Purchase of Books] (Amanda Thompson)

Italian States| Brera

The Academy of Fine Arts of Brera (MAA)

Italian States|Bologna

Accademia Clementina, Bologna (est. 1708)
Accademia degli Inquieti (Accademia delle Scienze dell' Instituto di Bologna, from 1714-1802)
Accademia di Belle Arti di Bologna (1710- )
Accademia di Bologna
Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna (1714- )
Regia Accademia Filarmonica di Bologna (1666- )

Italian States|Calabria

Cosentian Academy, Cosenza (TLMJ)

Italian States ǀ Lucca


Italian States ǀ Duchy of Modena


Accademia Militare di Modena (TLMJ)

Real Academia de Medicina y Cirugía de Granada, Royal Academy of Medicine and Surgery of Granada (Amanda Thompson)

Italian State | Mantova

National Virgilian Academy of Science, Letters & Arts est. 1768 (Amanda Lanning-Ziegler)

Italian State | Milan

Academy of Giuseppe Piermarini (MAA)
Societa Pattriotica de Milano, Patriotic Society of Milan (Amanda Thompson)

Italian State | Modena

Academy of Conjecturing Physicians est. 1751 (Amanda Lanning-Ziegler)

Italian States ǀ Naples

Reale Accademia delle Scienze e Belle-Lettere di Napoli (TLMJ)
Regale Accademia Ercolanese (Reale Accademia Ercolanese after 1787)
Reale Accademia Medico-Chirurgica di Napoli, Royal Medico-Surgical Academy of Napoli (Amanda Thompson)

Italian States ǀ Duchy of Parma


Italian States ǀ Duchy of Piedmont

Accademia delle Scienze di Torino
Accademia di Agricoltura di Torino, Turin (LNJ)

Italian States ǀ Papal States

Accademia degli Arcadi, Rome
Accademia dei Lincei, Rome
Accademia del Nudo
Accademia di San Luca, Rome
Accademia Georgica (1778- )
Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia, Rome
| Accademia Lancisiana di Roma
Académie de France à Rome
Bentvueghels (or Schildersbent), Rome (1680-1720)
Pontificia Ecclesiastica Academia, Rome (1701- )

Italian States ǀ Sardinia

Agrarian Society of Turin, Torino (TLMJ)
Accademia di Agricoltura di Torino, Academy of Agriculture of Torino
Société Royale de Turin (Accademia delle Scienze di Torino)

Italian States ǀ Tuscany

Accademia del Cimento, Florence (est. 1656)
Accademia delle Arti del Disegno, Florence
Accademia della Crusca, Florence
Accademia delle Scienze di Siena (est. 1690)
Accademia dei Georgofili
Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence
Accademia Etrusca di Cortona (est. 1726)
Accademia Fiorentina o Società di Eloquenza, Florence
Accademia Fiorentina Seconda, Florence
Accademia Palatina, Florence
Accademia Pisana, Pisa
Pontificia Accademia Romana di Archeologia
Societa Botanica Florentina, Florence

Italian States ǀ Venetian Republic

Accademia Carrara, Bergamo
Società Italiana delle Scienze, Verona

Italian States ǀ Vicenza

Accademia Olimpica

Low Countries

Royal Academies for Science and the Arts of Belgium, Brussels (LNJ)
Amsteldamsch Dicht- en Letteroefenend Genootschap: Wij Streven naar de Volmaaktheid/Amsterdam Society for Poetry and Literature: We Strive for Perfection/Amsteldamsche Dicht- en Letteroefenend Genootschap: Wij Streeven naar Volmaaktheid est. 1783 (BJG)
Bataafsch Genootschap der Proefondervindelijke Wijsbegeerte te Rotterdam/Batavian Society for Experimental Philosophy in Rotterdam est. 1769 (BJG) (Josh Anderson)
Genootschap tot Bevordering van Natuur-, Genees- en Heelkunde/Genootschap ter Bevordering van Natuur-, Genees- en Heelkunde/Society for the Advancement of Science, Medicine and Surgery est. 1790 (BJG) created wiki page], page moved to w:Society for the Advancement of Science, Medicine and Surgery
Gezelschap der Hollandsche Scheikundigen/Society of Hollandish Chemists est. 1790 (BJG)


Academia Rheno Trajactina, Utrecht
Netherlands Society for Industry & Trade est. 1777 (Amanda Lanning-Ziegler)
Natuurkundig Gezelschap te Utrecht/Physical Society of Utrecht est. 1777 (Amanda Lanning-Ziegler)
Natuurkundig Genootschap te Leeuwarden/Physical Society of Leeuwarden est. 1795 (Amanda Lanning-Ziegler)
Natuur- en Geneeskundige Correspondentie-Societeit in de Vereenigde Nederlanden/Physical & Health Sciences Correspondence Society in the United Netherlands est. 1779 (Amanda Lanning-Ziegler)
Maatschappij der Nederlandse Letterkunde/Society of Netherlands Literature est. 1776 (Amanda Lanning-Ziegler)
Koninklijk Zeeuwsch Genootschap der Wetenschappen/Royal Zeeland Society of Sciences est. 1769 (Amanda Lanning-Ziegler)


Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Danzig/Research Society in Danzig est. 1743 (BJG) (Josh Anderson)
Towarzystwo Królewskie Warszawskie Przyjaciół Nauk/Royal Warsaw Society of the Friends of Science est. 1800 (BJG)
Warszawskie Towarzystwo Fizyczno-Chemiczne/Physisch-Chemische Warschauer Gesellschaft/Physico-Chemical Society of Warsaw est. 1767 (BJG)


Academia das Sciencias de Lisboa, Lisbon (est. 1720)
Academia Real da História Portuguesa (est. 1720)


Rossijskaâ Akademiâ Hudožestv/Российская Академия Художеств/Russian Academy of Arts | RAKh |est. 1757 (BJG) w:Russian_Academy_of_Arts
Academy of the Three Noblest Arts, St. Petersburg (LNJ)
Academia Scientiarum Imperialis in St. Petersburg, 1724(LNJ)
Russian Academy of Sciences (LNJ) searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Dacademy%2Bof%2Bsciences%252C%2Bst.%2Bpetersburg%26wc%3Don%26dc%3DAll%2BDisciplines&item=4&ttl=9252&returnArticleService=showArticle&resultsServiceName=doBasicResultsFromArticle
Imperatorskoe Volʹnoe Èkonomičeskoe Obŝestvo k Pooŝreniû v Rossii Zemledeliâ i Domostroitelʹstva/Императорское Вольное Экономическое Общество к Поощрению в России Земледелия и Домостроительства/Imperial Free Economic Society for the Encouragement in Russia of Agriculture and House-Building | ВЭО | est. 1765 (BJG)
Obŝestvo Lûbitelej Estestvoznaniâ, Antropologii i Ètnografii/Общество Любителей Естествознания, Антропологии и Этнографии/ Императорское Общество Любителей Естествознания, Антропологии и Этнографии/Society of Lovers of Natural Science, Anthropolgy and Ethnography est. 1863 (BJG)
Academgorodok (Novosibirsk, Russia) (Lemma Gonfa)


Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Carlos/Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Carlos est. 1768 (BJG)w:Real_Academia_de_Bellas_Artes_de_San_Carlos_de_Valencia
Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando/Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando | RABASF | est. 1752 (BJG)w:Royal_Academy_of_Fine_Arts_of_San_Fernando
Real Academia de Ciencias y Artes de Barcelona/Royal Academy of Sciences and Arts of Barcelona | RACAB | est. 1764 (BJG)
Real Academia de la Historia/Royal Academy of History | RAH | est. 1738 (BJG)
Real Academia de las Tres Nobles Artes de San Fernando/Royal Academy of the Three Noble Arts of San Fernando (Amanda Thompson)
Real Academia de Medicina y Cirugia de Valladolid/Royal Academy of Medicine and Surgery of Valladolid (Amanda Thompson)
Real Academia de Nobles y Bellas Artes de San Luis/Royal Academy of Noble and Fine Arts of San Luis est. 1792 (BJG)
Real Academia Española/Royal Spanish Academy | RAE | est. 1713 (BJG)w:Royal_Spanish_Academy
Real Academia Nacional de Medicina/Royal National Academy of Medicine | RANM | est. 1734 (BJG)
Real Academia Sevillana de Buenas Letras/Royal Seville Academy of Humanities est. 1751 (BJG)
Real Sociedad Bascongada de los Amigos del País/Euskalerriaren Adiskideen Elkartea/Royal Basque Society of Friends of the Country | RSBAP | est. 1764 (BJG)
Real Sociedad Económica de los Amigos del País de la Provincia de Segovia/Royal Economic Society of the Friends of the Land of the Province of Segovia est. 1780 (BJG)
Reial Acadèmia de Bones Lletres de Barcelona/Real Academia de Buenas Letras de Barcelona = Royal Academy of Belles Lettres of Barcelona est. 1700 (BJG)


Kungliga Akademien för de Fria Konsterna/Royal Art Academy/Kungliga Konstakademien/Royal Academy of Fine Arts | KAFK | est. 1735 (BJG)
Kungliga Fysiografiska Sällskapet i Lund/Royal Physiographic Society in Lund est. 1772 (BJG)
Kungliga Krigsvetenskapsakademien/Royal Swedish Academy of War Sciences | KKrVA | est. 1796 (BJG)w:Royal_Swedish_Academy_of_War_Sciences
Kungliga Musikaliska Akademien/Royal Swedish Academy of Music | KMA | est. 1771 (BJG)w:Royal_Swedish_Academy_of_Music
Kungliga Patriotiska Sällskapet/Royal Patriotic Society est. 1766 (BJG)
Kungliga Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien/Royal Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities | KVHAA | est. 1753 (BJG) w:Royal_Swedish_Academy_of_Letters,_History_and_Antiquities
Kungliga Vetenskaps-Societeten i Uppsala/Royal Society of Sciences at Uppsala est. 1710 (Josh Anderson)
Swedish Academy, Sockholm (LNJ)
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (MAA)
Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien/Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences est. 1739 Current Day Website (Josh Anderson)


Schweitzerische Gesellschaft in Bern/Swiss Society of Bern est. 1759 (Amanda Lanning-Ziegler)
Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Zürich/Natural Science Society in Zürich est. 1746 (Amanda Lanning-Ziegler)