Medicinal plants are a primary source of organic compounds, both for their medicinal and physiological effects, and for the industrial organic synthesis of a vast array of organic chemicals.[1] Many hundreds of medicines are derived from plants, both traditional medicines used in herbalism[2][3] and chemical substances purified from plants or first identified in them, sometimes by ethnobotanical search, and then organic synthesis for use in modern medicine such as aspirin, taxol, morphine, quinine, reserpine, colchicine, digitalis and vincristine.

Leaves, flowers and fruit of Acacia farnesiana are shown. Credit: USGS.

Plants used in herbalism include Ginkgo biloba, echinacea, feverfew, and Saint John's wort.

The pharmacopoeia of Dioscorides, De Materia Medica, describing some 600 medicinal plants, was written between 50 and 70 AD and remained in use in Europe and the Middle East until around 1600 AD; it was the precursor of all modern pharmacopoeias.[4][5][6]

All plants produce chemical compounds which give them an evolutionary advantage, such as defending against herbivores or, in the example of salicylic acid, as a plant hormone in plant defenses.[7][8] These phytochemicals have potential for use as drugs, and the content and known pharmacological activity of these substances in medicinal plants is the scientific basis for their use in modern medicine, if scientifically confirmed.[9] For instance, daffodils (Narcissus) contain nine groups of alkaloids including galantamine, licensed for use against Alzheimer's disease. The alkaloids are bitter-tasting and toxic, and concentrated in the parts of the plant such as the stem most likely to be eaten by herbivores; they may also protect against parasites.[10][11][12]

Families edit

  1. Actinidiaceae - 1
  2. Adoxaceae - 6
  3. Anacardiaceae - 2
  4. Apiaceae - 1
  5. Araliaceae - 1
  6. Araucariaceae - 1
  7. Asphodelaceae - 2
  8. Asteraceae - 27
  9. Bangiaceae - 5
  10. Berberidaceae - 3
  11. Betulaceae - 1
  12. Bixaceae - 1
  13. Boraginaceae - 1
  14. Brassicaceae - 1
  15. Burseraceae - 2
  16. Cactaceae - 1
  17. Caprifoliaceae - 2
  18. Cucurbitaceae - 1
  19. Elaeagnaceae - 1
  20. Equisetaceae - 1
  21. Ericaceae - 2
  22. Euphorbiaceae - 1
  23. Fabaceae - 11
  24. Ginkgoaceae - 1
  25. Juglandaceae - 5
  26. Lamiaceae - 4
  27. Lauraceae - 6
  28. Linaceae - 2
  29. Lycopodiaceae - 1
  30. Lythraceae - 1
  31. Magnoliaceae - 2
  32. Malvaceae - 6
  33. Marchantiaceae - 1
  34. Melanthiaceae - 1
  35. Meliaceae - 1
  36. Menispermaceae - 1
  37. Microcoleaceae - 1
  38. Moraceae - 4
  39. Myristicaceae - 3
  40. Myrtaceae - 5
  41. Olacaceae - 1
  42. Oleaceae - 1
  43. Papaveraceae - 2
  44. Plantaginaceae - 2
  45. Poaceae - 5
  46. Ranunculaceae - 4
  47. Rosaceae - 6
  48. Rubiaceae - 10
  49. Rutaceae - 4
  50. Simaroubaceae - 2
  51. Solanaceae - 4
  52. Taxaceae - 1
  53. Theaceae - 3
  54. Vitaceae - 1
  55. Zingiberaceae - 5
  56. Zygophyllaceae - 1

Acacia farnesiana edit

Achillea millefolium edit

Actinidia deliciosa edit

Kiwi fruit is from the fuzzy kiwifruit. Credit: Luis Miguel Bugallo Sánchez.{{free media}}

Family: Actinidiaceae.

Kiwifruit seed oil contains on average 62% alpha-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid.[13] Kiwifruit pulp contains carotenoids, such as provitamin A beta-carotene,[14] lutein and zeaxanthin.[15]

Fruit Nutritional value Second fruit Nutritional value
Zespri SunGold kJ=262 fuzzy fruit kJ = 255
Zespri SunGold water=82 g fuzzy fruit 83 g
Zespri SunGold protein=1.02 g fuzzy fruit protein=1.14 h
Zespri SunGold fat=0.28 g fuzzy fruit fat=0.52 g
Zespri SunGold carbs=15.8 g fuzzy fruit carbs=14.66 g
Zespri SunGold fiber=1.4 g fuzzy fruit fiber=3 g
Zespri SunGold sugars=12.3 g fuzzy fruit sugars=8.99 g
Zespri SunGold calcium_mg=17 fuzzy fruit calcium_mg=34
Zespri SunGold iron_mg=0.21 fuzzy fruit iron_mg=0.31
Zespri SunGold magnesium_mg=12 fuzzy fruit magnesium_mg=17
Zespri SunGold manganese_mg=0.048 fuzzy fruit manganese_mg=0.098
Zespri SunGold phosphorus_mg=25 fuzzy fruit phosphorus_mg=34
Zespri SunGold potassium_mg=315 fuzzy fruit potassium_mg=312
Zespri SunGold sodium_mg=3 fuzzy fruit sodium_mg=3
Zespri SunGold selenium_ug=0.4 fuzzy fruit selenium_ug=0.2
Zespri SunGold zinc_mg=0.08 fuzzy fruit zinc_mg=0.14
Zespri SunGold copper_mg=0.151 fuzzy fruit copper_mg=0.13
Zespri SunGold vitA_ug= fuzzy fruit vitA_IU=
Zespri SunGold vitC_mg=161.3 fuzzy fruit vitC_mg=92.7
Zespri SunGold thiamin_mg=0 fuzzy fruit thiamin_mg=0.027
Zespri SunGold riboflavin_mg=0.074 fuzzy fruit riboflavin_mg=0.025
Zespri SunGold niacin_mg=0.231 fuzzy fruit niacin_mg=0.341
Zespri SunGold pantothenic_mg=0.12 fuzzy fruit pantothenic_mg=0.183
Zespri SunGold vitB6_mg=0.079 fuzzy fruit vitB6_mg=0.063
Zespri SunGold folate_ug=31 fuzzy fruit folate_ug=25
Zespri SunGold vitB12_ug=0.08 fuzzy fruit vitB12_ug=0
Zespri SunGold choline_mg=1.9 fuzzy fruit choline_mg=7.8
Zespri SunGold lutein_ug=24 fuzzy fruit lutein_ug=122
Zespri SunGold vitE_mg=1.4 fuzzy fruit vitE_mg=1.46
Zespri SunGold vitK_ug=6.1 fuzzy fruit vitK_ug=40.3
sourceusda =link to USDA Database entry

Raw kiwifruit contains actinidain (also spelled actinidin) which is commercially useful as a meat tenderizer[16] and possibly as a digestive aid.[17]

Adonis vernalis edit

Flowers of Adonis vernalis are shown. Credit: Martin Bahmann.{{free media}}

Family: Ranunculaceae

The plant is poisonous, containing cardiostimulant compounds, such as adonidin and aconitic acid.[18] In addition, it is often used as an ornamental plant.[19] Infusions of the plant are used in the medicine Bekhterev's mixture.[20]

Due to the cardiac-enhancing effects of Adonis species (including Adonis vernalis), this plant has a history of use in European and Chinese folk medicine.[21] This plant has been utilized for many different issues and health problems. The local people of the Soviet Union at one point used it to treat edema or swelling in the body, and an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant were prepared as an alternative cardiac agent.[21] In 1879, a Russian medical doctor, N. O. Buhnow, first introduced into medicine alcoholic extracts of the plant as a cardiac stimulant.[22] In 1898, a mixture of the plant extracts with sodium bromide or codeine was suggested (by Vladimir Bekherev) to treat heart diseases, panic disorder, dystonia and mild forms of epilepsy.[22] Aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of the plant have been traditionally used in Siberia against edema, cardiac edema and several other issues that are heart related, kidney diseases, and even malaria.[22] The biological activity of this extract was defined as 50–66 frog units (amount or liquid of substance that causes the arrest of the heart of a frog) and 6.3–8.0 cat units (amount or liquid of substance that causes the arrest of the heart of a cat) and large enough doses can be toxic.[22]

There are many phytochemicals that come from the plant Adonis vernalis and these include cardiac glycosides, other glycosides, and flavones. The compounds that are cardiac glycosides include Cymarin, Adonitoxin, 16-Hydroxy-strophanthidin, Acetyladonitoxin, Vernadigin, 3-Acetylstrophagogenin, Substance N, Strophanthidine fucoside, 3-Epi-periplogenin, 17β-(2’,5’-dihydro-5’-oxo-3’-furyl)-5β-14β-androstane-3α,5β,14β-triol, Adonitoxigenin 2-O-acetylrhamnosidoxyloside, Adonitoxigenin 3-O-acetylrhamnosidoxyloside, Adonitoxigenin rhamnosidoxyloside, Adonitoxigenin 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, Adonitoxigenin 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-(3’-O-acetyl)-rhamnopyranoside, Adonitoxigenin-3-[O-α-L-(2’-O-acetyl) rhamnosido-β-D-glucoside, Digitoxigenin. Other glycosides include Adonilide, Fukujusonorone, Fukujusone, 12-O-Nicotinoylisolineolon (Lineolon), 12-O-Benzoylisolineolon, Nicotinoylisoramanone, and Isoramanone (digipurprogenin-II). Flavones include Adonivernith (luteolin-8-hexityl monoxyloside), Homoadonivernith, Orientin, Homoorientin, Isoorientin, Luteolin, and Vitexin.[21]

The plant contains cardiac glycosides, and these improve the heart's efficiency by increasing its output at the same time as slowing down its rate.[23] These glycosides also have a sedative effect and is often prescribed to patients whose hearts are beating irregularly or at an increased rate.[24] Tinctures of Adonis vernalis are also used by homeopathic physicians in patients that are suffering from congestive cardiac failure and its action is very similar to digitalis (another drug that stimulates the heart muscle).[25] Aqueous extracts of Adonis vernalis were found to have cardiac stimulant effects on isolated heart preparations and it also showed that production of excessive and high potassium concentrations protects against heart failure.[26] Not only are cardiac glycosides derived from this plant but there are also some well-known flavones that were identified with pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, neuro and cardioprotective, and anti-allergic properties.[21]

Aloe arborescens edit

Jade plants and Krantz aloes in Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens, Cape Town. Credit: Andrew massyn.{{free media}}

Family: Asphodelaceae.

"Antidiabetic effects of dietary administration of Aloe arborescens Miller components on multiple lowdose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice."[27]

Aloe vera edit

Aloe vera has a flower inset image. Credit: w:user:MidgleyDJ.{{free media}}

Family: Asphodelaceae.

Aloe vera leaves contain phytochemicals under study for possible bioactivity, such as acetylated mannans, polymannans, anthraquinone C-glycosides, anthrones, and other anthraquinones, such as emodin and various lectins.[28][29]

For people with allergies to Aloe vera, skin reactions may include contact dermatitis with hives, mild redness and itching, difficulty with breathing, or swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat.[30][31][32]

"Aloe vera could serve as a natural antihistamine herb. The antihistamine properties of aloe could be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of glycoprotein alprogen which has been demonstrated to antigen-antibody-mediated release of histamine and leukotriene from mast cells (45)."[33]

"Aloe vera contains alprogen as one of the active compound that works by inhibition the absorption of glucose in the digestive tract so that it can reduce blood glucose levels."[34]

Active components present in Aloe vera with properties[27]
Name of the Active component Active components present in Aloe Vera with properties
Vitamins Vitamin A (beta-carotene), C and E, - antioxidants. It also contains vitamin B1, B2, B6 & B12, folic acid, and choline.
  • Antioxidants protect the body by neutralizing free radicals.
Enzymes Aliiase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, oxidase, bradykinase, carboxypeptidase, catalase, cellulase, lipase, cylooxygenase, and peroxidase.
  • Bradykinase helps to reduce excessive inflammation when applied to the skin topically, while the other enzymes help in the breakdown of sugars, proteins and fats.
Minerals Calcium, chromium, copper, selenium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc. *Some of the minerals are essential for the proper functioning of various enzyme systems in different metabolic pathways and few acts as antioxidants.
Sugars Monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and polysaccharides (glucomannans/polymannose). * The most prominent monosaccharide is mannose-6-phosphate, and the most common polysaccharides are called glucomannans [beta-(1,4)-acetylated mannan].
  • Acemannan, a prominent glucomannan has also been found. Recently, a glycoprotein with anti allergic properties, called alprogen and novel anti-inflammatory compound, C-glucosyl chromone, has been isolated from Aloe vera gel15,16.
Organic acids Sorbate, salicylic acid, uric acid
  • salicylic acid possesses anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties.
Anthraquinones Aloin, barbaloin, isobarbaloin, anthranol, aloetic acid, aloe-emodin, ester of cinnamic acid, resistannol, chrysophannic acid and emodin,
  • Acts as laxatives.
  • Aloin and emodin act as analgesics, antibacterials and antivirals.
Fatty acids and Steroids Cholesterol, campesterol, β-sisosterol and lupeol.

Fattyacids like Arachidonic acid, γ-linolenic acid.

  • All these have anti-inflammatory action and lupeol also possesses antiseptic and analgesic properties.
Non-essential aminoacids Histidine, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, tyrosine, alanine and hydroxyl proline.
Essential aminoacids Methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, threonine and lysine.
Hormones Auxins and gibberellins
  • that help in wound healing and have anti-inflammatory action.
Others * Lignin, an inert substance, when included in topical preparations, enhances penetrative effect of the other ingredients into the skin.
  • Saponins that are the soapy substances form about 3% of the gel and have cleansing and antiseptic properties.

"Alprogen, an anti-allergic compound of Aloe vera inhibits calcium influx into mast cells, thereby inhibiting the antigen-antibody-mediated release of various mediators like histamine, serotonin, SRSA, leukotrienes etc from mast cells22."[27]

Ambrosia acanthicarpa edit

Ambrosia ambrosioides edit

Ambrosia arborescens edit

Ambrosia artemisiifolia edit

Ambrosia confertiflora edit

Ambrosia cordifolia edit

Ambrosia deltoidea edit

Ambrosia dumosa edit

Ambrosia eriocentra edit

Ambrosia ilicifolia edit

Ambrosia monogyra edit

Ambrosia psilostachya edit

Ambrosia salsola edit

Ambrosia trifida edit

Anacardium occidentale edit

Ripe cashew apples are shown. Credit: Abhishek Jacob.{{free media}}

Family: Anacardiaceae.

The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew seed and the cashew apple accessory fruit.[35][36] The tree can grow as high as 14 m (46 ft), but the dwarf cultivars, growing up to 6 m (20 ft), prove more profitable, with earlier maturity and greater yields. The cashew seed is commonly considered a snack nut (cashew nut) eaten on its own, used in recipes, or processed into cashew cheese or cashew butter.[37]

Raw cashews are 5% water, 30% carbohydrates, 44% fat, and 18% protein (table). In a 100 gram reference amount, raw cashews provide 553 Calories, 67% of the Daily Value (DV) in total fats, 36% DV of protein, 13% DV of dietary fiber and 11% DV of carbohydrates.[38] Cashews are rich sources (20% or more of the DV) of dietary minerals, including particularly copper, manganese, phosphorus, and magnesium (79-110% DV), and of thiamin, vitamin B6 and vitamin K (32-37% DV) (table).[38] Iron, potassium, zinc, and selenium are present in significant content (14-61% DV) (table).[38] Cashews (100 grams, raw) contain 113 milligrams (1.74 gr) of beta-sitosterol.[38]

Cashew nut oil is a dark yellow oil derived from pressing the cashew nuts (typically from lower value broken chunks created accidentally during processing), and is used for cooking or as a salad dressing, where the highest quality oil is produced from a single cold pressing.[39]

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi edit

Common bearberry, Kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) - fruits and leaves, photo was taken in the Selkirk Mountains of northern Idaho. Credit: Jesse Taylor.{{free media}}


The plant contains diverse phytochemicals, including ursolic acid, tannic acid, gallic acid, some essential oils and resin, hydroquinones (mainly arbutin, up to 17%), tannins (up to 15%), phenolic glycosides and flavonoids.[40] Arctostaphylos uva-ursi leaves contain arbutin,[41][42] which metabolizes to form hydroquinone, a potential [hepatotoxic (liver toxin).[42][43]

Argemone mexicana edit

Flower of Mexican Poppy (Argemone mexicana) is featured, an introduced weed on Réunion island. Credit: B.navez.{{free media}}
Diagram illustrates the structure of protopine. Credit: WH23{{free media}}.

Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy,[44] Mexican prickly poppy, flowering thistle,[45]) is of the family Papaveraceae.

Berberine is a found in Argemone mexicana (prickly poppy).

Argemone mexicana seeds contain 22–36% of a pale yellow non-edible oil, called argemone oil or katkar oil, which contains the toxic alkaloids sanguinarine and dihydrosanguinarine.

Four quaternary isoquinoline alkaloids, dehydrocorydalmine, jatrorrhizine, columbamine, and oxyberberine, have been isolated from the whole plant of Argemone mexicana.[46] Many other alkaloids such as argemexicaines A and B, coptisine, cryptopine, allocryptopine and chelerythrine have also been found in this plant.[47]

The seed pods secrete a pale yellow latex when cut open. This argemone resin contains berberine and protopine.

Armoracia rusticana edit

Armoracia rusticana is in the Botanic Garden, Utrecht, Netherlands. Credit: Pethan.{{free media}}
Allyl isothiocyanate is the pungent ingredient in fresh horseradish sauce. Credit: Benjah-bmm27.{{free media}}

Family: Brassicaceae.

The family Brassicaceae includes mustard, wasabi, broccoli, cabbage, and radish.

The leaves of the plant are edible, either cooked or raw when young.[48]

Allyl isothiocyanate is an unstable compound, degrading over the course of days at 37 °C (99 °F).[49]

Horseradish contains volatile oils, notably mustard oil.[50]

Arnica cordifolia edit

Arnica montana edit

Artemisia abrotanum edit

Arthrospira platensis edit

A single Arthrospira platensis colony is shown. Credit: FarmerOnMars.{{free media}}

Family: Microcoleaceae

A dietary supplement is made from A. platensis and A. maxima, known as spirulina.[51]

Arthrospira is very rich in proteins,[51][52] and constitute 53 to 68 percent by dry weight of the contents of the cell.[53]

Its protein harbours all essential amino acids.[52] Arthrospira also contain high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), about 1.5–2 percent, and a total lipid content of 5–6 percent.[52] These PUFAs contain the γ-linolenic acid (GLA), an omega-6 fatty acid.[54] Further contents of Arthrospira include vitamins, minerals and photosynthetic pigments.[52]

Astragalus membranaceus edit

Azadirachta indica edit

Neem (Azadirachta indica) is shown in Hyderabad, India. Credit: J.M.Garg.{{free media}}

Family: Meliaceae.

"Nimbidin, Azadirachtin and nimbinin are active compounds present in Neem which are responsible for antibacterial activity."[55]

"The phytochemical constituents present in neem are nimbidin, nimbin, nimbolide, Azadirachtin, gallic acid, epicatechin, catechin, and margolone."[55]

"From nimbidin other active constituents like nimbin, nimbinin, nimbidinin, nimbolide and nimbidic acid have been isolated which are responsible for its biological activities.[16]"[55]

"Mucoadhesive dental gel containing Azadirachta indica is found to be beneficial in reducing the plaque index and salivary bacterial count comparatively better than chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash.[33]"[55]

Bacopa monnieri edit

Family Plantaginaceae.

Bacopa monnieri is used in Ayurveda (Ayurvedic traditional medicine) to improve memory and to treat various ailments.[56] Reviews of preliminary research found that Bacopa monnieri may nootropic (improve cognition),[56][57] although the effect was measurable only after several weeks of use.[58]

In 2019, the FDA issued warning letters to manufacturers of dietary supplements containing Bacopa monnieri that advertised health claims for treating or preventing stomach disease, Alzheimer's disease, hypoglycemia, blood pressure, and anxiety were unproven and illegal. The FDA stated that Bacopa monnieri products have not been approved for these or any medical purposes.[59][60][61]

The most commonly reported adverse effects of Bacopa monnieri in humans are nausea, increased intestinal motility, and gastrointestinal upset.[56]

The best characterized phytochemicals in Bacopa monnieri are dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins known as bacosides, with jujubogenin or pseudo-jujubogenin moieties as aglycone units.[62] Bacosides comprise a family of 12 known analogs.[63] Other saponins called bacopasides I–XII were identified.[64] The alkaloids brahmine, nicotine, and herpestine have been catalogued, along with D-mannitol, apigenin, hersaponin, monnierasides I–III, cucurbitacin and plantainoside B.[65][66][67]

Berberis aristata edit

Chemical structure of berberine, an alkaloid found in B. aristata, is illustrated. Credit: NEUROtiker.{{free media}}

Family Berberidaceae.

Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids found in Berberis aristata (tree turmeric).[68]

The root bark contains the bitter alkaloid berberine, which has been studied for its potential pharmacological properties.[69]

Berberis vulgaris edit

Berberis vulgaris (European barberry)/(Jaundice berry)/(Ambarbaris)/(Barberry) is a shrub in the family Berberidaceae, native to central and southern Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia. Fruit are shown. Credit: Arnstein Rønning.{{free media}}

The dried fruit of Berberis vulgaris (barberry) is used in herbal medicine.[70] The chemical constituents include isoquinolone alkaloids, especially berberine, with a full list of phytochemicals compiled.[71]

Bixa orellana edit

Bixin is the major apocarotenoid of annatto. Credit: Edgar181.{{free media}}
Achiote flower and buds are shown in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Credit: Denis Conrado.{{free media}}

Family: Bixaceae.

Bixin is the major apocarotenoid of annatto[72]

The yellow to orange color is produced by the chemical compounds bixin (orange) and norbixin (yellow), which are classified as carotenoids, where the fat-soluble color in the crude extract is called bixin, which can then be saponified into water-soluble norbixin, with the dual solubility property of annatto being rare for carotenoids.[73] The seeds contain 4.5–5.5% pigment, which consists of 70–80% bixin.[72] Unlike beta-carotene, another well-known carotenoid, annatto-based pigments are not vitamin A precursors.[74]

Annatto oil is also rich in tocotrienols, beta-carotene, essential oils, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, flavonoids, and vitamin C.[75]

Bixa orellana is used in traditional medicine.[76][77] The tree has been used in Ayurveda, the folk medicine practices of India, where different parts of the plant are thought to be useful as therapy.[78]

Boswellia sacra edit

Monoterpenes found in the essential oil of Boswellia sacra resin. Credit: Ahmed Al-Harrasi and Salim Al-Saidi.{{fairuse}}
Boswellia sacra is shown at Florida International University campus, Miami, Florida, USA. Credit: Scott Zona from USA.{{Free media}}
Sesquiterpenes found in the essential oil of the Boswellia sacra resin. Credit: Ahmed Al-Harrasi and Salim Al-Saidi.{{fairuse}}

Family: Burseraceae.

Boswellia sacra (commonly known as frankincense or olibanum-tree)[79] is a tree, the primary tree in the genus Boswellia from which frankincense, a resinous dried sap, is harvested and is native to the Arabian Peninsula (Oman, Yemen), and horn of Africa (Somalia).[79]

"The [essential] oil of [Boswellia sacra] contains a high proportion of monoterpenes (97.3%) in which E-β-ocimene and limonene were the major constituents. The remaining 2.7% was accounted for by sesquiterpenes, in which E-caryophyllene was the major constituent."[80]

"The monoterpenes were identified as 2-β-pinene (0.1%), α-thujene (6.6%), E-β-ocimene (32.3%), 2,4(10)-thujadiene (0.2%), camphene (0.6%), sabinene (5.2%), 1-β-pinene (1.8%), myrcene (6.9%), α- pinene (5.3%), 2-carene (0.8%), limonene (33.5%), Z-β-ocimene (0.2%), γ-terpinene (1.0%), terpinolene (0.4%), p-cymene (0.2%), 1,4-cyclohexadiene (0.1%), perillene (0.1%), isopentyl-2- methyl butanoate (0.1%), isomyl valerate (0.1%), 1,3,6-trimethylenecycloheptane (0.1%), β-thujone (0.1%), α-campholene aldehyde (0.2%), allo-ocimene (0.1%), trans-pinocarveol (0.1%), p-mentha- 1,5-dien-8-ol (0.2 %), 4-terpineol (0.2%), sabinyl acetate (0.1%), myrtenal (0.1%), α-terpineol (0.1%), α-phellandrene epoxide (0.1%), verbenone (0.1%), trans-(+)-carveol (0.1%), carvone (0.1%) and 1- bornyl acetate (0.1%)."[80] See the image on the right.

"The sesquiterpenes were identified to be α-cubebene (0.1%), α-copaene (0.3%), β-bourbonene (0.1%), β-elemene (0.3%), α-gurjunene (0.1%), E-caryophyllene (0.9%), α-humulene (0.2%), allo-aromadendrene (0.0.1%), α-amorphene (0.1%), germacrene D (0.1%), β-selinene (0.1%), α-selinene (0.1%), α-muurolene (0.1%), γ-cadinene (0.1%), caryophyllene oxide (0.01%) and γ-muurolene (0.1%)."[80] See the image on the left.

Boswellia serrata edit

Boswellia serrata flowers are shown. Credit: Dinesh Valke from Thane, India.{{free media}}

Boswellia serrata is a plant that produces Indian frankincense, also known as Indian oli-banum, Salai guggul, and Sallaki in Sanskrit.[81] The plant is native to much of India and the Punjab region that extends into Pakistan.[82]

Boswellia serrata contains various derivatives of boswellic acid including β-boswellic acid, acetyl-β-boswellic acid, 11-keto-β-boswellic acid and acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid [AKBA].[83]

Extracts of Boswellia serrata have been clinically studied for osteoarthritis and joint function, with the research showing trends of benefit (slight improvement) in pain and function.[84] It has been used in Indian traditional medicine for diabetes.[85]

Boswellic acid (acetyl-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA)), one of the bioactive boswellic acids found in Boswellia serrata (Indian Frankincense) has been found to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase strongly as an allosteric inhibitor.[86] Boswellia administration has been shown to reduce brain edema in patients irradiated for brain tumor and it's believed to be due to 5-lipoxygenase inhibition.[87][88]

Calendula officinalis edit

Camellia reticulata edit

Camellia reticulata is shown in a hand-coloured engraving after a drawing by Alfred Chandler (1804-1896). Credit: BernardM.{{free media}}

Family Theaceae.

Camellia reticulata has a long history of cultivation, both for tea oil and for its ornamental value.[89]

Camellia sasanqua edit

Camellia sasanqua is used as a garden plant, its leaves are used for tea, and its seeds for oil. Credit: junichiro aoyama from Kyoto, Japan.{{Free media}}

Family Theaceae.

The leaves are used to make tea while the seeds or nuts are used to make tea seed oil,[90] which is used for lighting, lubrication, cooking and cosmetic purposes.

Camellia sinensis edit

Tea plant is shown in a tea plantation. Credit: Sebastianjude.{{Free media}}

Family Theaceae.

Polyphenols found in green tea include epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate, epicatechins and flavanols,[91] which are under laboratory research for their potential effects in vivo.[92] Other components include three kinds of flavonoids, known as kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin.[93] Although the mean content of flavonoids and catechins in a cup of green tea is higher than that in the same volume of other food and drink items that are traditionally considered to promote health,[94] flavonoids and catechins have no proven biological effect in humans.[95][96]

Green tea leaves are initially processed by soaking in an alcohol solution, which may be further concentrated to various levels; byproducts of the process are also packaged and used. Extracts are sold over the counter in liquid, powder, capsule, and tablet forms,[92][97] and may contain up to 17.4% of their total weight in caffeine,[98] though decaffeinated versions are also available.[99]

Numerous claims have been made for the health benefits of green tea, but human clinical research has not found good evidence of benefit.[100][95][101] In 2011, a panel of scientists published a report on the claims for health effects at the request of the European Commission: in general they found that the claims made for green tea were not supported by sufficient scientific evidence.[95] Although green tea may enhance mental alertness due to its caffeine content, there is only weak, inconclusive evidence that regular consumption of green tea affects the risk of cancer or cardiovascular diseases, and there is no evidence that it benefits weight loss.[100]

A 2020 review by the Cochrane Collaboration listed some potential adverse effects including gastrointestinal disorders, higher levels of liver enzymes, and, more rarely, insomnia, raised blood pressure, and skin reactions.[102]

Research has shown there is no good evidence that green tea helps to prevent or treat cancer in people.[102]

The link between green tea consumption and the risk of certain cancers such as stomach cancer and non-melanoma skin cancers is unclear due to inconsistent or inadequate evidence.[103][104]

Green tea interferes with the chemotherapy drug bortezomib (Velcade) and other boronic acid-based proteasome inhibitors, and should be avoided by people taking these medications.[105]

Observational studies found a minor correlation between daily consumption of green tea and a 5% lower risk of death from cardiovascular disease. In a 2015 meta-analysis of such observational studies, an increase in one cup of green tea per day was correlated with slightly lower risk of death from cardiovascular causes.[106] Green tea consumption may be correlated with a reduced risk of stroke.[107][108] Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials found that green tea consumption for 3–6 months may produce small reductions (about 2–3 mm Hg each) in systolic and diastolic blood pressures.[108][109][110][111] A separate systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials found that consumption of 5-6 cups of green tea per day was associated with a small reduction in systolic blood pressure (2 mmHg), but did not lead to a significant difference in diastolic blood pressure.[112]

Green tea consumption lowers fasting glucose (fasting blood sugar) but in clinical studies the beverage's effect on hemoglobin A1c and fasting insulin levels was inconsistent.[113][114][115]

Drinking green tea or taking green tea supplements decreases the blood concentration of total cholesterol (about 3–7 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol) (about 2 mg/dL), and does not affect the concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol) or triglycerides.[112][113][116] A 2013 Cochrane meta-analysis of longer-term randomized controlled trials (>3 months duration) concluded that green tea consumption lowers total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in the blood.[113]

A 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials found that green tea consumption was not significantly associated with lower plasma levels of C-reactive protein levels (a marker of inflammation).[117]

There is no good evidence that green tea aids in weight loss or weight maintenance.[100][118]

Excessive consumption of green tea extract has been associated with hepatotoxicity and liver failure.[119][120][121] In 2018, a scientific panel for the European Food Safety Authority reviewed the safety of green tea consumption over a low-moderate range of daily EGCG intake from 90 to 300 mg per day, and with exposure from high green tea consumption estimated to supply up to 866 mg EGCG per day.[122] Dietary supplements containing EGCG may supply up to 1000 mg EGCG and other catechins per day.[122] The panel concluded that EGCG and other catechins from green tea in low-moderate daily amounts are generally regarded as safe, but in some cases of excessive consumption of green tea or use of high-EGCG supplements, liver toxicity may occur.[122]

Cassia abbreviata edit

Cassia javanica edit

Chamaemelum nobile edit

Chondrus crispus edit

The lifecycle of Chondrus crispus: Below the life stages are indicated if the life stage is haploid (n) or diploid (2n) and the type of carrageenan present. Credit: Chondrus.{{free media}}
How the lifecycles of C. crispus might look in nature: The gametophytes show blue iridescence and the fertile sporophytes exhibit a spotty pattern. Credit: Kontos.{{free media}}

Family: Gigartinaceae.

C. crispus is an industrial source of carrageenan commonly used as a thickener and stabilizer in milk products, such as ice cream and processed foods.[123]

Carrageenan, E407 or E407a, may be used as a thickener in calico printing and paper marbling, and for fining beer.[123][124] Irish moss is frequently used with Mastocarpus stellatus (Gigartina mamillosa), Chondracanthus acicularis (G. acicularis), and other seaweeds, which are all commonly found growing together. Carrageenan may be extracted from tropical seaweeds of the genera Kappaphycus and Eucheuma.[125]

Nutrition Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
kJ 205
protein 1.51 g
fat 0.16 g
carbs 12.29 g
fiber 1.3 g
sugars 0.61 g
calcium 72 mg
iron 8.9 mg
magnesium 144 mg
phosphorus 157 mg
sodium 61 mg
zinc 1.95 mg
manganese 0.37 mg
vit C 3 mg
riboflavin 0.466 mg
niacin 0.593 mg
pantothenic 0.176 mg
vitB6 0.069 mg
folate 182 µg
vitE 0.87 mg
vitK 5 µg
source Link to USDA Database entry

The nuclear genome[126] is 105 Mbp and is coding for 9,606 genes, characterised by relatively few genes with very few introns, where genes are clustered together, with normally short distances between genes and then large distances between groups of genes.

Genetic "deletion of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for degradation of fatty acid amides, including [...] N-palmitoyl ethanolamine (PEA), N-oleoyl ethanolamine (OEA), and oleamide, also elicits anti-edema".[127]

"PEA, [dexamethasone] DEX, [diclofenac] DIC elicited significant decreases in carrageenan-induced paw edema in wild type mice."[127]

"OEA produced a less reliable anti-edema effect than these other drugs, and [N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine, anandamide] AEA and oleamide failed to produce any significant decreases in paw edema."[127]

"PEA administration and FAAH blockade elicited anti-edema effects of an equivalent magnitude".[127]

Cichorium intybus edit

Cinnamomum burmannii edit

Family Lauraceae.

Cinnamomum burmannii is Korintje, Padang cassia, or Indonesian cinnamon.

Cinnamomum cassia edit

Cassia or Chinese cinnamon is the most common commercial type in the USA.

Cinnamon, spice, ground
Energy 1,035 kJ (247 kcal)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Carbohydrates 80.6
Sugars 2.2
Dietary fiber 53.1
Fat 1.2
Protein 4
Vitamins Quantity % Daily value (DV)*
Vitamin A equivalent 15 µg 2
Thiamine (B1) 0.02 mg 2
Riboflavin (B2) 0.04 mg 3
Niacin (B3) 1.33 mg 9
Pyridoxine B6 0.16 mg 12
Folate B9 6 µg 2
Vitamin C 3.8 mg 5
Vitamin E 2.3 mg 15
Vitamin K 31.2 µg 30
Minerals Quantity % DV*
Calcium 1002 mg 100
Iron 8.3 mg 64
Magnesium 60 mg 17
Phosphorus 64 mg 9
Potassium 431 mg 9
Sodium 10 mg 1
Zinc 1.8 mg 19
Other constituents Quantity
Water 10.6 gm
  • note: Source: USDA Database[128]

Ground cinnamon is composed of around 11% water, 81% carbohydrates (including 53% dietary fiber), 4% protein, and 1% fat.[128] In a 100 gram reference amount, ground cinnamon is a rich source of calcium (100% of the Daily Value (DV)), iron (64% DV), and vitamin K (30% DV).

Cinnamomum citriodorum edit

Cinnamomum citriodorum is Malabar cinnamon.

Cinnamomum loureiroi edit

Cinnamomum loureiroi is Saigon cinnamon, Vietnamese cassia, or Vietnamese cinnamon.

Cinnamomum verum edit

Dried bark strips, bark powder and flowers of the small tree Cinnamomum verum are shown. Credit: Simon A. Eugster.{{free media}}

Cinnamomum verum is Sri Lanka cinnamon, Ceylon cinnamon or Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum, used mainly as an aromatic condiment and flavouring additive in a wide variety of cuisines, sweet and savoury dishes, breakfast cereals, snackfoods, tea and traditional foods, derived from its essential oil and principal component, cinnamaldehyde, as well as numerous other constituents including eugenol.

"Among the identified compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde and p-cymene significantly reduced the [lipopolysaccharides] LPS-dependent IL-8 secretion in THP-1 monocytes. Synergistic anti-inflammatory effects were observed for combinations of trans-cinnamaldehyde with p-cymene, cinnamyl alcohol or cinnamic acid. Moreover, cinnamon extract as well as trans-cinnamaldehyde and p-cymene mitigated the phosphorylation of [Protein kinase B] Akt and [NF-κB inhibitor alpha] IκBα. [...] Trans-cinnamaldehyde and p-cymene contribute to the strong anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamon extract. [S]ynergistic effects among compounds that do not exhibit anti-inflammatory effects themselves might be present to positively influence the beneficial effects of cinnamon bark extract."[129]

Citrus maxima edit

The orange is the fruit of various Citrus species in the family Rutaceae; it primarily refers to Citrus × sinensis,[130] which is also called sweet orange, to distinguish it from the related Citrus × aurantium, referred to as bitter orange. The sweet orange reproduces asexually (apomixis through nucellar embryony); varieties of sweet orange arise through mutations.[131][132][133][134]

The orange is a hybrid between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata).[131][135] The chloroplast genome, and therefore the maternal line, is that of pomelo.[136] The sweet orange has had its full genome sequenced.[131]

Oranges contain diverse phytochemicals, including carotenoids (beta-carotene, lutein and beta-cryptoxanthin), flavonoids (e.g. naringenin)[137] and numerous volatile organic compounds producing orange aroma, including aldehydes, esters, terpenes, alcohols, and ketones.[138]

Although not as juicy or tasty as the flesh, orange peel is edible and has significant contents of vitamin C, dietary fiber, total polyphenols, carotenoids, limonene and dietary minerals, such as potassium and magnesium.[139]

Citrus reticulata edit

Coffea arabica edit

Coffea canephora edit

Coffea liberica edit

Coffea racemosa edit

Commiphora myrrha edit

Small lumps are myrrh resin. Credit: Sjschen.{{free media}}

Family Burseraceae.

Myrrh is a natural gum-resin extracted from a number of small, thorny tree species of the genus Commiphora.[140] Myrrh resin has been used throughout history as a perfume, incense and medicine. Myrrh mixed with posca or wine was common across ancient cultures, for general pleasure, and as an analgesic.[141]

Myrrh is used as an antiseptic in mouthwashes, gargles, and toothpastes.[142] It is also used in some liniments and healing salves that may be applied to abrasions and other minor skin ailments. Myrrh has been used as an analgesic for toothaches and can be used in liniment for bruises, aches, and sprains.[143]

Myrrh gum is commonly claimed to remedy indigestion, ulcers, colds, cough, asthma, lung congestion, arthritis pain, and cancer.[144]

Myrrh is said to have special efficacy on the heart, liver, and spleen meridians as well as "blood-moving" powers to purge stagnant blood from the uterus, recommended for rheumatic, arthritic, and circulatory problems, and for amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menopause and uterine tumours, uses similar to those of frankincense, with which it is often combined in decoctions, liniments, and incense, used in concert, myrrh is "blood-moving" while frankincense is thought to move the qi, making it used for arthritic conditions, or combined with such herbs as notoginseng, safflower petals, angelica sinensis, cinnamon, and salvia miltiorrhiza, usually in alcohol, and used both internally and externally.[145]

Commiphora wightii edit

Guggul (Commiphora wightii) is considered one of the best substances for the treatment of circulatory problems, nervous system disorders, and rheumatic complaints.[146][147]

Coptis chinensis edit

Family Ranunculaceae.

Berberine is found in Coptis chinensis (Chinese goldthread).

The rhizomes of Coptis chinensis contain the isoquinoline alkaloids berberine,[148] palmatine, and coptisine among others.

Corylus avellana edit

Common Hazel leaves and nuts are shown for Corylus avellana. Credit: MPF.{{free media}}

Family: Betulaceae.

Hazelnuts are rich in protein and unsaturated fat, contain significant amounts of manganese, copper, vitamin E, thiamine, and magnesium.[149]

Curcuma longa edit

Curcumin keto form is diagrammed. Credit: Ronhjones.{{free media}}
Curcumin enol form is diagrammed. Credit: Ronhjones.{{free media}}

Family Zingiberaceae.

Turmeric powder is about 60–70% carbohydrates, 6–13% water, 6–8% protein, 5–10% fat, 3–7% dietary minerals, 3–7% essential oils, 2–7% dietary fiber, and 1–6% curcuminoids.[150]

Phytochemical components of turmeric include diarylheptanoids, a class including numerous curcuminoids, such as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin.[150][151] Curcumin constitutes up to 3.14% of assayed commercial samples of turmeric powder (the average was 1.51%); curry powder contains much less (an average of 0.29%).[152] Some 34 essential oils are present in turmeric, among which turmerone, germacrone, atlantone, and zingiberene are major constituents.[153][154][155]

Turmeric and curcumin have been studied in numerous clinical trials for various human diseases and conditions, with no high-quality evidence of any anti-disease effect or health benefit.[150][156][157][158] There is no scientific evidence that curcumin reduces inflammation.[150][156][159] There is weak evidence that turmeric extracts may be beneficial for relieving symptoms of knee osteoarthritis.[160]

Cynara cardunculus edit

Elaeagnus angustifolia edit

Elaeagnus angustifolia, Russian-olive is seen from the trail east from Park Lake, Dry Falls State Park, Grand Coulee, Park Lake Side Canyon. Credit: Walter Siegmund.{{free media}}

Family: Elaeagnaceae.

There is evidence supporting beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Persian olive in reducing the symptoms of osteoarthritis with an efficacy comparable to that of acetaminophen and ibuprofen.[33]

Equisetum telmateia edit

Equisetum telmateia (Equisetopsida) is shown at Cambridge Botanic Garden. Credit: Rror{{free media}}

Family Equisetaceae.

Equisetum telmateia, the great horsetail or northern giant horsetail, is a species with an unusual distribution, with one subspecies endemic to Europe, western Asia and northwest Africa, and a second subspecies native to western North America.[161][162]

Eschscholzia californica edit

Family Papaveraceae.

Berberine is found in Eschscholzia californica (Californian poppy).

Californidine is a chemical compound found in Eschscholzia californica.

Eurycoma longifolia edit

Family Simaroubaceae.

Among standardization markers that have been used for E. longifolia are eurycomanone, total protein, total polysaccharide and glycosaponin, which have been recommended in a technical guideline developed by the Scientific and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM).[163]

Eurycoma longifolia has been reported to contain the glycoprotein compounds eurycomanol, eurycomanone, and eurycomalactone.[164]

Foeniculum vulgare edit

Since the seed in the fruit is attached to the pericarp, the whole fruit is often mistakenly called "seed". Credit: Howcheng{{free media}}

Family Apiaceae.

Fennel is widely cultivated, both in its native range and elsewhere, for its edible, strongly flavored leaves and fruits. Its aniseed or liquorice flavor[165] comes from anethole, an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise, and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs, though usually not as strong.[166]

The aromatic character of fennel fruits derives from essential oil (volatile oils) imparting mixed aromas, including trans-anethole and estragole (resembling liquorice), fenchone (mint and camphor), limonene,[167] 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom).[168] Other phytochemicals found in fennel fruits include polyphenols, such as rosmarinic acid and luteolin, among others in minor content.[169]

Ginko biloba edit

Family Ginkgoaceae.

"According to some sources, the medicinal use of ginkgo dates back to 2800 B.C.… However, the first undisputed written records of ginkgo come much later… Ginkgo first appears in copies of the Shen Nung pharmacopeia around the eleventh and twelfth centuries."[170]

Ginkgo has been used in traditional Chinese medicine since at least the 11th century C.E.[170] Ginkgo seeds, leaves, and nuts have traditionally been used to treat various ailments, such as dementia, asthma, bronchitis, and kidney and bladder disorders. However, there is no conclusive evidence that ginkgo is useful for any of these conditions.[171][172][173]

The European Medicines Agency Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products concluded that medicines containing ginkgo leaf can be used for treating mild age-related dementia and mild peripheral vascular disease in adults after serious conditions have been excluded by a physician.[174]

Glycyrrhiza glabra edit

Griffonia simplicifolia edit

Hedychium coronarium edit

White ginger is the Asian spice galangal. Credit: Bùi Thụy Đào Nguyên.{{free media}}

Family: Zingiberaceae.

In China it is cultivated for use in medicine and production of aromatic oil, due to the strong characteristic fragrance of the flowers, said to be reminiscent of jasmine.[175][176]

Hibiscus acetosella edit

Family Malvaceae.

In Angola a tea made from the leaves of cranberry hibiscus are used as a post-fever tonic and to treat anemia.[177] The plant is also utilized to treat myalgias by crushing leaves into cold water to bathe children.[177] The plant is thought to contain polyphenols, a compound that may combat inflammation and is commonly used to treat inflammatory diseases.[178]

Hibiscus cannabinus edit

Kenaf seeds yield an edible vegetable oil. The kenaf seed oil is also used for cosmetics, industrial lubricants and for biofuel production. Kenaf oil is high in omega polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Kenaf seed oil contains a high percentage of linoleic acid (Omega-6) a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Linoleic acid (C18:2) is the dominant PUFA, followed by oleic acid (C18:1). Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3) is present in 2 to 4 percent.

Kenaf seed oil is 20.4% of the total seed weight, similar to that of cotton seed.

Kenaf Edible Seed Oil Contains:

  • Palmitic acid: 19.1%
  • Oleic acid: 28.0% (Omega-9)
  • Linoleic acid: 45% (Omega-6)
  • Stearic acid: 3.0%
  • Alpha-linolenic acid: 3% (Omega-3)

Hibiscus sabdariffa edit

The Hibiscus leaves are a good source of polyphenolic compounds. The major identified compounds include neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, caffeoylshikimic acid and flavonoid compounds such as quercetin, kaempferol and their derivatives.[179] The flowers are rich in anthocyanins, as well as protocatechuic acid. The dried calyces contain the flavonoids gossypetin, hibiscetine and sabdaretine. The major pigment is not daphniphylline.[180] Small amounts of myrtillin (delphinidin 3-monoglucoside), chrysanthenin (cyanidin 3-monoglucoside), and delphinidin are present. Roselle seeds are a good source of lipid-soluble antioxidants, particularly gamma-tocopherol.[181]

Hibiscus tiliaceus edit

Cyanidin-3-glucoside is the major anthocyanin found in flowers of H. tiliaceus.[182] Leaves of H. tiliaceus displayed strong free radical scavenging activity and the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity among 39 tropical plant species in Okinawa.[183] With greater UV radiation in coastal areas, it is possible that leaves and flowers of natural coastal populations of H. tiliaceus have stronger antioxidant properties than planted inland populations.[184]

Hibiscus syriacus edit

Hibiscus[185][186] is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae.

The generic name is derived from the Greek name ἰβίσκος (ibískos) which Pedanius Dioscorides gave to Althaea officinalis (ca 40–90 AD).[187][188]

Several species are widely cultivated as ornamental plants, notably Hibiscus syriacus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.[189]

Hippomane mancinella edit

Fruit and foliage are poisonous and shown. Credit: Hans Hillewaert.{{free media}}

Family: Euphorbiaceae

The tree contains 12-deoxy-5-hydroxyphorbol-6-gamma-7-alpha-oxide, hippomanins, mancinellin, and sapogenin, phloracetophenone-2,4-dimethylether is present in the leaves, while the fruits possess physostigmine.[190]

A gum can be produced from the bark which reportedly treats edema, while the dried fruits have been used as a diuretic.[191]

Huperzia serrata edit

Family Lycopodiaceae.

Huperzine A is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alkaloid compound found in the firmoss Huperzia serrata[192] and in varying quantities in other food Huperzia species, including H. elmeri, H. carinat, and H. aqualupian.[193] Huperzine A has been investigated as a treatment for neurological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, but a meta-analysis of those studies concluded that they were of poor methodological quality and the findings should be interpreted with caution.[194][195]

Huperzine A is extracted from Huperzia serrata.[192] "Huperzine A (HupA), a novel alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herb Huperzia serrata, is a potent, highly specific and reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)."[196] It is a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor[196][197][198][199] and NMDA receptor antagonist[200] that crosses the blood-brain barrier.[201] Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. The structure of the complex of huperzine A with acetylcholinesterase has been determined by X-ray crystallography (PDB code: 1VOT; see the 3D structure).[202]

For some years, huperzine A has been investigated as a possible treatment for diseases characterized by neurodegeneration, particularly Alzheimer's disease.[192][203] A 2013 meta-analysis found that huperzine A may be efficacious in improving cognitive function, global clinical status, and activities of daily living for individuals with Alzheimer's disease. However, due to the poor size and quality of the clinical trials reviewed, huperzine A should not be recommended as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease unless further high quality studies confirm its beneficial effects.[194]

Huperzine A is also marketed as a dietary supplement with claims made for its ability to improve memory and mental function.[204]

Huperzine A has also been noted to help induce lucid dreaming.[205]

Hydrastis canadensis edit

Family: Ranunculaceae

Berberine is found in Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal).[206]

Hypericum perforatum edit

St. John's Wort flowers are shown. Credit: Fir0002.{{free media}}

Family: Hypericaceae

Many members of this family contain the naphthodianthrone derivatives hypericin and pseudohypericin contained in glandular tissues that appear as black, orange or translucent spots or lines on petals, leaves and other parts of the plant, that are photosensitive and can cause reactions in grazing animals, such as blistering of the snout (muzzle), as well as in people who come into contact with the plants over prolonged periods.[207] The highest concentration of these substances occurs in Hypericum perforatum (common St. John's wort), which is used in herbalism and as a traditional medicine (folk remedy).[208]

The plant contains the following:[209][210]

  • Flavonoids (e.g. epigallocatechin, rutin, hyperoside, isoquercetin, quercitrin, quercetin, amentoflavone, biapigenin, astilbin, myricetin, miquelianin, kaempferol, luteolin)
  • Phenolic acids (e.g. chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid)
  • Naphthodianthrones (e.g. hypericin, pseudohypericin, protohypericin, protopseudohypericin)
  • Phloroglucinols (e.g. hyperforin, adhyperforin)
  • Tannins (unspecified, proanthocyanidins reported)
  • Volatile oils (e.g. 2-methyloctane, nonane, 2-methyldecane, undecane, α-pinene, β-pinene, α-terpineol, geraniol, myrcene, limonene, caryophyllene, humulene)
  • Saturated fatty acids (e.g. isovaleric acid (3-methylbutanoic acid), myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid)
  • Alkanols (e.g. 1-tetracosanol, 1-hexacosanol)
  • Vitamins & their analogues (e.g. carotenoids, choline, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid)
  • Miscellaneous others (e.g. pectin, β-sitosterol, hexadecane, triacontane, kielcorin, norathyriol)

The naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin along with the phloroglucinol derivative hyperforin are thought to be among the numerous active constituents.[211][212][213][214] It also contains essential oils composed mainly of sesquiterpenes.[211]

Hyperforin edit

"These researches are according to an investigation of the effect of H. perforatum on the NF-κB inflammation factor, conducted by Bork et al. (1999), in which hyperforin provided a potent inhibition of TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB [58]. Another important activity for hyperforin is a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase [59]. Moreover, this species attenuated the expression of iNOS in periodontal tissue, which may contribute to the attenuation of the formation of nitrotyrosine, an indication of nitrosative stress [26]. In this context, a combination of several active constituents of Hypericum species is the carrier of their anti-inflammatory activity."[215]

"Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of hyperforin have been described as inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 (but not COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase at low concentrations of 0.3 μmol/L and 1.2 μmol/L, respectively [52], and of PGE2 production in vitro [53] and in vivo with superior efficiency (ED50 = 1 mg/kg) compared to indomethacin (5 mg/kg) [54]. Hyperforin turned out to be a novel type of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor with high effectivity in vivo [55] and suppressed oxidative bursts in polymorphonuclear cells at 1.8 μmol/L in vitro [56]. Inhibition of IFN-γ production, strong downregulation of CXCR3 expression on activated T cells, and downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression caused Cabrelle et al. [57] to test the effectivity of hyperforin in a rat model of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Hyperforin attenuated the symptoms significantly, and the authors discussed hyperforin as a putative therapeutic molecule for the treatment of autoimmune inflammatory diseases sustained by Th1 cells."[216]

"Hyperforin is found in alcoholic beverages. Hyperforin is a constituent of Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) Hyperforin is a phytochemical produced by some of the members of the plant genus Hypericum, notably Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort). The structure of hyperforin was elucidated by a research group from the Shemyakin Institute of Bio-organic Chemistry (USSR Academy of Sciences in Moscow) and published in 1975. Hyperforin is a prenylated phloroglucinol derivative. Total synthesis of hyperforin has not yet been accomplished, despite attempts by several research groups. Hyperforin has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, antibiotic and anti-depressant functions[217][218][219][220]

  1. Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase ...Specific function: Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a role in inflammatory processes ...
  2. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 ... General function: Involved in peroxidase activity".[221][215][216]

Juglans californica edit

The California black walnut is Juglans californica.

Juglans cinerea edit

Butternuts are Juglans cinerea.

Juglans major edit

The Arizona walnut is Juglans major.

Juglans nigra edit

The eastern black walnut is Juglans nigra

Juglans regia edit

Walnuts are shown here whole and open with halved kernel. Credit: Ivar Leidus.{{free media}}

Family Juglandaceae.

The Persian or English walnut is Juglans regia.

Unlike most nuts that are high in monounsaturated fatty acids, walnut oil is composed largely of polyunsaturated fatty acids (72% of total fats), particularly alpha-linolenic acid (14%) and linoleic acid (58%), although it does contain oleic acid as 13% of total fats.[222]

Walnut hulls contain diverse phytochemicals, such as polyphenols that stain hands and can cause skin irritation. Seven phenolic compounds, including ferulic acid, vanillic acid, coumaric acid, syringic acid, myricetin, and juglone were identified in walnut husks. Juglone, the predominant phenolic, was found in concentrations of 2-4% fresh weight.[223]

Walnuts also contain the ellagitannin pedunculagin.[224] Regiolone has been isolated with juglone, betulinic acid and sitosterol from the stem bark of Juglans regia.[225]

Justicia gendarussa edit

Justicia gendarussa flowers are shown. Credit: Vinayaraj{{free media}}

Family: Acanthaceae

The plant is widely used in various forms for many of its medicinal and insecticidal properties,[226]

Justicia gendarussa is harvested for its leaves for the treatment of various ailments.[227]

It maybe useful for the treatment of asthma, rheumatism and colics of children.[228] It may have the potential to be the basis for a birth control pill for men. Clinical tests are being conducted in Indonesia.[229][230][231]

The plant has shown promise as a source of a compound that inhibits an enzyme crucial to the development of HIV.[232][233]

Justicia gendarussa was proved to contain several phytochemicals, which are natural secondary plant compounds. Overall in the plant, roots, stem and leaves, following phytochemicals were found: alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenols.[234] The ingredients of the plant may vary depending on the age, physiological stage of the organ parts or the geographic region of cultivation.[235]

The plant was proved to have both anti-microbial and anti-fungal action on selected pathogen strains, and therefore this plant can be used to develop herbal drugs.[234]

Justicia gendarussa leaf extract was proven to potentially become a male, non-hormonally contraceptive method due to its competitive and reversible inhibition of the spermatozoan hyaluronidase enzyme. The plant is already used as traditional contraceptive method in Indonesia.[236]

The plant compound Patentiflorin A contained in Justicia gendarussa has shown to have a positive activity against several HIV strains, higher than the clinically used first anti-HIV drug, zidovudine AZT.[232]

Further, extracts of the leaves have an anti-inflammatory effect. This has been demonstrated especially in mice, specific for the carrageenan-induced paw edema.[237]

The juice of the leaves can be drizzled into the ear for earache. To treat external edema, an oil made from the leaves can be used.[238]

Kunzea ericoides edit

Family: Myrtaceae

Lagerstroemia speciosa edit

Family: Lythraceae

Leptospermum polygalifolium edit

Family: Myrtaceae

The nectar from the flowers is harvested by bees, yielding Leptospermum honey, which is marketed as Manuka honey.[239] Honey produced from Australian Leptospermum polygalifolium is also known as jelly bush or the lemon-scented tea tree.[240]

Limnophila aromatica edit

Family: Plantaginaceae.

Linum bienne edit

Family: Linaceae.

Linum usitatissimum edit

Flowers of Flax (Linum usitatissimum) are from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Credit: D. Gordon E. Robertson.{{free media}}

Family: Linaceae.

Flax seeds are 7% water, 18% protein, 29% carbohydrates, and 42% fat. In 100 grams (3.5 oz) as a reference amount, flax seeds provide 534 calories and contain high levels (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of protein, dietary fiber, several B vitamins, and dietary minerals.[241][242] Flax seeds are especially rich in thiamine, magnesium, and phosphorus (DVs above 90%).

As a percentage of total fat, flax seeds contain 54% omega-3 fatty acids (mostly alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA), 18% omega-9 fatty acids (oleic acid), and 6% omega-6 fatty acids (linoleic acid); the seeds contain 9% saturated fat, including 5% as palmitic acid.[241][242] Flax seed oil contains 53% 18:3 omega-3 fatty acids (mostly ALA) and 13% 18:2 omega-6 fatty acids.[241]

Lithospermum officinale edit

The image shows buds on Lithospermum officinale. Credit: Kristian Peters.{{free media}}

Lithospermum officinale, or common gromwell or European stoneseed, is a flowering plant species in the family Boraginaceae, native to Eurasia.

The plant has been found to be a potent natural anti-inflammatory and effective agent for healing burn wounds when applied topically, which explains the presence of this species in the poultice discovered.[243]

The mechanism by which freeze-dried aqueous extracts (FDE) of plants of the species Lithospermum officinale (Boraginaceae) have the ability to inhibit at least many of the effects of exogenous and endogenous TSH on the thyroid gland. To this end, we have examined the in vitro effects of FDE from these plants on the ability of bovine TSH (bTSH) to both bind to human thyroid plasma membranes (TPM) and activate adenylate cyclase therein. FDE of this species produced a dose-related, ultimately complete, inhibition of the binding of 125I-labeled bTSH when studied at 4 C in a 20 mM Tris-HCl-0.5% BSA buffer, pH 7.45. Half-maximum inhibition of bTSH binding was produced by approximately 50 mU/ml bTSH and only about 10-30 micrograms/ml of the four active FDE. When studied in Tris-BSA-50 mM NaCl buffer at 37 C, these FDE remained inhibitory to bTSH binding, but their potency was decreased to about one fifth of that seen in the absence of NaCl. The binding of [125I]hCG to rat testis membranes was also inhibited by all of these FDE, but no effect on the binding of [125I]insulin to crude rat liver membranes was observed.

The antithyrotropic activity of freeze-dried-extracts from Lithospermum officinale (Lith. off. FDE) was investigated in the rat. When administered together with TSH, Lith. off. FDE blocked the TSH- induced increase in endocytotic activity of the thyroid glands followed by a strong decline of thyroid hormone levels. Furthermore, when Lith. off. FDE was injected alone it caused a decline in endogenous TSH-levels as well as in thyroidal secretion and thyroid hormone levels. The efficacy of the extract in blocking thyroid secretion was compared to that of potassium iodide and it was found that the effect of Lith. off. FDE was of more rapid onset and of longer duration, suggesting that the FDE may have a different mode of action from that of KJ. A specific interaction between TSH and the active constituents of the plant extract is discussed. Experiments on thyroidectomized and T4 substituted rats have demonstrated as an additional pharmacodynamic effect of Lith. off. FDE an inhibition of peripheral T4-deiodination.

Lithospermum officinale has been studied using female Wistar rats. Variations of the main urolithiasis risk factors (citraturia, calciuria, phosphaturia, pH and diuresis) have been evaluated. It can be concluded that beneficial effects caused by a herb infusion on urolithiasis (kidney stones) can be attributed to some disinfectant action, and tentatively to the presence of saponins. Specifically, some solvent action can be postulated with respect to uric stones or heterogeneous uric nucleus, due to the basifying capacity of some herb infusions.

Lonicera japonica edit

Lonicera japonica fruit is growing in the Aizu area, Fukushima pref., Japan. Credit: Qwert1234.{{free media}}

Family: Caprifoliaceae

In traditional Chinese medicine,[244] Lonicera japonica is called rěn dōng téng[244] literally "winter enduring vine") or jīn yín huā[244] literally "gold-silver flower". Alternative Chinese names include er hua and shuang hua, meaning double-[color] flowers.[245] In Korean, it is called geumeunhwa.

The dried leaves and flowers (Flos Lonicerae Japonicae) are employed in traditional Chinese medicine, being used to treat fever, cold-related headache, cough, thirst, certain inflammation including sore throat, skin infection, and tumor necrosis.[246]

The antiviral action of loniflavone, a compound found in Lonicera japonica, has been investigated in computational studies, in which the ability of this compound to bind with high affinity to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 has been demonstrated, an early step towards drug development for the disease that virus causes.[247]

Lonicera japonica contains methyl caffeate, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, methyl 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinate, protocatechuic acid, methyl chlorogenic acid, and luteolin. The two biflavonoids, 3′-O-methyl loniflavone and loniflavone, along with luteolin and chrysin, can be isolated from the leaves.[248] Other phenolic compounds present in the plant are hyperoside, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid.[249] The two secoiridoid glycosides, loniceracetalide A and loniceracetalide B, can be isolated, together with 10 known iridoid glycosides, from the flower buds.[250] The plant also contains the saponins loniceroside A and loniceroside B[251] and the antiinflammatory loniceroside C.[252]

Lophatherum gracile edit

Family: Poaceae

Lycium barbarum edit

Family: Solanaceae

Because of its claimed benefits as a drug of traditional medicine, the chemicals present in the fruit, root, and other parts of the plants have been studied in some detail.[253][254]

The main compounds in the fruit (23% of the dry mass) are polysaccharides and proteoglycans. Carotenoid pigments are the second major group, chiefly zeaxanthin palmitic acid (dipalmitate). The fruits further contain vitamins, in particular riboflavin, thiamin and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), the latter in a concentration similar to that in lemons. Other detected compounds include flavonoids derived from myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol; hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, β-elemene, myristic acid and ethyl hexadecanoate; and some glycerogalactolipids. The fruit further contains 1–2.7% of free amino acids; chiefly proline, and including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and trimethylglycine (betaine). Other compounds include β-sitosterol, scopoletin, p-coumaric acid, lyciumide A and L-monomenthyl succinate. The alkaloid atropine, common in plants of the family Solanaceae, is not detectable.[253]

The compounds present in the roots have been less studied, but they include trimethylglycine (betaine), choline, linoleic acid, and β-sitosterol [79]. Of particular interest are cyclic oligopeptides with 8 amino acid rings, christened lyciumin A and lyciumin B.[253]

The leaves are known to contain the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside, rutin, nicotiflorin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol damascenone, choline, scopoletin, vanillic acid, salicylic acid, and nicotinic acid. From the flowers, diosgenin, β-sitosterol, and lanosterol have been isolated.[253]

Lycium europaeum edit

Lycium europaeum, the European tea tree, European box-thorn, or European matrimony-vine, is a species of flowering plant in the family Solanaceae.[255] It is native to the entire Mediterranean region, and has been introduced to the Canary Islands, Madeira, and the Balearic Islands.[256] Its fruit is edible.[257]

Magnolia grandiflora edit

Family: Magnoliaceae.

Magnolia officinalis edit

The aromatic bark contains magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol, and obovatol.[258][259][260][261][262][263] Magnolol[264] and honokiol[265] activate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

Magnolol is an organic compound, classified as lignan, a bioactive compound found in the bark of the Houpu magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) or in Magnolia grandiflora.[266]

Mahonia aquifolium edit

Family: Berberidaceae.

Berberine is found in Mahonia aquifolium (Oregon grape).[267]

Marchantia berteroana edit

Family: Marchantiaceae.

Hypolaetin is a flavone, the aglycone of hypolaetin 8-glucuronide (H-8-G), a compound found in the liverwort Marchantia berteroana.[268]

The "effects of H-8-G and its aglycone, hypolaetin (H) on rabbit skin edema [...] Edema formation was measured as the local accumulation during 1 h of 1251-human serum albumin (5 1.tCi) (4). [...] Local administration of H-8-G or H did not influence skin edema".[269]

Matricaria recutita edit

Melaleuca alternifolia edit

Family: Myrtaceae.

Melaleuca alternifolia is notable for its essential oil (tea tree oil) which is both an antifungal medication and antibiotic,[270] while safely usable for topical applications.[271] This is produced on a commercial scale and marketed as tea tree oil.[272]

Melaleuca cajuputi edit

Family: Myrtaceae.

Melaleuca cajuputi is used to produce a similar oil, known as cajuput oil, which is used in Southeast Asia to treat a variety of infections and to add fragrance to food and soaps.[273]

Mentha × piperita edit

A peppermint flower pot is shown on the terrace in New Belgrade, Serbia. Credit: VS6507.{{free media}}

Family: Lamiaceae.

Peppermint (Mentha × piperita, also known as Mentha balsamea Wild)[274] is a hybrid mint, a cross between Mentha aquatica (watermint) and Mentha spicata (spearmint).[275] Indigenous to Europe and the Middle East,[276] the plant is now widely spread and cultivated in many regions of the world.[277] It is occasionally found in the wild with its parent species.[277][278]

Peppermint essential oil has a high menthol content, also contains menthone and carboxyl esters, particularly menthyl acetate.[279] Dried peppermint typically has 0.3–0.4% of volatile oil containing menthol (7–48%), menthone (20–46%), menthyl acetate (3–10%), menthofuran (1–17%) and 1,8-cineol (3–6%). Peppermint oil also contains small amounts of many additional compounds including limonene, pulegone, caryophyllene and pinene.[280]

Peppermint contains terpenoids and flavonoids such as eriocitrin, hesperidin, and kaempferol 7-O-rutinoside.[281]

Peppermint oil has a high concentration of natural pesticides, mainly pulegone (found mainly in Mentha arvensis var. piperascens cornmint, field mint, Japanese mint, and to a lesser extent (6,530 ppm) in Mentha × piperita subsp. notho[282]) and menthone.[283] It is known to repel some pest insects, including mosquitos, and has uses in organic gardening. It is also widely used to repel rodents.[284][285][286][287]

The chemical composition of the essential oil from peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was analyzed by Flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS}: menthol (40.7%) and menthone (23.4%), (±)-menthyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, limonene, beta-pinene, and beta-caryophyllene.[288]

The Herbal Tea "Cold & Flu Time" contains: Chinese honeysuckle, mulberry leaf, lophatherum, pueraria root, peppermint, licorice root, orange peel, from the box "INGREDIENTS".

Mitragyna speciosa edit

Momordica charantia edit

Bitter melon is Momordica charantia. Credit: David Monniaux.{{free media}}

Family: Cucurbitaceae.

Morus alba edit

Family: Moraceae.

Various extracts from Morus alba including kuwanon G, moracin M, steppogenin-4′-O-β-D-glucoside and mulberroside A have been suggested as having a variety of potentially-useful medical effects.[289][290][291][292][293][294][295][296][297][298][299] Cyanidin-3-O-beta-ᴅ-glucopyranoside and Sanggenon G extracted from Morus alba were studied in animals models for some effects on the central nervous system, but clinical trials are necessary to confirm the effects.[300]

Morus alba is a traditional Chinese medicine that contains alkaloids and flavonoids that are bioactive compounds.[301][302] Studies have shown that these compounds may help reduce high cholesterol, obesity, and stress.[303]

Morus indica edit

Morus indica is often grown for its medicinal properties. As with most berries, the mulberries of M. indica have potent antioxidant properties.[304] The primary medicinal use of Morus indica is as a method of regulating blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. Multiple studies in humans and mice have found that the use of Morus indica lowered the blood glucose levels of diabetics through multiple different pathways.[304][305][306]

Morus mongolica edit

Morus mongolica is known to have multiple flavonoid and phenolic compounds.[307][308][309][310] These compounds can be found in the fruits,[309] leaves,[308] and bark.[311]

Morus nigra edit

A full-grown shahtoot is shown. Credit: Ayda D{{free media}}

Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, consists of diverse species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions.[312][313][37] Generally, the genus has three well-known species ostensibly named for the fruit color of the best-known cultivar: white, red, and black mulberry (Morus alba, M. rubra, and M. nigra, respectively), with numerous cultivars,[314][315] The name "white mulberry" came about because the first specimens named by European taxonomists were a cultivated mutation prized for their white fruit, but wild trees bear black fruit like other mulberries. White mulberry is native to South Asia, but is widely distributed across Europe, Southern Africa, South America, and North America.[313] Morus alba is regarded as an invasive species in Brazil and the United States.[313]

The closely related genus Broussonetia is also commonly known as mulberry, notably the paper mulberry, Broussonetia papyrifera.[316]

The fruit and leaves are sold in various forms as dietary supplements. Unripe fruit and green parts of the plant have a white sap that may be toxic, stimulating, or mildly hallucinogenic.[317]

Mulberry fruit color derives from anthocyanins,[37] which have unknown effects in humans.[318] Anthocyanins are responsible for the attractive colors of fresh plant foods, including orange, red, purple, black, and blue.[318] These colors are water-soluble and easily extractable, yielding natural food colorants.[313] Due to a growing demand for natural food colorants, they have numerous applications in the food industry.[37][318]

Morus nigra, called black mulberry[319] or blackberry (not to be confused with the blackberries that are various species of Rubus),[320] is a species of flowering plant that is native to southwestern Asia and the Iberian Peninsula, where it has been cultivated for so long that its precise natural range is unknown.[321] The black mulberry is known for its large number of chromosomes, 308 (44x ploidy).[322]

Mucuna pruriens edit

Muira puama edit

Family: Olacaceae, genus Ptychopetalum.

Myristica argentea edit

Myristica fragrans edit

Seed are on the left or ground spice on the right. Credit: Herusutimbul.{{free media}}
Nutmeg tree (Myristica fragrans) is shown. Credit: കാക്കര.{{free media}}

Family: Myristicaceae

Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.[323] Myristica fragrans (fragrant nutmeg or true nutmeg) is a dark-leaved evergreen tree cultivated for two spices derived from its fruit: nutmeg, from its seed, and mace, from the seed covering. It is also a commercial source of an essential oil and nutmeg butter. Indonesia is the main producer of nutmeg and mace.

If consumed in amounts exceeding its typical use as a spice, nutmeg powder may produce allergic reactions, cause contact dermatitis, or have psychoactive effects.[324] Although used in traditional medicine for treating various disorders, nutmeg has no scientifically confirmed prescription drug (medicinal value).[324]

Nutmeg is the spice made by grinding the seed of the fragrant nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) tree into powder. The spice has a distinctive pungent fragrance and a warm, slightly sweet taste; it is used to flavor many kinds of baked goods, confections, puddings, potatoes, meats, sausages, sauces, vegetables, and such beverages as eggnog.[325]

The seeds are dried gradually in the sun over a period of six to eight weeks. During this time the nutmeg shrinks away from its hard seed coat until the kernels rattle in their shells when shaken. The shell is then broken with a wooden club and the nutmegs are picked out. Dried nutmegs are grayish brown ovals with furrowed surfaces.[325] The nutmegs are roughly egg-shaped, about 20.5–30 mm (0.81–1.18 in) long and 15–18 mm (0.59–0.71 in) wide, weighing 5–10 g (0.18–0.35 oz) dried.

The essential oil obtained by steam distillation of ground nutmeg[326] is used in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. The volatile fraction contains dozens of terpenes and phenylpropanoids, including D-pinene, limonene, D-borneol, L-terpineol, geraniol, safrol, and myristicin.[326][327][328] In its pure form, myristicin is a toxin, and consumption of excessive amounts of nutmeg can result in myristicin poisoning.[329]

The oil is colorless or light yellow, and smells and tastes of nutmeg. It is used as a natural food flavoring in baked goods, syrups, beverages, and sweets. It is used to replace ground nutmeg, as it leaves no particles in the food. The essential oil is also used in the manufacturing of toothpaste and cough syrups.[330]

Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression, is semisolid, reddish-brown in colour, and has the taste and smell of nutmeg itself.[326] About 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin, which can be turned into myristic acid, a 14-carbon fatty acid, which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter, can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil, and has applications as an industrial lubricant.

Two other species of genus Myristica with different flavors, Myristica malabarica and Myristica argentea, are sometimes used to adulterate nutmeg as a spice.[331]

Myristica malabarica edit

Oryza barthii edit

Family: Poaceae.

Oryza glaberrima edit

Family: Poaceae.

Oryza rufipogon edit

Family: Poaceae.

Oryza sativa edit

Family: Poaceae.

Osmanthus fragrans edit

Family: Oleaceae.

Osmanthus fragrans, variously known as sweet osmanthus, sweet olive, tea olive, and fragrant olive, is a species native to Asia from the Himalayas through southern China (Guizhou, Sichuan and Yunnan) to Taiwan, southern Japan and Southeast Asia as far south as Cambodia and Thailand.[332][333][334][335]

Osmanthus tea has been used as an herbal tea for the treatment of irregular menstruation.[336] The extract of dried flowers showed neuroprotective, free-radical scavenging, antioxidative effects in in vitro assays.[337]

Panax ginseng edit

Family: Araliaceae.

Persea americana edit

Family: Lauraceae.

Avocados have diverse fats.[338] For a typical one:

  • About 75% of an avocado's energy comes from fat, most of which (67% of total fat) is monounsaturated fat as oleic acid.[338]
  • Other predominant fats include palmitic acid and linoleic acid.[338]
  • The saturated fat content amounts to 14% of the total fat.[338]
  • Typical total fat composition is roughly: 1% omega-3 fatty acid (ω-3), 14% omega-6 fatty acid (ω-6), 71% omega-9 fatty acid (ω-9) (65% oleic and 6% palmitoleic), and 14% saturated fat (palmitic acid).[338]

Phellodendron amurense edit

Family: Rutaceae.

Berberine is found in Phellodendron amurense (Amur cork tree).[339]

Pistacia vera edit

Torbat-e-Heydariyeh pistachio farms are in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran - September 22, 2007. Credit: Safa.daneshvar.{{free media}}

Family Anacardiaceae.

Raw pistachios are 4% water, 45% fat, 28% carbohydrates, and 20% protein. In a 100-gram reference amount, pistachios provide 2,351 kilojoules (562 kcal) of food energy and are a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value or DV) of protein, dietary fiber, several dietary minerals, and the B vitamins, thiamin (76% DV) and vitamin B6 (131% DV) (table).[242] Pistachios are a moderate source (10–19% DV) of calcium, riboflavin, pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), folate, vitamin E, and vitamin K.

The fat profile of raw pistachios consists of saturated fats, monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats.[242][340] Saturated fatty acids include palmitic acid (10% of total) and stearic acid (2%).[340] Oleic acid is the most common monounsaturated fatty acid (51% of total fat)[340] and linoleic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, is 31% of total fat.[242] Relative to other tree nuts, pistachios have a lower amount of fat and food energy but higher amounts of potassium, vitamin K, Tocopherol (γ-tocopherol), and certain phytochemicals such as carotenoids, and phytosterols.[341][342]

Prunus avium edit

Prunus cerasus edit

Pueraria mirifica edit

Pueraria tuberosa edit

Pyropia plicata edit

Family: Bangiaceae

Pyropia tenera edit

Family: Bangiaceae

Pyropia tenuipedalis edit

Family: Bangiaceae

Porphyra umbilicalis edit

Family: Bangiaceae

Pyropia yezoensis edit

Family: Bangiaceae

"A unique life cycle transition in the red seaweed Pyropia yezoensis depends on apospory."[343]

Rehmannia glutinosa edit

A number of chemical constituents including iridoids, phenethyl alcohol, glycosides, cyclopentanoid monoterpenes, and norcarotenoids, have been reported from the fresh or processed roots of Rehmannia glutinosa.[344]

Rosa canina edit

Rubus allegheniensis edit

Rubus pensilvanicus edit

Rubus plicatus edit

Rubus vestitus edit

Sambucus callicarpa edit

Sambucus mexicana edit

Sambucus nigra edit

Sambucus palmensis edit

Sambucus peruviana edit

Scutellaria baicalensis edit

Scutellaria baicalensis flowers and leaves are shown. Credit: Doronenko.{{free media}}

Family: Lamiaceae.

The main compounds responsible for the biological activity of skullcap are flavonoids.[345] Baicalein, one of the important Scutellaria flavonoids, was shown to have cardiovascular effects in in vitro.[346] Research also shows that Scutellaria root modulates inflammatory activity in vitro to inhibit nitric oxide (NO), cytokine, chemokine and growth factor production in macrophages.[347] Isolated chemical compounds including wogonin, wogonoside, and 3,5,7,2',6'-pentahydroxyl flavanone found in Scutellaria have been shown to inhibit histamine and leukotriene release.[348] Other active constituents include baicalin, apigenin, oroxylin A, scutellarein, and skullcapflavone.[349]

A variety of flavonoids in Scutellaria species have been found to bind to the benzodiazepine site and/or a non-benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor, including baicalin, baicalein, wogonin, apigenin, oroxylin A, scutellarein, and skullcapflavone II.[350][351][352] Baicalin and baicalein,[352][353][354][355] wogonin,[356] and apigenin[357] have been confirmed to act as positive allosteric modulators and produce anxiolytic effects in animals, whereas oroxylin A acts as a negative allosteric modulator (and also, notably, as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor).[358][359][360] As such, these compounds and actions, save oroxylin A, are likely to underlie the anxiolytic effects of Scutellaria species.[361]

Scutellaria also contains rosmarinic acid which inhibits GABA transaminase which breaks GABA down, thus making it available longer.[362]

Senna alexandrina edit

Sideritis leucantha edit

Family: Lamiaceae.

Hypolaetin 8-glucoside can be found in Sideritis leucantha.[363]

Silybum marianum edit

Simarouba glauca edit

Flowers of the paradise tree are captured during flowering season. Credit: GunasekarVV.{{free media}}

Family: Simaroubaceae

Though there is some research[364] claiming that Simarouba is effective for treating certain diseases, there seems to be insufficient evidence[365] of curing diarrhea, malaria, edema, fever and stomach upset. Known in India as Lakshmi Taru, the extracts from parts of the tree have been claimed to possess potent anticancer properties. However, to date, no systematic research using phytochemicals isolated from Simarouba glauca has been carried out to explore the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer cell death.[366] Simarouba extracts are known to be effective only on specific types of human cancer cell lines and tests conducted were invitro. Whether the same effect would be observed under invivo conditions, depends on bioavailability and bioaccessibility,[367] hence Simarouba as an alternative cure for cancer remains unproven.

Solanum virginianum edit

Solanum Xanthocarpum is shown in Nepal. Credit: Krish Dulal.{{free media}}

Family: Solanaceae

The plant has many medical properties. In the tribes of Nilgiris, the plant is used to treat a whitlow (finger abscess): the finger is inserted into a ripe fruit for a few minutes.[368] In Nepal, a decoction of root is taken twice a day for seven days to treat cough, asthma and chest pain.[369]

Ayurvedic Physicians commonly used the drugs of Dashmula in their private practice. Dashmula comprises root of five trees (brihat panchmula) and root of five small herbs (laghu panchmula). Deep study in Ayurveda indicate that out of 33 species of Solanum from family Solanaceae, two species are used in Dashmula such as Solanum anguivi Lam. (Bruhati) and Solanum virginianum L. (Kantkari) (Sharma, 2006). The tribals and villagers also used the drugs of Dashmula group for their common ailments. It is estimated that about 8000 metric tons of roots of Dashmula are used annually by Ayurvedic industry in Maharashtra.[370]:26

Heble et al., (1968) chemically isolated, crystallized, diosgenin and beta cytosterol constituents from Solanum virginianumL. Further they reported the presence of triterpenes like Tupeol. Heble et al., (1971) noted the presence of coumarins, scopolin, scopoletin, esculin and esculetin from plant parts of Solanum virginianum through column chromatography. Hussain et al., (2010) in addition to alkaloids content also determined the presence of flavoinoids and saponin apart from the presence of tolerable level of heavy metals like Cu, Fe, Pb, Cd and Zn. Shankar et al., (2011) reported and quantified bioactive steroidal glycoalkaloid khasianine in addition to solanine and solasomargine through HPTLC. Apigenin showed antiallergic while diosgenin exhibited anti–inflammatory effects (Singh et al., 2010). The leaf extract inhibit the growth of pathogenic organisms.(Seeba, 2009). Tanusak Changbanjong et al., (2010) reported the effect of crude extract of Solanum verginianum against snails and mosquito larvae.[370]:28

Solanum virginianum L. (Kantkari) is useful in bronchial asthma (Govindan et al., 1999). Krayer and Briggs (1950) reported the antiaccelerator cardiac action of solasodine and some of its derivatives. The plant possesses antiurolthiatic and natriuretic activities. (Patel et al., 2010). A decoction of the fruits of the plant is used for treatment of diabetes (Nadkarni, 1954). Solanum virginianum L. herb is useful in cough, chest pain, against vomiting, hair fall, leprosy, itching scabies, skin diseases and cardiac diseases associated with edema (Kumar et al., 2010).[370]:28

Roots decoction is used as fabrige, effective diuretic and expectorant. It is diuretic useful in the treatment of catarrhal, fever, cough, asthma, and chest pain (Ghani, 1996). Root paste is utilized by the Mukundara tribals of Rajasthan for the treatment of hernia as well as in flatulence and constipation. Stem, flower and fruits are prescribed for relief in burning sensation in the feed. Leaves are applied locally to relieve body or muscle pains, while its juice mixed with black pepper is advised for rheumatism (Nadkarni, 1954). Fruit juice is useful in sore throats and rheumatism. A decoction of the fruits of the plant is used by tribal and rural people of Orissa for the treatment of diabetes (Nadkarni, 1954).[370]:28 Smoking the seeds of the dried solanum virginanum in a biri warp is said to allay toothache and tooth decay in Indian folk medicine.

In-vitro antioxidant and in-vivo Antimutagenic properties of Solanum xanthocarpum seed extracts, the preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening was done which reveal the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, glycoside, alkaloids, carbohydrates, and reducing sugar etc. Based preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening, Quantitative estimation of polyphenols was performed, quantitative estimation alcoholic extract found significant amounts of polyphenols as compare to aqueous extract. In-vitro antioxidants was performed by two method DDPH and superoxide radical scavenging method, the alcoholic extract shows significant antioxidant properties as compare to aqueous extract, based on polyphenols and antioxidant properties alcoholic extracts was used for the antimutagenic (clastogenic) test. Alcoholic extract produced significant result in antimutagenic activity.[371]

Stachys sieboldii edit

Image shows Stachys sieboldii with red to purple flowers and reaching a height of 30 – 120 cm. Credit: Kurt Stueber.{{free media}}

Family: Lamiaceae.

Stachys affinis, commonly called crosne, Chinese artichoke, Japanese artichoke, knotroot, or artichoke betony, is a perennial herbaceous plant of the family Lamiaceae, originating from China, with rhizomes that are a root vegetable that can be eaten raw, pickled, dried or cooked,[372] where Stachys sieboldii is a synonym.

Vacuoles in the tuber of S. affinis are rich in stachyose.[373] Stachyose is a tetrasaccharide, consist out of galactose, glucose and fructose. Stachyose is up to 80-90% in dry tubers.[374]

the entirety of S. affinis is used as an agent to treat colds and pneumonia.[375]

Root extract of S. affinis has shown antimicrobial activity.[376] Antioxidant activity has been observed, plus inhibitory effects on acetylcholine esterase, monoamine oxidase and xanthine oxidase activities were observed in rat brains after 20 days feeding with methanolic extracts of S. affinis.[377] Ethanol extract from this plant also seems to have antitumour activity.[378]

"Japanese artichoke [...] contain germacrene D, caryophyllene, cadinene. [...] methanolic tuber extract of Japanese artichoke, which contains glycosides, including acteoside and stachysosides C, significantly inhibits induced mortality from potassium cyanide poisoning in mice [19]. This extract inhibits hyaluronidase activity, has anti-inflammatory action, and is effective in kidney disease [15]."[379]

The "methanol extract from the leaves and root tubers and ethanol extract from the root tubers of Stachys sieboldii have a pronounced antibacterial effect on the culture of Salmonella typhimurium. In addition, methanol extract from the leaves of Stachys sieboldii showed a significant antibacterial effect on the culture of Bacillus cereus. It is believed that the antibacterial effect of Japanese artichoke is associated with the total content of polyphenols and flavonoids contained in the plant and which are extracted with methanol and ethanol [20]."[379]

Stenocereus queretaroensis edit

Family: Cactaceae.

Stenocereus queretaroensis is a species of cactus from Mexico, including the state of Querétaro, cultivated for its fruit.[380]

Taxandria parviceps edit

Family: Myrtaceae.

Taxandria parviceps, commonly known as tea tree,[381] is a shrub species that grows on the south west coast of Western Australia.[382] This plant was previously classified as Agonis parviceps but is now part of the Taxandria genus.

Theobroma cacao edit

Family: Malvaceae.

Cocoa contains various phytochemicals, such as flavanols (including epicatechin), procyanidins, and other flavanoids. A systematic review presented moderate evidence that the use of flavanol-rich chocolate and cocoa products causes a small (2 mmHg) blood pressure lowering effect in healthy adults—mostly in the short term.[383]

The highest levels of cocoa flavanols are found in raw cocoa and to a lesser extent, dark chocolate, since flavonoids degrade during cooking used to make chocolate.[384] Cocoa also contains the stimulant compounds theobromine and caffeine. The beans contain between 0.1% and 0.7% caffeine, whereas dry coffee beans are about 1.2% caffeine.[385]

"Cocoa is rich in polyphenols that have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease.22 In cocoa, the polyphenols of particular interest are flavanols, a subclass of flavonoids, which are in turn a subclass of polyphenols. Cocoa is more than 10% flavanol by weight. Flavanols can be monomeric: in cocoa beans these are mainly (−)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, dimeric (consisting of 2 units of epicatechin with differing linkages), or polymeric (combinations of monomers and chains of up to 10 units or more have been found). These polymers are known as procyanidins.1, 7, 16, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30"[386]

Tinospora cordifolia edit

Family Menispermaceae.

Berberine is found in Tinospora cordifolia.

Torreya californica edit

Family: Taxaceae.

The California nutmeg, Torreya californica, has a seed of similar appearance to nutmeg, but is not closely related to Myristica fragrans, and is not used as a spice.

Tribulus terrestris edit

Family Zygophyllaceae.

Phytochemicals of T. terrestris include steroidal saponins.[387]

Uncaria rhynchophylla edit

Uncaria tomentosa edit

Valeriana officinalis edit

Family Caprifoliaceae.

Alkaloids edit

Actinidine,[388] chatinine,[388][389] shyanthine,[388] valerianine,[388] and valerine[388]

Flavanones edit

Flavanones: hesperidin,[390] 6-methylapigenin,[390] and linarin[391] occur in Valerian.

Veratrum grandiflorum edit

Veratrum is a genus of flowering plants in the family Melanthiaceae.[392] It occurs in damp habitats across much of temperate and subarctic Europe, Asia, and North America.[393][394][395][396][397]

Veratrum species are vigorous herbaceous perennials with highly poisonous black rhizomes, and panicles of white or brown flowers on erect stems.[398] In English they are known as both false hellebores and corn lilies. However, Veratrum is not closely related to hellebores, corn, or lilies.

"First isolated from Veratrum grandiflorum by Takaoka in the 1940s [19], [resveratrol (RSV, 3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene)] RSV is found in food sources such as fruits, vegetables, and chocolate, and is better known as a constituent of grapes and wines, although it is present in only minimal quantities [18,20]. Due to its presence in wine, RSV attracted attention in the early 1990s to explain "the French paradox", which suggested that people from France had a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease despite their high intake of saturated fats, presumably as a result of moderate red wine consumption [21]."[399]

Viburnum lentago edit

Vitis vinifera edit

This bunch of grapes are of the Cabernet Sauvignon variety. Credit: BerndtF.{{free media}}

Family: Vitaceae.

V. vinifera contains many phenolic compounds.[400] Anthocyanins can be found in the skin of the berries, hydroxycinnamic acids in the pulp and condensed tannins of the proanthocyanidins type in the seeds. Stilbenoids can be found in the skin and in wood.

Trans-resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced against the growth of fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea[401] and delta-viniferin is another grapevine phytoalexin produced following fungal infection by Plasmopara viticola.[402]

  • Astringin

Vitis vinifera red cultivars are rich in anthocyanins that impart their colour to the berries (generally in the skin). The 5 most basic anthocyanins found in grape are:

  • Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside
  • Delphinidin-3-O-glucoside
  • Malvidin-3-O-glucoside
  • Petunidin-3-O-glucoside
  • Peonidin-3-O-glucoside

Cultivars like Graciano[403][404] may also contain :

acetylated anthocyanins
  • Cyanidin-3-(6-acetyl)-glucoside
  • Delphinidin-3-(6-acetyl)-glucoside
  • Malvidin-3-(6-acetyl)-glucoside
  • Petunidin-3-(6-acetyl)-glucoside
  • Peonidin-3-(6-acetyl)-glucoside
coumaroylated anthocyanins
  • Cyanidin-3-(6-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside
  • Delphinidin-3-(6-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside
  • Malvidin-3-(6-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside cis
  • Malvidin-3-(6-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside trans
  • Petunidin-3-(6-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside
  • Peonidin-3-(6-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside
caffeoylated anthocyanins
  • Malvidin-3-(6-p-caffeoyl)-glucoside
  • Peonidin-3-(6-p-caffeoyl)-glucoside

Isoprenoid monoterpenes are present in grape, above all acyclic linalool, geraniol, nerol, citronellol, homotrienol and monocyclic α-terpineol, mostly occurring as glycosides. Carotenoids accumulate in ripening grape berries. Oxidation of carotenoids produces volatile fragments, C13-norisoprenoids. These are strongly odoriferous compounds, such as β-ionone (aroma of viola), damascenone (aroma of exotic fruits), β-damascone (aroma of rose) and β-ionol (aroma of flowers and fruits). Melatonin, an alkaloid, has been identified in grape.[405] In addition, seeds are rich in unsaturated fatty acids, which helps lowering levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in the blood.[400]

Withania somnifera edit

Family Solanaceae.

The main phytochemical constituents in ashwagandha are withanolides – which are triterpene lactones – withaferin A, alkaloids, steroidal lactones, tropine, and cuscohygrine.[406] Some 40 withanolides, 12 alkaloids, and numerous sitoindosides have been isolated.[406] Withanolides are structurally similar to the ginsenosides of Panax ginseng, leading to a common name for W. somnifera, "Indian ginseng".[406]

Wollemia nobilis edit

A NPWS firefighter looks up at one of the ancient Wollemi pines discovered in 1994 he has been sent in to protect. Credit: NPWS firefighter.{{fairuse}}

Wollemia is a genus of coniferous trees in the family Araucariaceae.

"Desperate efforts by firefighters on the ground and in the air have saved the only known natural grove of the world-famous Wollemi pines from destruction during the record-breaking bushfires in NSW."[407]

"The rescue mission involved water-bombing aircraft and large air tankers dropping fire retardant. Helicopters also winched specialist firefighters into the remote gorge to set up an irrigation system to increase the moisture content of the ground fuels to slow the advance of any fire."[407]

"Wollemi National Park is the only place in the world where these trees are found in the wild and, with less than 200 left, we knew we needed to do everything we could to save them."[408]

"Fossil evidence indicates that the trees existed between 200 and 100 million years ago and were once present across the whole of Australia."[409]

Xanthorhiza simplicissima edit

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Berberine is found Xanthorhiza simplicissima (yellowroot).[410]

Zanthoxylum edit

Family Rutaceae.

Historically, Zanthoxylum (Prickly ash) bark was used in traditional medicine.[411]

Species identified in Nigeria contains several types of alkaloids including benzophenanthridines (nitidine, dihydronitidine, oxynitidine, fagaronine, dihydroavicine, chelerythrine, dihydrochelerythrine, methoxychelerythrine, norchelerythrine, oxychelerythrine, decarine and fagaridine), furoquinolines (dictamine, 8-methoxydictamine, skimmianine, 3-dimethylallyl-4-methoxy-2-quinolone), carbazoles (3-methoxycarbazole, glycozoline), aporphines (berberine, tembetarine,[412] magnoflorine, M-methyl-corydine), canthinones (6-canthinone), acridones (1-hydroxy-3-methoxy-10-methylacridon-9-one, 1-hydroxy-10-methylacridon-9-one, zanthozolin), and aromatic and aliphatic amides.[413] Hydroxy-alpha sanshool is a bioactive component of plants from the genus Zanthoxylum, including the Sichuan pepper.

Aporphines edit

Aporphines include berberine and tembetarine found in Prickly ash bark.[412]

Benzophenanthridines edit

Benzophenanthridines incude nitidine, dihydronitidine, oxynitidine, fagaronine, dihydroavicine, chelerythrine, dihydrochelerythrine, methoxychelerythrine, norchelerythrine, oxychelerythrine, decarine and fagaridine found in Prickly ash bark.[412]

Carbazoles edit

Carbazoles include 3-methoxycarbazole and glycozoline found in Prickly ash bark.[412]

Furoquinolines edit

Furoquinolines include dictamine, 8-methoxydictamine, skimmianine, and 3-dimethylallyl-4-methoxy-2-quinolone found in Prickly ash bark.[412]

Zingiber mioga edit

Family: Zingiberaceae.

Zingiber officinale edit

Family: Zingiberaceae.

The characteristic fragrance and flavor of ginger result from volatile essential oil that compose 1-3% of the weight of fresh ginger, primarily consisting of sesquiterpenes, beta-bisabolene and zingiberene, zingerone, shogaols, and gingerols with [6]-gingerol (1-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-decanone) as the major pungent compound.[414][415] Some 400 chemical compounds exist in raw ginger.[414]

Zingerone is produced from gingerols during drying, having lower pungency and a spicy-sweet aroma.[415] Shogaols are more pungent formed from gingerols during heating, storage or via acidity.[414][415] Numerous monoterpenes, amino acids, dietary fiber, protein, phytosterols, vitamins, and dietary minerals are other constituents.[414] Fresh ginger also contains an enzyme zingibain which is a cysteine protease and has similar properties to rennet.

Ginger could decrease body weight in obese subjects and increase HDL-cholesterol.[416]

Zingiber zerumbet edit

Family: Zingiberaceae.

See also edit

References edit

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