Remedy/Plants

Medicinal plants are a primary source of organic compounds, both for their medicinal and physiological effects, and for the industrial organic synthesis of a vast array of organic chemicals.[1] Many hundreds of medicines are derived from plants, both traditional medicines used in herbalism[2][3] and chemical substances purified from plants or first identified in them, sometimes by ethnobotanical search, and then organic synthesis for use in modern medicine such as aspirin, taxol, morphine, quinine, reserpine, colchicine, digitalis and vincristine.

Plants used in herbalism include Ginkgo biloba, echinacea, feverfew, and Saint John's wort.

The pharmacopoeia of Dioscorides, De Materia Medica, describing some 600 medicinal plants, was written between 50 and 70 AD and remained in use in Europe and the Middle East until around 1600 AD; it was the precursor of all modern pharmacopoeias.[4][5][6]

All plants produce chemical compounds which give them an evolutionary advantage, such as defending against herbivores or, in the example of salicylic acid, as a plant hormone in plant defenses.[7][8] These phytochemicals have potential for use as drugs, and the content and known pharmacological activity of these substances in medicinal plants is the scientific basis for their use in modern medicine, if scientifically confirmed.[9] For instance, daffodils (Narcissus) contain nine groups of alkaloids including galantamine, licensed for use against Alzheimer's disease. The alkaloids are bitter-tasting and toxic, and concentrated in the parts of the plant such as the stem most likely to be eaten by herbivores; they may also protect against parasites.[10][11][12]

FamiliesEdit

  1. Adoxaceae
  2. Apiaceae
  3. Araliaceae
  4. Araucariaceae
  5. Asphodelaceae
  6. Asteraceae
  7. Berberidaceae
  8. Bixaceae
  9. Boraginaceae
  10. Brassicaceae
  11. Burseraceae
  12. Cactaceae
  13. Caprifoliaceae
  14. Cucurbitaceae
  15. Equisetaceae
  16. Ericaceae
  17. Fabaceae
  18. Ginkgoaceae
  19. Lamiaceae
  20. Lauraceae
  21. Lycopodiaceae
  22. Lythraceae
  23. Magnoliaceae
  24. Malvaceae
  25. Melanthiaceae
  26. Menispermaceae
  27. Moraceae
  28. Myristicaceae
  29. Myrtaceae
  30. Olacaceae
  31. Oleaceae
  32. Papaveraceae
  33. Plantaginaceae
  34. Poaceae
  35. Ranunculaceae
  36. Rosaceae
  37. Rubiaceae
  38. Rutaceae
  39. Simaroubaceae
  40. Solanaceae
  41. Taxaceae
  42. Theaceae
  43. Zingiberaceae
  44. Zygophyllaceae

Acacia farnesianaEdit

Adonis vernalisEdit

 
Flowers of Adonis vernalis are shown. Credit: Martin Bahmann.{{free media}}

Family: Ranunculaceae

The plant is poisonous, containing cardiostimulant compounds, such as adonidin and aconitic acid.[13] In addition, it is often used as an ornamental plant.[14] Infusions of the plant are used in the medicine Bekhterev's mixture.[15]

Due to the cardiac-enhancing effects of Adonis species (including Adonis vernalis), this plant has a history of use in European and Chinese folk medicine.[16] This plant has been utilized for many different issues and health problems. The local people of the Soviet Union at one point used it to treat edema or swelling in the body, and an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant were prepared as an alternative cardiac agent.[16] In 1879, a Russian medical doctor, N. O. Buhnow, first introduced into medicine alcoholic extracts of the plant as a cardiac stimulant.[17] In 1898, a mixture of the plant extracts with sodium bromide or codeine was suggested (by Vladimir Bekherev) to treat heart diseases, panic disorder, dystonia and mild forms of epilepsy.[17] Aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of the plant have been traditionally used in Siberia against edema, cardiac edema and several other issues that are heart related, kidney diseases, and even malaria.[17] The biological activity of this extract was defined as 50–66 frog units (amount or liquid of substance that causes the arrest of the heart of a frog) and 6.3–8.0 cat units (amount or liquid of substance that causes the arrest of the heart of a cat) and large enough doses can be toxic.[17]

There are many phytochemicals that come from the plant Adonis vernalis and these include cardiac glycosides, other glycosides, and flavones. The compounds that are cardiac glycosides include Cymarin, Adonitoxin, 16-Hydroxy-strophanthidin, Acetyladonitoxin, Vernadigin, 3-Acetylstrophagogenin, Substance N, Strophanthidine fucoside, 3-Epi-periplogenin, 17β-(2’,5’-dihydro-5’-oxo-3’-furyl)-5β-14β-androstane-3α,5β,14β-triol, Adonitoxigenin 2-O-acetylrhamnosidoxyloside, Adonitoxigenin 3-O-acetylrhamnosidoxyloside, Adonitoxigenin rhamnosidoxyloside, Adonitoxigenin 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, Adonitoxigenin 3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-(3’-O-acetyl)-rhamnopyranoside, Adonitoxigenin-3-[O-α-L-(2’-O-acetyl) rhamnosido-β-D-glucoside, Digitoxigenin. Other glycosides include Adonilide, Fukujusonorone, Fukujusone, 12-O-Nicotinoylisolineolon (Lineolon), 12-O-Benzoylisolineolon, Nicotinoylisoramanone, and Isoramanone (digipurprogenin-II). Flavones include Adonivernith (luteolin-8-hexityl monoxyloside), Homoadonivernith, Orientin, Homoorientin, Isoorientin, Luteolin, and Vitexin.[16]

The plant contains cardiac glycosides, and these improve the heart's efficiency by increasing its output at the same time as slowing down its rate.[18] These glycosides also have a sedative effect and is often prescribed to patients whose hearts are beating irregularly or at an increased rate.[19] Tinctures of Adonis vernalis are also used by homeopathic physicians in patients that are suffering from congestive cardiac failure and its action is very similar to digitalis (another drug that stimulates the heart muscle).[20] Aqueous extracts of Adonis vernalis were found to have cardiac stimulant effects on isolated heart preparations and it also showed that production of excessive and high potassium concentrations protects against heart failure.[21] Not only are cardiac glycosides derived from this plant but there are also some well-known flavones that were identified with pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, neuro and cardioprotective, and anti-allergic properties.[16]

Achillea millefoliumEdit

Aloe arborescensEdit

 
Jade plants and Krantz aloes in Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens, Cape Town. Credit: Andrew massyn.{{free media}}

Family: Asphodelaceae.

"Antidiabetic effects of dietary administration of Aloe arborescens Miller components on multiple lowdose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice."[22]

Aloe veraEdit

 
Aloe vera has a flower inset image. Credit: w:user:MidgleyDJ.{{free media}}

Family: Asphodelaceae.

Aloe vera leaves contain phytochemicals under study for possible bioactivity, such as acetylated mannans, polymannans, anthraquinone C-glycosides, anthrones, and other anthraquinones, such as emodin and various lectins.[23][24]

For people with allergies to Aloe vera, skin reactions may include contact dermatitis with hives, mild redness and itching, difficulty with breathing, or swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat.[25][26][27]

"Aloe vera could serve as a natural antihistamine herb. The antihistamine properties of aloe could be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of glycoprotein alprogen which has been demonstrated to antigen-antibody-mediated release of histamine and leukotriene from mast cells (45)."[28]

"Aloe vera contains alprogen as one of the active compound that works by inhibition the absorption of glucose in the digestive tract so that it can reduce blood glucose levels."[29]

Active components present in Aloe vera with properties[22]
Name of the Active component Active components present in Aloe Vera with properties
Vitamins Vitamin A (beta-carotene), C and E, - antioxidants. It also contains vitamin B1, B2, B6 & B12, folic acid, and choline.
  • Antioxidants protect the body by neutralizing free radicals.
Enzymes Aliiase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, oxidase, bradykinase, carboxypeptidase, catalase, cellulase, lipase, cylooxygenase, and peroxidase.
  • Bradykinase helps to reduce excessive inflammation when applied to the skin topically, while the other enzymes help in the breakdown of sugars, proteins and fats.
Minerals Calcium, chromium, copper, selenium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc. *Some of the minerals are essential for the proper functioning of various enzyme systems in different metabolic pathways and few acts as antioxidants.
Sugars Monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and polysaccharides (glucomannans/polymannose). * The most prominent monosaccharide is mannose-6-phosphate, and the most common polysaccharides are called glucomannans [beta-(1,4)-acetylated mannan].
  • Acemannan, a prominent glucomannan has also been found. Recently, a glycoprotein with anti allergic properties, called alprogen and novel anti-inflammatory compound, C-glucosyl chromone, has been isolated from Aloe vera gel15,16.
Organic acids Sorbate, salicylic acid, uric acid
  • salicylic acid possesses anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties.
Anthraquinones Aloin, barbaloin, isobarbaloin, anthranol, aloetic acid, aloe-emodin, ester of cinnamic acid, resistannol, chrysophannic acid and emodin,
  • Acts as laxatives.
  • Aloin and emodin act as analgesics, antibacterials and antivirals.
Fatty acids and Steroids Cholesterol, campesterol, β-sisosterol and lupeol.

Fattyacids like Arachidonic acid, γ-linolenic acid.

  • All these have anti-inflammatory action and lupeol also possesses antiseptic and analgesic properties.
Non-essential aminoacids Histidine, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, tyrosine, alanine and hydroxyl proline.
Essential aminoacids Methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, threonine and lysine.
Hormones Auxins and gibberellins
  • that help in wound healing and have anti-inflammatory action.
Others * Lignin, an inert substance, when included in topical preparations, enhances penetrative effect of the other ingredients into the skin.
  • Saponins that are the soapy substances form about 3% of the gel and have cleansing and antiseptic properties.

"Alprogen, an anti-allergic compound of Aloe vera inhibits calcium influx into mast cells, thereby inhibiting the antigen-antibody-mediated release of various mediators like histamine, serotonin, SRSA, leukotrienes etc from mast cells22."[22]

Ambrosia acanthicarpaEdit

Ambrosia ambrosioidesEdit

Ambrosia arborescensEdit

Ambrosia artemisiifoliaEdit

Ambrosia confertifloraEdit

Ambrosia cordifoliaEdit

Ambrosia deltoideaEdit

Ambrosia dumosaEdit

Ambrosia eriocentraEdit

Ambrosia ilicifoliaEdit

Ambrosia monogyraEdit

Ambrosia psilostachyaEdit

Ambrosia salsolaEdit

Ambrosia trifidaEdit

Arctostaphylos uva-ursiEdit

 
Common bearberry, Kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) - fruits and leaves, photo was taken in the Selkirk Mountains of northern Idaho. Credit: Jesse Taylor.{{free media}}

Family:Ericaceae.

The plant contains diverse phytochemicals, including ursolic acid, tannic acid, gallic acid, some essential oils and resin, hydroquinones (mainly arbutin, up to 17%), tannins (up to 15%), phenolic glycosides and flavonoids.[30] Arctostaphylos uva-ursi leaves contain arbutin,[31][32] which metabolizes to form hydroquinone, a potential [hepatotoxic (liver toxin).[32][33]

Argemone mexicanaEdit

 
Flower of Mexican Poppy (Argemone mexicana) is featured, an introduced weed on Réunion island. Credit: B.navez.{{free media}}
 
Diagram illustrates the structure of protopine. Credit: WH23{{free media}}.

Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy,[34] Mexican prickly poppy, flowering thistle,[35]) is of the family Papaveraceae.

Berberine is a found in Argemone mexicana (prickly poppy).

Argemone mexicana seeds contain 22–36% of a pale yellow non-edible oil, called argemone oil or katkar oil, which contains the toxic alkaloids sanguinarine and dihydrosanguinarine.

Four quaternary isoquinoline alkaloids, dehydrocorydalmine, jatrorrhizine, columbamine, and oxyberberine, have been isolated from the whole plant of Argemone mexicana.[36] Many other alkaloids such as argemexicaines A and B, coptisine, cryptopine, allocryptopine and chelerythrine have also been found in this plant.[37]

The seed pods secrete a pale yellow latex when cut open. This argemone resin contains berberine and protopine.

Armoracia rusticanaEdit

 
Armoracia rusticana is in the Botanic Garden, Utrecht, Netherlands. Credit: Pethan.{{free media}}
 
Allyl isothiocyanate is the pungent ingredient in fresh horseradish sauce. Credit: Benjah-bmm27.{{free media}}

Family: Brassicaceae.

The family Brassicaceae includes mustard, wasabi, broccoli, cabbage, and radish.

The leaves of the plant are edible, either cooked or raw when young.[38]

Allyl isothiocyanate is an unstable compound, degrading over the course of days at 37 °C (99 °F).[39]


Horseradish contains volatile oils, notably mustard oil.[40]

Arnica cordifoliaEdit

Arnica montanaEdit

Astragalus membranaceusEdit

Bacopa monnieriEdit

Family Plantaginaceae.

Bacopa monnieri is used in Ayurveda (Ayurvedic traditional medicine) to improve memory and to treat various ailments.[41] Reviews of preliminary research found that Bacopa monnieri may nootropic (improve cognition),[41][42] although the effect was measurable only after several weeks of use.[43]

In 2019, the FDA issued warning letters to manufacturers of dietary supplements containing Bacopa monnieri that advertised health claims for treating or preventing stomach disease, Alzheimer's disease, hypoglycemia, blood pressure, and anxiety were unproven and illegal. The FDA stated that Bacopa monnieri products have not been approved for these or any medical purposes.[44][45][46]

The most commonly reported adverse effects of Bacopa monnieri in humans are nausea, increased intestinal motility, and gastrointestinal upset.[41]

The best characterized phytochemicals in Bacopa monnieri are dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins known as bacosides, with jujubogenin or pseudo-jujubogenin moieties as aglycone units.[47] Bacosides comprise a family of 12 known analogs.[48] Other saponins called bacopasides I–XII were identified.[49] The alkaloids brahmine, nicotine, and herpestine have been catalogued, along with D-mannitol, apigenin, hersaponin, monnierasides I–III, cucurbitacin and plantainoside B.[50][51][52]

Berberis aristataEdit

 
Chemical structure of berberine, an alkaloid found in B. aristata, is illustrated. Credit: NEUROtiker.{{free media}}

Family Berberidaceae.

Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids found in Berberis aristata (tree turmeric).[53]

The root bark contains the bitter alkaloid berberine, which has been studied for its potential pharmacological properties.[54]

Berberis vulgarisEdit

 
Berberis vulgaris (European barberry)/(Jaundice berry)/(Ambarbaris)/(Barberry) is a shrub in the family Berberidaceae, native to central and southern Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia. Fruit are shown. Credit: Arnstein Rønning.{{free media}}

The dried fruit of Berberis vulgaris (barberry) is used in herbal medicine.[55] The chemical constituents include isoquinolone alkaloids, especially berberine, with a full list of phytochemicals compiled.[56]

Bixa orellanaEdit

 
Bixin is the major apocarotenoid of annatto. Credit: Edgar181.{{free media}}
 
Achiote flower and buds are shown in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Credit: Denis Conrado.{{free media}}

Family: Bixaceae.

Bixin is the major apocarotenoid of annatto[57]

The yellow to orange color is produced by the chemical compounds bixin (orange) and norbixin (yellow), which are classified as carotenoids, where the fat-soluble color in the crude extract is called bixin, which can then be saponified into water-soluble norbixin, with the dual solubility property of annatto being rare for carotenoids.[58] The seeds contain 4.5–5.5% pigment, which consists of 70–80% bixin.[57] Unlike beta-carotene, another well-known carotenoid, annatto-based pigments are not vitamin A precursors.[59]

Annatto oil is also rich in tocotrienols, beta-carotene, essential oils, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, flavonoids, and vitamin C.[60]

Bixa orellana is used in traditional medicine.[61][62] The tree has been used in Ayurveda, the folk medicine practices of India, where different parts of the plant are thought to be useful as therapy.[63]

Boswellia sacraEdit

 
Monoterpenes found in the essential oil of Boswellia sacra resin. Credit: Ahmed Al-Harrasi and Salim Al-Saidi.{{fairuse}}
 
Boswellia sacra is shown at Florida International University campus, Miami, Florida, USA. Credit: Scott Zona from USA.{{Free media}}
 
Sesquiterpenes found in the essential oil of the Boswellia sacra resin. Credit: Ahmed Al-Harrasi and Salim Al-Saidi.{{fairuse}}

Boswellia sacra (commonly known as frankincense or olibanum-tree)[64] is a tree in the Burseraceae family, the primary tree in the genus Boswellia from which frankincense, a resinous dried sap, is harvested and is native to the Arabian Peninsula (Oman, Yemen), and horn of Africa (Somalia).[64]

"The [essential] oil of [Boswellia sacra] contains a high proportion of monoterpenes (97.3%) in which E-β-ocimene and limonene were the major constituents. The remaining 2.7% was accounted for by sesquiterpenes, in which E-caryophyllene was the major constituent."[65]

"The monoterpenes were identified as 2-β-pinene (0.1%), α-thujene (6.6%), E-β-ocimene (32.3%), 2,4(10)-thujadiene (0.2%), camphene (0.6%), sabinene (5.2%), 1-β-pinene (1.8%), myrcene (6.9%), α- pinene (5.3%), 2-carene (0.8%), limonene (33.5%), Z-β-ocimene (0.2%), γ-terpinene (1.0%), terpinolene (0.4%), p-cymene (0.2%), 1,4-cyclohexadiene (0.1%), perillene (0.1%), isopentyl-2- methyl butanoate (0.1%), isomyl valerate (0.1%), 1,3,6-trimethylenecycloheptane (0.1%), β-thujone (0.1%), α-campholene aldehyde (0.2%), allo-ocimene (0.1%), trans-pinocarveol (0.1%), p-mentha- 1,5-dien-8-ol (0.2 %), 4-terpineol (0.2%), sabinyl acetate (0.1%), myrtenal (0.1%), α-terpineol (0.1%), α-phellandrene epoxide (0.1%), verbenone (0.1%), trans-(+)-carveol (0.1%), carvone (0.1%) and 1- bornyl acetate (0.1%)."[65] See the image on the right.

"The sesquiterpenes were identified to be α-cubebene (0.1%), α-copaene (0.3%), β-bourbonene (0.1%), β-elemene (0.3%), α-gurjunene (0.1%), E-caryophyllene (0.9%), α-humulene (0.2%), allo-aromadendrene (0.0.1%), α-amorphene (0.1%), germacrene D (0.1%), β-selinene (0.1%), α-selinene (0.1%), α-muurolene (0.1%), γ-cadinene (0.1%), caryophyllene oxide (0.01%) and γ-muurolene (0.1%)."[65] See the image on the left.

Boswellia serrataEdit

Boswellia serrata is a plant that produces Indian frankincense, also known as Indian oli-banum, Salai guggul, and Sallaki in Sanskrit.[66] The plant is native to much of India and the Punjab region that extends into Pakistan.[67]

Boswellia serrata contains various derivatives of boswellic acid including β-boswellic acid, acetyl-β-boswellic acid, 11-keto-β-boswellic acid and acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid [AKBA].[68]

Extracts of Boswellia serrata have been clinically studied for osteoarthritis and joint function, with the research showing trends of benefit (slight improvement) in pain and function.[69] It has been used in Indian traditional medicine for diabetes.[70]

Calendula officinalisEdit

Camellia reticulataEdit

 
Camellia reticulata is shown in a hand-coloured engraving after a drawing by Alfred Chandler (1804-1896). Credit: BernardM.{{free media}}

Camellia reticulata has a long history of cultivation, both for tea oil and for its ornamental value.[71]

Camellia sasanquaEdit

 
Camellia sasanqua is used as a garden plant, its leaves are used for tea, and its seeds for oil. Credit: junichiro aoyama from Kyoto, Japan.{{Free media}}

The leaves are used to make tea while the seeds or nuts are used to make tea seed oil,[72] which is used for lighting, lubrication, cooking and cosmetic purposes.

Camellia sinensisEdit

 
Tea plant is shown in a tea plantation. Credit: Sebastianjude.{{Free media}}

Family Theaceae.

Polyphenols found in green tea include epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate, epicatechins and flavanols,[73] which are under laboratory research for their potential effects in vivo.[74] Other components include three kinds of flavonoids, known as kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin.[75] Although the mean content of flavonoids and catechins in a cup of green tea is higher than that in the same volume of other food and drink items that are traditionally considered to promote health,[76] flavonoids and catechins have no proven biological effect in humans.[77][78]

Green tea leaves are initially processed by soaking in an alcohol solution, which may be further concentrated to various levels; byproducts of the process are also packaged and used. Extracts are sold over the counter in liquid, powder, capsule, and tablet forms,[74][79] and may contain up to 17.4% of their total weight in caffeine,[80] though decaffeinated versions are also available.[81]

Numerous claims have been made for the health benefits of green tea, but human clinical research has not found good evidence of benefit.[82][77][83] In 2011, a panel of scientists published a report on the claims for health effects at the request of the European Commission: in general they found that the claims made for green tea were not supported by sufficient scientific evidence.[77] Although green tea may enhance mental alertness due to its caffeine content, there is only weak, inconclusive evidence that regular consumption of green tea affects the risk of cancer or cardiovascular diseases, and there is no evidence that it benefits weight loss.[82]

A 2020 review by the Cochrane Collaboration listed some potential adverse effects including gastrointestinal disorders, higher levels of liver enzymes, and, more rarely, insomnia, raised blood pressure, and skin reactions.[84]

Research has shown there is no good evidence that green tea helps to prevent or treat cancer in people.[84]

The link between green tea consumption and the risk of certain cancers such as stomach cancer and non-melanoma skin cancers is unclear due to inconsistent or inadequate evidence.[85][86]

Green tea interferes with the chemotherapy drug bortezomib (Velcade) and other boronic acid-based proteasome inhibitors, and should be avoided by people taking these medications.[87]

Observational studies found a minor correlation between daily consumption of green tea and a 5% lower risk of death from cardiovascular disease. In a 2015 meta-analysis of such observational studies, an increase in one cup of green tea per day was correlated with slightly lower risk of death from cardiovascular causes.[88] Green tea consumption may be correlated with a reduced risk of stroke.[89][90] Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials found that green tea consumption for 3–6 months may produce small reductions (about 2–3 mm Hg each) in systolic and diastolic blood pressures.[90][91][92][93] A separate systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials found that consumption of 5-6 cups of green tea per day was associated with a small reduction in systolic blood pressure (2 mmHg), but did not lead to a significant difference in diastolic blood pressure.[94]

Green tea consumption lowers fasting glucose (fasting blood sugar) but in clinical studies the beverage's effect on hemoglobin A1c and fasting insulin levels was inconsistent.[95][96][97]

Drinking green tea or taking green tea supplements decreases the blood concentration of total cholesterol (about 3–7 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol) (about 2 mg/dL), and does not affect the concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol) or triglycerides.[94][95][98] A 2013 Cochrane meta-analysis of longer-term randomized controlled trials (>3 months duration) concluded that green tea consumption lowers total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in the blood.[95]

A 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials found that green tea consumption was not significantly associated with lower plasma levels of C-reactive protein levels (a marker of inflammation).[99]

There is no good evidence that green tea aids in weight loss or weight maintenance.[82][100]

Excessive consumption of green tea extract has been associated with hepatotoxicity and liver failure.[101][102][103] In 2018, a scientific panel for the European Food Safety Authority reviewed the safety of green tea consumption over a low-moderate range of daily EGCG intake from 90 to 300 mg per day, and with exposure from high green tea consumption estimated to supply up to 866 mg EGCG per day.[104] Dietary supplements containing EGCG may supply up to 1000 mg EGCG and other catechins per day.[104] The panel concluded that EGCG and other catechins from green tea in low-moderate daily amounts are generally regarded as safe, but in some cases of excessive consumption of green tea or use of high-EGCG supplements, liver toxicity may occur.[104]

Cassia abbreviataEdit

Cassia javanicaEdit

Chamaemelum nobileEdit

Cichorium intybusEdit

Cinnamomum burmanniiEdit

Family Lauraceae.

Cinnamomum burmannii is Korintje, Padang cassia, or Indonesian cinnamon.

Cinnamomum cassiaEdit

Cassia or Chinese cinnamon is the most common commercial type in the USA.

Cinnamon, spice, ground
Energy 1,035 kJ (247 kcal)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Carbohydrates 80.6
Sugars 2.2
Dietary fiber 53.1
Fat 1.2
Protein 4
Vitamins Quantity % Daily value (DV)*
Vitamin A equivalent 15 µg 2
Thiamine (B1) 0.02 mg 2
Riboflavin (B2) 0.04 mg 3
Niacin (B3) 1.33 mg 9
Pyridoxine B6 0.16 mg 12
Folate B9 6 µg 2
Vitamin C 3.8 mg 5
Vitamin E 2.3 mg 15
Vitamin K 31.2 µg 30
Minerals Quantity % DV*
Calcium 1002 mg 100
Iron 8.3 mg 64
Magnesium 60 mg 17
Phosphorus 64 mg 9
Potassium 431 mg 9
Sodium 10 mg 1
Zinc 1.8 mg 19
Other constituents Quantity
Water 10.6 gm
  • note: Source: USDA Database[105]

Ground cinnamon is composed of around 11% water, 81% carbohydrates (including 53% dietary fiber), 4% protein, and 1% fat.[105] In a 100 gram reference amount, ground cinnamon is a rich source of calcium (100% of the Daily Value (DV)), iron (64% DV), and vitamin K (30% DV).

Cinnamomum citriodorumEdit

Cinnamomum citriodorum is Malabar cinnamon.

Cinnamomum loureiroiEdit

Cinnamomum loureiroi is Saigon cinnamon, Vietnamese cassia, or Vietnamese cinnamon.

Cinnamomum verumEdit

 
Dried bark strips, bark powder and flowers of the small tree Cinnamomum verum are shown. Credit: Simon A. Eugster.{{free media}}

Cinnamomum verum is Sri Lanka cinnamon, Ceylon cinnamon or Cinnamomum zeylanicum.

Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum, used mainly as an aromatic condiment and flavouring additive in a wide variety of cuisines, sweet and savoury dishes, breakfast cereals, snackfoods, tea and traditional foods, derived from its essential oil and principal component, cinnamaldehyde, as well as numerous other constituents including eugenol.

Citrus maximaEdit

The orange is the fruit of various Citrus species in the family Rutaceae; it primarily refers to Citrus × sinensis,[106] which is also called sweet orange, to distinguish it from the related Citrus × aurantium, referred to as bitter orange. The sweet orange reproduces asexually (apomixis through nucellar embryony); varieties of sweet orange arise through mutations.[107][108][109][110]

The orange is a hybrid between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata).[107][111] The chloroplast genome, and therefore the maternal line, is that of pomelo.[112] The sweet orange has had its full genome sequenced.[107]

Oranges contain diverse phytochemicals, including carotenoids (beta-carotene, lutein and beta-cryptoxanthin), flavonoids (e.g. naringenin)[113] and numerous volatile organic compounds producing orange aroma, including aldehydes, esters, terpenes, alcohols, and ketones.[114]

Although not as juicy or tasty as the flesh, orange peel is edible and has significant contents of vitamin C, dietary fiber, total polyphenols, carotenoids, limonene and dietary minerals, such as potassium and magnesium.[115]

Citrus reticulataEdit

Coffea arabicaEdit

Coffea canephoraEdit

Coffea libericaEdit

Coffea racemosaEdit

Commiphora myrrhaEdit

 
Small lumps are myrrh resin. Credit: Sjschen.{{free media}}

Family Burseraceae.

Myrrh is a natural gum-resin extracted from a number of small, thorny tree species of the genus Commiphora.[116] Myrrh resin has been used throughout history as a perfume, incense and medicine. Myrrh mixed with posca or wine was common across ancient cultures, for general pleasure, and as an analgesic.[117]

Myrrh is used as an antiseptic in mouthwashes, gargles, and toothpastes.[118] It is also used in some liniments and healing salves that may be applied to abrasions and other minor skin ailments. Myrrh has been used as an analgesic for toothaches and can be used in liniment for bruises, aches, and sprains.[119]

Myrrh gum is commonly claimed to remedy indigestion, ulcers, colds, cough, asthma, lung congestion, arthritis pain, and cancer.[120]

Myrrh is said to have special efficacy on the heart, liver, and spleen meridians as well as "blood-moving" powers to purge stagnant blood from the uterus, recommended for rheumatic, arthritic, and circulatory problems, and for amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menopause and uterine tumours, uses similar to those of frankincense, with which it is often combined in decoctions, liniments, and incense, used in concert, myrrh is "blood-moving" while frankincense is thought to move the qi, making it used for arthritic conditions, or combined with such herbs as notoginseng, safflower petals, angelica sinensis, cinnamon, and salvia miltiorrhiza, usually in alcohol, and used both internally and externally.[121]

Commiphora wightiiEdit

Guggul (Commiphora wightii) is considered one of the best substances for the treatment of circulatory problems, nervous system disorders, and rheumatic complaints.[122][123]

Coptis chinensisEdit

Family Ranunculaceae.

Berberine is found in Coptis chinensis (Chinese goldthread).

The rhizomes of Coptis chinensis contain the isoquinoline alkaloids berberine,[124] palmatine, and coptisine among others.

Curcuma longaEdit

 
Curcumin keto form is diagrammed. Credit: Ronhjones.{{free media}}
 
Curcumin enol form is diagrammed. Credit: Ronhjones.{{free media}}

Family Zingiberaceae.

Turmeric powder is about 60–70% carbohydrates, 6–13% water, 6–8% protein, 5–10% fat, 3–7% dietary minerals, 3–7% essential oils, 2–7% dietary fiber, and 1–6% curcuminoids.[125]

Phytochemical components of turmeric include diarylheptanoids, a class including numerous curcuminoids, such as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin.[125][126] Curcumin constitutes up to 3.14% of assayed commercial samples of turmeric powder (the average was 1.51%); curry powder contains much less (an average of 0.29%).[127] Some 34 essential oils are present in turmeric, among which turmerone, germacrone, atlantone, and zingiberene are major constituents.[128][129][130]

Turmeric and curcumin have been studied in numerous clinical trials for various human diseases and conditions, with no high-quality evidence of any anti-disease effect or health benefit.[125][131][132][133] There is no scientific evidence that curcumin reduces inflammation.[125][131][134] There is weak evidence that turmeric extracts may be beneficial for relieving symptoms of knee osteoarthritis.[135]

Cynara cardunculusEdit

Equisetum telmateiaEdit

 
Equisetum telmateia (Equisetopsida) is shown at Cambridge Botanic Garden. Credit: Rror{{free media}}

Family Equisetaceae.

Equisetum telmateia, the great horsetail or northern giant horsetail, is a species with an unusual distribution, with one subspecies endemic to Europe, western Asia and northwest Africa, and a second subspecies native to western North America.[136][137]

Eschscholzia californicaEdit

Family Papaveraceae.

Berberine is found in Eschscholzia californica (Californian poppy).

Californidine is a chemical compound found in Eschscholzia californica.

Eurycoma longifoliaEdit

Family Simaroubaceae.

Among standardization markers that have been used for E. longifolia are eurycomanone, total protein, total polysaccharide and glycosaponin, which have been recommended in a technical guideline developed by the Scientific and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM).[138]

Eurycoma longifolia has been reported to contain the glycoprotein compounds eurycomanol, eurycomanone, and eurycomalactone.[139]

Foeniculum vulgareEdit

 
Since the seed in the fruit is attached to the pericarp, the whole fruit is often mistakenly called "seed". Credit: Howcheng{{free media}}

Family Apiaceae.

Fennel is widely cultivated, both in its native range and elsewhere, for its edible, strongly flavored leaves and fruits. Its aniseed or liquorice flavor[140] comes from anethole, an aromatic compound also found in anise and star anise, and its taste and aroma are similar to theirs, though usually not as strong.[141]

The aromatic character of fennel fruits derives from essential oil (volatile oils) imparting mixed aromas, including trans-anethole and estragole (resembling liquorice), fenchone (mint and camphor), limonene,[142] 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom).[143] Other phytochemicals found in fennel fruits include polyphenols, such as rosmarinic acid and luteolin, among others in minor content.[144]

Ginko bilobaEdit

Family Ginkgoaceae.

"According to some sources, the medicinal use of ginkgo dates back to 2800 B.C.… However, the first undisputed written records of ginkgo come much later… Ginkgo first appears in copies of the Shen Nung pharmacopeia around the eleventh and twelfth centuries."[145]

Ginkgo has been used in traditional Chinese medicine since at least the 11th century C.E.[145] Ginkgo seeds, leaves, and nuts have traditionally been used to treat various ailments, such as dementia, asthma, bronchitis, and kidney and bladder disorders. However, there is no conclusive evidence that ginkgo is useful for any of these conditions.[146][147][148]

The European Medicines Agency Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products concluded that medicines containing ginkgo leaf can be used for treating mild age-related dementia and mild peripheral vascular disease in adults after serious conditions have been excluded by a physician.[149]

Glycyrrhiza glabraEdit

Griffonia simplicifoliaEdit

Hedychium coronariumEdit

 
White ginger is the Asian spice galangal. Credit: Bùi Thụy Đào Nguyên.{{free media}}

Family: Zingiberaceae.

In China it is cultivated for use in medicine and production of aromatic oil, due to the strong characteristic fragrance of the flowers, said to be reminiscent of jasmine.[150][151]

Hibiscus acetosellaEdit

Family Malvaceae.

In Angola a tea made from the leaves of cranberry hibiscus are used as a post-fever tonic and to treat anemia.[152] The plant is also utilized to treat myalgias by crushing leaves into cold water to bathe children.[152] The plant is thought to contain polyphenols, a compound that may combat inflammation and is commonly used to treat inflammatory diseases.[153]

Hibiscus cannabinusEdit

Kenaf seeds yield an edible vegetable oil. The kenaf seed oil is also used for cosmetics, industrial lubricants and for biofuel production. Kenaf oil is high in omega polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Kenaf seed oil contains a high percentage of linoleic acid (Omega-6) a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Linoleic acid (C18:2) is the dominant PUFA, followed by oleic acid (C18:1). Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3) is present in 2 to 4 percent.

Kenaf seed oil is 20.4% of the total seed weight, similar to that of cotton seed.

Kenaf Edible Seed Oil Contains:

  • Palmitic acid: 19.1%
  • Oleic acid: 28.0% (Omega-9)
  • Linoleic acid: 45% (Omega-6)
  • Stearic acid: 3.0%
  • Alpha-linolenic acid: 3% (Omega-3)

Hibiscus sabdariffaEdit

The Hibiscus leaves are a good source of polyphenolic compounds. The major identified compounds include neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, caffeoylshikimic acid and flavonoid compounds such as quercetin, kaempferol and their derivatives.[154] The flowers are rich in anthocyanins, as well as protocatechuic acid. The dried calyces contain the flavonoids gossypetin, hibiscetine and sabdaretine. The major pigment is not daphniphylline.[155] Small amounts of myrtillin (delphinidin 3-monoglucoside), chrysanthenin (cyanidin 3-monoglucoside), and delphinidin are present. Roselle seeds are a good source of lipid-soluble antioxidants, particularly gamma-tocopherol.[156]

Hibiscus tiliaceusEdit

Cyanidin-3-glucoside is the major anthocyanin found in flowers of H. tiliaceus.[157] Leaves of H. tiliaceus displayed strong free radical scavenging activity and the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity among 39 tropical plant species in Okinawa.[158] With greater UV radiation in coastal areas, it is possible that leaves and flowers of natural coastal populations of H. tiliaceus have stronger antioxidant properties than planted inland populations.[159]

Hibiscus syriacusEdit

Hibiscus[160][161] is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae.

The generic name is derived from the Greek name ἰβίσκος (ibískos) which Pedanius Dioscorides gave to Althaea officinalis (ca 40–90 AD).[162][163]

Several species are widely cultivated as ornamental plants, notably Hibiscus syriacus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.[164]

Hippomane mancinellaEdit

 
Fruit and foliage are poisonous and shown. Credit: Hans Hillewaert.{{free media}}

Family: Euphorbiaceae

The tree contains 12-deoxy-5-hydroxyphorbol-6-gamma-7-alpha-oxide, hippomanins, mancinellin, and sapogenin, phloracetophenone-2,4-dimethylether is present in the leaves, while the fruits possess physostigmine.[165]

A gum can be produced from the bark which reportedly treats edema, while the dried fruits have been used as a diuretic.[166]

Huperzia serrataEdit

Family Lycopodiaceae.

Huperzine A is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alkaloid compound found in the firmoss Huperzia serrata[167] and in varying quantities in other food Huperzia species, including H. elmeri, H. carinat, and H. aqualupian.[168] Huperzine A has been investigated as a treatment for neurological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, but a meta-analysis of those studies concluded that they were of poor methodological quality and the findings should be interpreted with caution.[169][170]

Huperzine A is extracted from Huperzia serrata.[167] "Huperzine A (HupA), a novel alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herb Huperzia serrata, is a potent, highly specific and reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)."[171] It is a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor[171][172][173][174] and NMDA receptor antagonist[175] that crosses the blood-brain barrier.[176] Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. The structure of the complex of huperzine A with acetylcholinesterase has been determined by X-ray crystallography (PDB code: 1VOT; see the 3D structure).[177]

For some years, huperzine A has been investigated as a possible treatment for diseases characterized by neurodegeneration, particularly Alzheimer's disease.[167][178] A 2013 meta-analysis found that huperzine A may be efficacious in improving cognitive function, global clinical status, and activities of daily living for individuals with Alzheimer's disease. However, due to the poor size and quality of the clinical trials reviewed, huperzine A should not be recommended as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease unless further high quality studies confirm its beneficial effects.[169]

Huperzine A is also marketed as a dietary supplement with claims made for its ability to improve memory and mental function.[179]

Huperzine A has also been noted to help induce lucid dreaming.[180]

Hydrastis canadensisEdit

Family: Ranunculaceae

Berberine is found in Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal).[181]

Hypericum perforatumEdit

 
St. John's Wort flowers are shown. Credit: Fir0002.{{free media}}

Family: Hypericaceae

Many members of this family contain the naphthodianthrone derivatives hypericin and pseudohypericin contained in glandular tissues that appear as black, orange or translucent spots or lines on petals, leaves and other parts of the plant, that are photosensitive and can cause reactions in grazing animals, such as blistering of the snout (muzzle), as well as in people who come into contact with the plants over prolonged periods.[182] The highest concentration of these substances occurs in Hypericum perforatum (common St. John's wort), which is used in herbalism and as a traditional medicine (folk remedy).[183]

The plant contains the following:[184][185]

  • Flavonoids (e.g. epigallocatechin, rutin, hyperoside, isoquercetin, quercitrin, quercetin, amentoflavone, biapigenin, astilbin, myricetin, miquelianin, kaempferol, luteolin)
  • Phenolic acids (e.g. chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid)
  • Naphthodianthrones (e.g. hypericin, pseudohypericin, protohypericin, protopseudohypericin)
  • Phloroglucinols (e.g. hyperforin, adhyperforin)
  • Tannins (unspecified, proanthocyanidins reported)
  • Volatile oils (e.g. 2-methyloctane, nonane, 2-methyldecane, undecane, α-pinene, β-pinene, α-terpineol, geraniol, myrcene, limonene, caryophyllene, humulene)
  • Saturated fatty acids (e.g. isovaleric acid (3-methylbutanoic acid), myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid)
  • Alkanols (e.g. 1-tetracosanol, 1-hexacosanol)
  • Vitamins & their analogues (e.g. carotenoids, choline, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid)
  • Miscellaneous others (e.g. pectin, β-sitosterol, hexadecane, triacontane, kielcorin, norathyriol)

The naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin along with the phloroglucinol derivative hyperforin are thought to be among the numerous active constituents.[186][187][188][189] It also contains essential oils composed mainly of sesquiterpenes.[186]

Justicia gendarussaEdit

 
Justicia gendarussa flowers are shown. Credit: Vinayaraj{{free media}}

Family: Acanthaceae

The plant is widely used in various forms for many of its medicinal and insecticidal properties,[190]

Justicia gendarussa is harvested for its leaves for the treatment of various ailments.[191]

It maybe useful for the treatment of asthma, rheumatism and colics of children.[192] It may have the potential to be the basis for a birth control pill for men. Clinical tests are being conducted in Indonesia.[193][194][195]

The plant has shown promise as a source of a compound that inhibits an enzyme crucial to the development of HIV.[196][197]

Justicia gendarussa was proved to contain several phytochemicals, which are natural secondary plant compounds. Overall in the plant, roots, stem and leaves, following phytochemicals were found: alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenols.[198] The ingredients of the plant may vary depending on the age, physiological stage of the organ parts or the geographic region of cultivation.[199]

The plant was proved to have both anti-microbial and anti-fungal action on selected pathogen strains, and therefore this plant can be used to develop herbal drugs.[198]

Justicia gendarussa leaf extract was proven to potentially become a male, non-hormonally contraceptive method due to its competitive and reversible inhibition of the spermatozoan hyaluronidase enzyme. The plant is already used as traditional contraceptive method in Indonesia.[200]

The plant compound Patentiflorin A contained in Justicia gendarussa has shown to have a positive activity against several HIV strains, higher than the clinically used first anti-HIV drug, zidovudine AZT.[196]

Further, extracts of the leaves have an anti-inflammatory effect. This has been demonstrated especially in mice, specific for the carrageenan-induced paw edema.[201]

The juice of the leaves can be drizzled into the ear for earache. To treat external edema, an oil made from the leaves can be used.[202]

Kunzea ericoidesEdit

Family: Myrtaceae

Lagerstroemia speciosaEdit

Family: Lythraceae

Leptospermum polygalifoliumEdit

Family: Myrtaceae

The nectar from the flowers is harvested by bees, yielding Leptospermum honey, which is marketed as Manuka honey.[203] Honey produced from Australian Leptospermum polygalifolium is also known as jelly bush or the lemon-scented tea tree.[204]

Limnophila aromaticaEdit

Family: Plantaginaceae.

Lithospermum officinaleEdit

 
The image shows buds on Lithospermum officinale. Credit: Kristian Peters.{{free media}}

Lithospermum officinale, or common gromwell or European stoneseed, is a flowering plant species in the family Boraginaceae, native to Eurasia.

The plant has been found to be a potent natural anti-inflammatory and effective agent for healing burn wounds when applied topically, which explains the presence of this species in the poultice discovered.[205]

The mechanism by which freeze-dried aqueous extracts (FDE) of plants of the species Lithospermum officinale (Boraginaceae) have the ability to inhibit at least many of the effects of exogenous and endogenous TSH on the thyroid gland. To this end, we have examined the in vitro effects of FDE from these plants on the ability of bovine TSH (bTSH) to both bind to human thyroid plasma membranes (TPM) and activate adenylate cyclase therein. FDE of this species produced a dose-related, ultimately complete, inhibition of the binding of 125I-labeled bTSH when studied at 4 C in a 20 mM Tris-HCl-0.5% BSA buffer, pH 7.45. Half-maximum inhibition of bTSH binding was produced by approximately 50 mU/ml bTSH and only about 10-30 micrograms/ml of the four active FDE. When studied in Tris-BSA-50 mM NaCl buffer at 37 C, these FDE remained inhibitory to bTSH binding, but their potency was decreased to about one fifth of that seen in the absence of NaCl. The binding of [125I]hCG to rat testis membranes was also inhibited by all of these FDE, but no effect on the binding of [125I]insulin to crude rat liver membranes was observed.

The antithyrotropic activity of freeze-dried-extracts from Lithospermum officinale (Lith. off. FDE) was investigated in the rat. When administered together with TSH, Lith. off. FDE blocked the TSH- induced increase in endocytotic activity of the thyroid glands followed by a strong decline of thyroid hormone levels. Furthermore, when Lith. off. FDE was injected alone it caused a decline in endogenous TSH-levels as well as in thyroidal secretion and thyroid hormone levels. The efficacy of the extract in blocking thyroid secretion was compared to that of potassium iodide and it was found that the effect of Lith. off. FDE was of more rapid onset and of longer duration, suggesting that the FDE may have a different mode of action from that of KJ. A specific interaction between TSH and the active constituents of the plant extract is discussed. Experiments on thyroidectomized and T4 substituted rats have demonstrated as an additional pharmacodynamic effect of Lith. off. FDE an inhibition of peripheral T4-deiodination.

Lithospermum officinale has been studied using female Wistar rats. Variations of the main urolithiasis risk factors (citraturia, calciuria, phosphaturia, pH and diuresis) have been evaluated. It can be concluded that beneficial effects caused by a herb infusion on urolithiasis (kidney stones) can be attributed to some disinfectant action, and tentatively to the presence of saponins. Specifically, some solvent action can be postulated with respect to uric stones or heterogeneous uric nucleus, due to the basifying capacity of some herb infusions.

Lonicera japonicaEdit

 
Lonicera japonica fruit is growing in the Aizu area, Fukushima pref., Japan. Credit: Qwert1234.{{free media}}

Family: Caprifoliaceae

In traditional Chinese medicine,[206] Lonicera japonica is called rěn dōng téng[206] literally "winter enduring vine") or jīn yín huā[206] literally "gold-silver flower". Alternative Chinese names include er hua and shuang hua, meaning double-[color] flowers.[207] In Korean, it is called geumeunhwa.

The dried leaves and flowers (Flos Lonicerae Japonicae) are employed in traditional Chinese medicine, being used to treat fever, cold-related headache, cough, thirst, certain inflammation including sore throat, skin infection, and tumor necrosis.[208]

The antiviral action of loniflavone, a compound found in Lonicera japonica, has been investigated in computational studies, in which the ability of this compound to bind with high affinity to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 has been demonstrated, an early step towards drug development for the disease that virus causes.[209]

Lonicera japonica contains methyl caffeate, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, methyl 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinate, protocatechuic acid, methyl chlorogenic acid, and luteolin. The two biflavonoids, 3′-O-methyl loniflavone and loniflavone, along with luteolin and chrysin, can be isolated from the leaves.[210] Other phenolic compounds present in the plant are hyperoside, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid.[211] The two secoiridoid glycosides, loniceracetalide A and loniceracetalide B, can be isolated, together with 10 known iridoid glycosides, from the flower buds.[212] The plant also contains the saponins loniceroside A and loniceroside B[213] and the antiinflammatory loniceroside C.[214]

Lophatherum gracileEdit

Family: Poaceae

Lycium barbarumEdit

Family: Solanaceae

Because of its claimed benefits as a drug of traditional medicine, the chemicals present in the fruit, root, and other parts of the plants have been studied in some detail.[215][216]

The main compounds in the fruit (23% of the dry mass) are polysaccharides and proteoglycans. Carotenoid pigments are the second major group, chiefly zeaxanthin palmitic acid (dipalmitate). The fruits further contain vitamins, in particular riboflavin, thiamin and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), the latter in a concentration similar to that in lemons. Other detected compounds include flavonoids derived from myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol; hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, β-elemene, myristic acid and ethyl hexadecanoate; and some glycerogalactolipids. The fruit further contains 1–2.7% of free amino acids; chiefly proline, and including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and trimethylglycine (betaine). Other compounds include β-sitosterol, scopoletin, p-coumaric acid, lyciumide A and L-monomenthyl succinate. The alkaloid atropine, common in plants of the family Solanaceae, is not detectable.[215]

The compounds present in the roots have been less studied, but they include trimethylglycine (betaine), choline, linoleic acid, and β-sitosterol [79]. Of particular interest are cyclic oligopeptides with 8 amino acid rings, christened lyciumin A and lyciumin B.[215]

The leaves are known to contain the flavonoids quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside, rutin, nicotiflorin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol damascenone, choline, scopoletin, vanillic acid, salicylic acid, and nicotinic acid. From the flowers, diosgenin, β-sitosterol, and lanosterol have been isolated.[215]

Lycium europaeumEdit

Lycium europaeum, the European tea tree, European box-thorn, or European matrimony-vine, is a species of flowering plant in the family Solanaceae.[217] It is native to the entire Mediterranean region, and has been introduced to the Canary Islands, Madeira, and the Balearic Islands.[218] Its fruit is edible.[219]

Magnolia grandifloraEdit

Family: Magnoliaceae.

Magnolia officinalisEdit

The aromatic bark contains magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol, and obovatol.[220][221][222][223][224][225] Magnolol[226] and honokiol[227] activate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

Magnolol is an organic compound, classified as lignan, a bioactive compound found in the bark of the Houpu magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) or in Magnolia grandiflora.[228]

Mahonia aquifoliumEdit

Family: Berberidaceae.

Berberine is found in Mahonia aquifolium (Oregon grape).[229]

Mucuna pruriensEdit

Matricaria recutitaEdit

Melaleuca alternifoliaEdit

Family: Myrtaceae.

Melaleuca alternifolia is notable for its essential oil (tea tree oil) which is both an antifungal medication and antibiotic,[230] while safely usable for topical applications.[231] This is produced on a commercial scale and marketed as tea tree oil.[232]

Melaleuca cajuputiEdit

Family: Myrtaceae.

Melaleuca cajuputi is used to produce a similar oil, known as cajuput oil, which is used in Southeast Asia to treat a variety of infections and to add fragrance to food and soaps.[233]

Mentha × piperitaEdit

 
A peppermint flower pot is shown on the terrace in New Belgrade, Serbia. Credit: VS6507.{{free media}}

Family: Lamiaceae.

Peppermint (Mentha × piperita, also known as Mentha balsamea Wild)[234] is a hybrid mint, a cross between Mentha aquatica (watermint) and Mentha spicata (spearmint).[235] Indigenous to Europe and the Middle East,[236] the plant is now widely spread and cultivated in many regions of the world.[237] It is occasionally found in the wild with its parent species.[237][238]

Peppermint essential oil has a high menthol content, also contains menthone and carboxyl esters, particularly menthyl acetate.[239] Dried peppermint typically has 0.3–0.4% of volatile oil containing menthol (7–48%), menthone (20–46%), menthyl acetate (3–10%), menthofuran (1–17%) and 1,8-cineol (3–6%). Peppermint oil also contains small amounts of many additional compounds including limonene, pulegone, caryophyllene and pinene.[240]

Peppermint contains terpenoids and flavonoids such as eriocitrin, hesperidin, and kaempferol 7-O-rutinoside.[241]

Peppermint oil has a high concentration of natural pesticides, mainly pulegone (found mainly in Mentha arvensis var. piperascens cornmint, field mint, Japanese mint, and to a lesser extent (6,530 ppm) in Mentha × piperita subsp. notho[242]) and menthone.[243] It is known to repel some pest insects, including mosquitos, and has uses in organic gardening. It is also widely used to repel rodents.[244][245][246][247]

The chemical composition of the essential oil from peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was analyzed by Flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS}: menthol (40.7%) and menthone (23.4%), (±)-menthyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, limonene, beta-pinene, and beta-caryophyllene.[248]

The Herbal Tea "Cold & Flu Time" contains: Chinese honeysuckle, mulberry leaf, lophatherum, pueraria root, peppermint, licorice root, orange peel, from the box "INGREDIENTS".

Mitragyna speciosaEdit

Momordica charantiaEdit

 
Bitter melon is Momordica charantia. Credit: David Monniaux.{{free media}}

Family: Cucurbitaceae.

Morus albaEdit

Family: Moraceae.

Various extracts from Morus alba including kuwanon G, moracin M, steppogenin-4′-O-β-D-glucoside and mulberroside A have been suggested as having a variety of potentially-useful medical effects.[249][250][251][252][253][254][255][256][257][258][259] Cyanidin-3-O-beta-ᴅ-glucopyranoside and Sanggenon G extracted from Morus alba were studied in animals models for some effects on the central nervous system, but clinical trials are necessary to confirm the effects.[260]

Morus alba is a traditional Chinese medicine that contains alkaloids and flavonoids that are bioactive compounds.[261][262] Studies have shown that these compounds may help reduce high cholesterol, obesity, and stress.[263]

Morus indicaEdit

Morus indica is often grown for its medicinal properties. As with most berries, the mulberries of M. indica have potent antioxidant properties.[264] The primary medicinal use of Morus indica is as a method of regulating blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. Multiple studies in humans and mice have found that the use of Morus indica lowered the blood glucose levels of diabetics through multiple different pathways.[264][265][266]

Morus mongolicaEdit

Morus mongolica is known to have multiple flavonoid and phenolic compounds.[267][268][269][270] These compounds can be found in the fruits,[269] leaves,[268] and bark.[271]

Morus nigraEdit

 
A full-grown shahtoot is shown. Credit: Ayda D{{free media}}

Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, consists of diverse species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions.[272][273][274] Generally, the genus has three well-known species ostensibly named for the fruit color of the best-known cultivar: white, red, and black mulberry (Morus alba, M. rubra, and M. nigra, respectively), with numerous cultivars,[275][276] The name "white mulberry" came about because the first specimens named by European taxonomists were a cultivated mutation prized for their white fruit, but wild trees bear black fruit like other mulberries. White mulberry is native to South Asia, but is widely distributed across Europe, Southern Africa, South America, and North America.[273] Morus alba is regarded as an invasive species in Brazil and the United States.[273]

The closely related genus Broussonetia is also commonly known as mulberry, notably the paper mulberry, Broussonetia papyrifera.[277]

The fruit and leaves are sold in various forms as dietary supplements. Unripe fruit and green parts of the plant have a white sap that may be toxic, stimulating, or mildly hallucinogenic.[278]

Mulberry fruit color derives from anthocyanins,[274] which have unknown effects in humans.[279] Anthocyanins are responsible for the attractive colors of fresh plant foods, including orange, red, purple, black, and blue.[279] These colors are water-soluble and easily extractable, yielding natural food colorants.[273] Due to a growing demand for natural food colorants, they have numerous applications in the food industry.[274][279]

Morus nigra, called black mulberry[280] or blackberry (not to be confused with the blackberries that are various species of Rubus),[281] is a species of flowering plant that is native to southwestern Asia and the Iberian Peninsula, where it has been cultivated for so long that its precise natural range is unknown.[282] The black mulberry is known for its large number of chromosomes, 308 (44x ploidy).[283]

Muira puamaEdit

Family: Olacaceae, genus Ptychopetalum.

Myristica argenteaEdit

Myristica fragransEdit

 
Seed are on the left or ground spice on the right. Credit: Herusutimbul.{{free media}}
 
Nutmeg tree (Myristica fragrans) is shown. Credit: കാക്കര.{{free media}}

Family: Myristicaceae

Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.[284] Myristica fragrans (fragrant nutmeg or true nutmeg) is a dark-leaved evergreen tree cultivated for two spices derived from its fruit: nutmeg, from its seed, and mace, from the seed covering. It is also a commercial source of an essential oil and nutmeg butter. Indonesia is the main producer of nutmeg and mace.

If consumed in amounts exceeding its typical use as a spice, nutmeg powder may produce allergic reactions, cause contact dermatitis, or have psychoactive effects.[25] Although used in traditional medicine for treating various disorders, nutmeg has no scientifically confirmed prescription drug (medicinal value).[25]

Nutmeg is the spice made by grinding the seed of the fragrant nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) tree into powder. The spice has a distinctive pungent fragrance and a warm, slightly sweet taste; it is used to flavor many kinds of baked goods, confections, puddings, potatoes, meats, sausages, sauces, vegetables, and such beverages as eggnog.[285]

The seeds are dried gradually in the sun over a period of six to eight weeks. During this time the nutmeg shrinks away from its hard seed coat until the kernels rattle in their shells when shaken. The shell is then broken with a wooden club and the nutmegs are picked out. Dried nutmegs are grayish brown ovals with furrowed surfaces.[285] The nutmegs are roughly egg-shaped, about 20.5–30 mm (0.81–1.18 in) long and 15–18 mm (0.59–0.71 in) wide, weighing 5–10 g (0.18–0.35 oz) dried.

The essential oil obtained by steam distillation of ground nutmeg[286] is used in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. The volatile fraction contains dozens of terpenes and phenylpropanoids, including D-pinene, limonene, D-borneol, L-terpineol, geraniol, safrol, and myristicin.[286][287][288] In its pure form, myristicin is a toxin, and consumption of excessive amounts of nutmeg can result in myristicin poisoning.[289]

The oil is colorless or light yellow, and smells and tastes of nutmeg. It is used as a natural food flavoring in baked goods, syrups, beverages, and sweets. It is used to replace ground nutmeg, as it leaves no particles in the food. The essential oil is also used in the manufacturing of toothpaste and cough syrups.[290]

Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression, is semisolid, reddish-brown in colour, and has the taste and smell of nutmeg itself.[286] About 75% (by weight) of nutmeg butter is trimyristin, which can be turned into myristic acid, a 14-carbon fatty acid, which can be used as a replacement for cocoa butter, can be mixed with other fats like cottonseed oil or palm oil, and has applications as an industrial lubricant.

Two other species of genus Myristica with different flavors, Myristica malabarica and Myristica argentea, are sometimes used to adulterate nutmeg as a spice.[291]

Myristica malabaricaEdit

Oryza barthiiEdit

Family: Poaceae.

Oryza glaberrimaEdit

Family: Poaceae.

Oryza rufipogonEdit

Family: Poaceae.

Oryza sativaEdit

Family: Poaceae.

Osmanthus fragransEdit

Family: Oleaceae.

Osmanthus fragrans, variously known as sweet osmanthus, sweet olive, tea olive, and fragrant olive, is a species native to Asia from the Himalayas through southern China (Guizhou, Sichuan and Yunnan) to Taiwan, southern Japan and Southeast Asia as far south as Cambodia and Thailand.[292][293][294][295]

Osmanthus tea has been used as an herbal tea for the treatment of irregular menstruation.[296] The extract of dried flowers showed neuroprotective, free-radical scavenging, antioxidative effects in in vitro assays.[297]

Panax ginsengEdit

Family: Araliaceae.

Persea americanaEdit

Family: Lauraceae.

Avocados have diverse fats.[298] For a typical one:

  • About 75% of an avocado's energy comes from fat, most of which (67% of total fat) is monounsaturated fat as oleic acid.[298]
  • Other predominant fats include palmitic acid and linoleic acid.[298]
  • The saturated fat content amounts to 14% of the total fat.[298]
  • Typical total fat composition is roughly: 1% omega-3 fatty acid (ω-3), 14% omega-6 fatty acid (ω-6), 71% omega-9 fatty acid (ω-9) (65% oleic and 6% palmitoleic), and 14% saturated fat (palmitic acid).[298]

Phellodendron amurenseEdit

Family: Rutaceae.

Berberine is found in Phellodendron amurense (Amur cork tree).[299]

Prunus aviumEdit

Sweet cherry.

Prunus cerasusEdit

 
Ripe sour cherries are shown on a branch. Credit: Rklz2{{free media}}

Family: Rosaceae.

Prunus cerasus (sour cherry,[300] tart cherry, or dwarf cherry[34]) a species of Prunus in the subgenus Prunus subg. Cerasus (cherries), native to much of Europe and southwest Asia is closely related to the sweet cherry (Prunus avium), but has a fruit that is more acidic. Its sour pulp is edible.[301]

There are two main varieties (groups of cultivars) of the sour cherry: the dark-red Morello cherry and the lighter-red Amarelle cherry.[302]

"Fruits of sour cherry (P cerasus L) cv Amarena Mattarello (AM), Visciola Ninno (VN), and Visciola Sannicandro (VS) (genotypes from the local germplasm) were picked up in June 2003 on a local experimental field (Bari, Italy)."[303]

Anthocyanins: "Cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin 3-sophoroside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, and cyanidin 3-glucoside were identified as major components in the analyzed samples in agreement with the findings previously reported in the literature [4]."[303]

Pueraria mirificaEdit

Pueraria tuberosaEdit

Rehmannia glutinosaEdit

A number of chemical constituents including iridoids, phenethyl alcohol, glycosides, cyclopentanoid monoterpenes, and norcarotenoids, have been reported from the fresh or processed roots of Rehmannia glutinosa.[304]

Rosa caninaEdit

Family: Rosaceae.

Rose hips can be eaten raw, like berries, if care is taken to avoid the hairs inside the fruit. The hairs are used as itching powder.[305]

Wild rose hip fruits are particularly rich in vitamin C, containing 426 mg per 100 g[306] or 0.4% by weight (w/w). However, RP-HPLC assays of fresh rose hips and several commercially available products revealed a wide range of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) content, ranging from 0.03 to 1.3%.[307]

Rose hips contain the carotenoids beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene, which are under basic research for a variety of potential biological roles.[308][309] A meta-analysis of human studies examining the potential for rose hip extracts to reduce arthritis pain concluded there was a small effect requiring further analysis of safety and efficacy in clinical trials.[310] Use of rose hips is not considered an effective treatment for knee osteoarthritis.[311]

Rubus allegheniensisEdit

Family: Rosaceae.

Blackberries contain numerous phytochemicals including polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, salicylic acid, ellagic acid, and fiber.[312][313] Anthocyanins in blackberries are responsible for their rich dark color. One report placed blackberries at the top of more than 1,000 polyphenol-rich foods consumed in the United States,[314] but this concept of a health benefit from consuming darkly colored foods like blackberries remains scientifically unverified and not accepted for health claims on food labels.[315]

Sugar content of ripe blackberries has glucose and fructose at similar compositions, with small amounts of sucrose and many beneficial nutrients including anthocyanins, vitamins and phenolics.

Rubus pensilvanicusEdit

 
Rubus pensilvanicus is in flower. Credit: SB_Johnny.{{free media}}

Family: Rosaceae.

Rubus plicatusEdit

 
Fruit is of Rubus plicatus, Goleniow, NW Poland. Credit: Kenraiz.{{free media}}

Family: Rosaceae.

Rubus vestitusEdit

 
Rubus vestitus is a European species of brambles called European blackberry. Credit: Daderot.{{free media}}
 
Blackberries (Rubus fruticosus) is an aggregation of European blackberries. Credit: Ivar Leidus.{{free media}}

Family: Rosaceae.

The scientific study of brambles is known as "batology".

Scutellaria baicalensisEdit

Family: Lamiaceae.

The main compounds responsible for the biological activity of skullcap are flavonoids.[316] Baicalein, one of the important Scutellaria flavonoids, was shown to have cardiovascular effects in in vitro.[317] Research also shows that Scutellaria root modulates inflammatory activity in vitro to inhibit nitric oxide (NO), cytokine, chemokine and growth factor production in macrophages.[318] Isolated chemical compounds including wogonin, wogonoside, and 3,5,7,2',6'-pentahydroxyl flavanone found in Scutellaria have been shown to inhibit histamine and leukotriene release.[319] Other active constituents include baicalin, apigenin, oroxylin A, scutellarein, and skullcapflavone.[320]

A variety of flavonoids in Scutellaria species have been found to bind to the benzodiazepine site and/or a non-benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor, including baicalin, baicalein, wogonin, apigenin, oroxylin A, scutellarein, and skullcapflavone II.[321][322][323] Baicalin and baicalein,[323][324][325][326] wogonin,[327] and apigenin[328] have been confirmed to act as positive allosteric modulators and produce anxiolytic effects in animals, whereas oroxylin A acts as a negative allosteric modulator (and also, notably, as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor).[329][330][331] As such, these compounds and actions, save oroxylin A, are likely to underlie the anxiolytic effects of Scutellaria species.[332]

Scutellaria also contains rosmarinic acid which inhibits GABA transaminase which breaks GABA down, thus making it available longer.[333]

Senna alexandrinaEdit

Silybum marianumEdit

Simarouba glaucaEdit

 
Flowers of the paradise tree are captured during flowering season. Credit: GunasekarVV.{{free media}}

Family: Simaroubaceae

Though there is some research[334] claiming that Simarouba is effective for treating certain diseases, there seems to be insufficient evidence[335] of curing diarrhea, malaria, edema, fever and stomach upset. Known in India as Lakshmi Taru, the extracts from parts of the tree have been claimed to possess potent anticancer properties. However, to date, no systematic research using phytochemicals isolated from Simarouba glauca has been carried out to explore the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer cell death.[336] Simarouba extracts are known to be effective only on specific types of human cancer cell lines and tests conducted were invitro. Whether the same effect would be observed under invivo conditions, depends on bioavailability and bioaccessibility,[337] hence Simarouba as an alternative cure for cancer remains unproven.

Solanum virginianumEdit

 
Solanum Xanthocarpum is shown in Nepal. Credit: Krish Dulal.{{free media}}

Family: Solanaceae

The plant has many medical properties. In the tribes of Nilgiris, the plant is used to treat a whitlow (finger abscess): the finger is inserted into a ripe fruit for a few minutes.[338] In Nepal, a decoction of root is taken twice a day for seven days to treat cough, asthma and chest pain.[339]

Ayurvedic Physicians commonly used the drugs of Dashmula in their private practice. Dashmula comprises root of five trees (brihat panchmula) and root of five small herbs (laghu panchmula). Deep study in Ayurveda indicate that out of 33 species of Solanum from family Solanaceae, two species are used in Dashmula such as Solanum anguivi Lam. (Bruhati) and Solanum virginianum L. (Kantkari) (Sharma, 2006). The tribals and villagers also used the drugs of Dashmula group for their common ailments. It is estimated that about 8000 metric tons of roots of Dashmula are used annually by Ayurvedic industry in Maharashtra.[340]:26

Heble et al., (1968) chemically isolated, crystallized, diosgenin and beta cytosterol constituents from Solanum virginianumL. Further they reported the presence of triterpenes like Tupeol. Heble et al., (1971) noted the presence of coumarins, scopolin, scopoletin, esculin and esculetin from plant parts of Solanum virginianum through column chromatography. Hussain et al., (2010) in addition to alkaloids content also determined the presence of flavoinoids and saponin apart from the presence of tolerable level of heavy metals like Cu, Fe, Pb, Cd and Zn. Shankar et al., (2011) reported and quantified bioactive steroidal glycoalkaloid khasianine in addition to solanine and solasomargine through HPTLC. Apigenin showed antiallergic while diosgenin exhibited anti–inflammatory effects (Singh et al., 2010). The leaf extract inhibit the growth of pathogenic organisms.(Seeba, 2009). Tanusak Changbanjong et al., (2010) reported the effect of crude extract of Solanum verginianum against snails and mosquito larvae.[340]:28

Solanum virginianum L. (Kantkari) is useful in bronchial asthma (Govindan et al., 1999). Krayer and Briggs (1950) reported the antiaccelerator cardiac action of solasodine and some of its derivatives. The plant possesses antiurolthiatic and natriuretic activities. (Patel et al., 2010). A decoction of the fruits of the plant is used for treatment of diabetes (Nadkarni, 1954). Solanum virginianum L. herb is useful in cough, chest pain, against vomiting, hair fall, leprosy, itching scabies, skin diseases and cardiac diseases associated with edema (Kumar et al., 2010).[340]:28

Roots decoction is used as fabrige, effective diuretic and expectorant. It is diuretic useful in the treatment of catarrhal, fever, cough, asthma, and chest pain (Ghani, 1996). Root paste is utilized by the Mukundara tribals of Rajasthan for the treatment of hernia as well as in flatulence and constipation. Stem, flower and fruits are prescribed for relief in burning sensation in the feed. Leaves are applied locally to relieve body or muscle pains, while its juice mixed with black pepper is advised for rheumatism (Nadkarni, 1954). Fruit juice is useful in sore throats and rheumatism. A decoction of the fruits of the plant is used by tribal and rural people of Orissa for the treatment of diabetes (Nadkarni, 1954).[340]:28 Smoking the seeds of the dried solanum virginanum in a biri warp is said to allay toothache and tooth decay in Indian folk medicine.

In-vitro antioxidant and in-vivo Antimutagenic properties of Solanum xanthocarpum seed extracts, the preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening was done which reveal the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, glycoside, alkaloids, carbohydrates, and reducing sugar etc. Based preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening, Quantitative estimation of polyphenols was performed, quantitative estimation alcoholic extract found significant amounts of polyphenols as compare to aqueous extract. In-vitro antioxidants was performed by two method DDPH and superoxide radical scavenging method, the alcoholic extract shows significant antioxidant properties as compare to aqueous extract, based on polyphenols and antioxidant properties alcoholic extracts was used for the antimutagenic (clastogenic) test. Alcoholic extract produced significant result in antimutagenic activity.[341]

Stachys sieboldiiEdit

 
Image shows Stachys sieboldii with red to purple flowers and reaching a height of 30 – 120 cm. Credit: Kurt Stueber.{{free media}}

Family: Lamiaceae.

Stachys affinis, commonly called crosne, Chinese artichoke, Japanese artichoke, knotroot, or artichoke betony, is a perennial herbaceous plant of the family Lamiaceae, originating from China, with rhizomes that are a root vegetable that can be eaten raw, pickled, dried or cooked,[342] where Stachys sieboldii is a synonym.

Vacuoles in the tuber of S. affinis are rich in stachyose.[343] Stachyose is a tetrasaccharide, consist out of galactose, glucose and fructose. Stachyose is up to 80-90% in dry tubers.[344]

the entirety of S. affinis is used as an agent to treat colds and pneumonia.[345]

Root extract of S. affinis has shown antimicrobial activity.[346] Antioxidant activity has been observed, plus inhibitory effects on acetylcholine esterase, monoamine oxidase and xanthine oxidase activities were observed in rat brains after 20 days feeding with methanolic extracts of S. affinis.[347] Ethanol extract from this plant also seems to have antitumour activity.[348]

"Japanese artichoke [...] contain germacrene D, caryophyllene, cadinene. [...] methanolic tuber extract of Japanese artichoke, which contains glycosides, including acteoside and stachysosides C, significantly inhibits induced mortality from potassium cyanide poisoning in mice [19]. This extract inhibits hyaluronidase activity, has anti-inflammatory action, and is effective in kidney disease [15]."[349]

The "methanol extract from the leaves and root tubers and ethanol extract from the root tubers of Stachys sieboldii have a pronounced antibacterial effect on the culture of Salmonella typhimurium. In addition, methanol extract from the leaves of Stachys sieboldii showed a significant antibacterial effect on the culture of Bacillus cereus. It is believed that the antibacterial effect of Japanese artichoke is associated with the total content of polyphenols and flavonoids contained in the plant and which are extracted with methanol and ethanol [20]."[349]

Stenocereus queretaroensisEdit

Family: Cactaceae.

Stenocereus queretaroensis is a species of cactus from Mexico, including the state of Querétaro, cultivated for its fruit.[350]

Taxandria parvicepsEdit

Family: Myrtaceae.

Taxandria parviceps, commonly known as tea tree,[351] is a shrub species that grows on the south west coast of Western Australia.[352] This plant was previously classified as Agonis parviceps but is now part of the Taxandria genus.

Theobroma cacaoEdit

Family: Malvaceae.

Cocoa contains various phytochemicals, such as flavanols (including epicatechin), procyanidins, and other flavanoids. A systematic review presented moderate evidence that the use of flavanol-rich chocolate and cocoa products causes a small (2 mmHg) blood pressure lowering effect in healthy adults—mostly in the short term.[353]

The highest levels of cocoa flavanols are found in raw cocoa and to a lesser extent, dark chocolate, since flavonoids degrade during cooking used to make chocolate.[354] Cocoa also contains the stimulant compounds theobromine and caffeine. The beans contain between 0.1% and 0.7% caffeine, whereas dry coffee beans are about 1.2% caffeine.[355]

"Cocoa is rich in polyphenols that have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease.22 In cocoa, the polyphenols of particular interest are flavanols, a subclass of flavonoids, which are in turn a subclass of polyphenols. Cocoa is more than 10% flavanol by weight. Flavanols can be monomeric: in cocoa beans these are mainly (−)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, dimeric (consisting of 2 units of epicatechin with differing linkages), or polymeric (combinations of monomers and chains of up to 10 units or more have been found). These polymers are known as procyanidins.1, 7, 16, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30"[356]

Tinospora cordifoliaEdit

Family Menispermaceae.

Berberine is found in Tinospora cordifolia.

Torreya californicaEdit

Family: Taxaceae.

The California nutmeg, Torreya californica, has a seed of similar appearance to nutmeg, but is not closely related to Myristica fragrans, and is not used as a spice.

Tribulus terrestrisEdit

Family Zygophyllaceae.

Phytochemicals of T. terrestris include steroidal saponins.[357]

Uncaria rhynchophyllaEdit

Uncaria tomentosaEdit

Valeriana officinalisEdit

Family Caprifoliaceae.

AlkaloidsEdit

Actinidine,[358] chatinine,[358][359] shyanthine,[358] valerianine,[358] and valerine[358]

FlavanonesEdit

Flavanones: hesperidin,[360] 6-methylapigenin,[360] and linarin[361] occur in Valerian.

Veratrum grandiflorumEdit

Veratrum is a genus of flowering plants in the family Melanthiaceae.[362] It occurs in damp habitats across much of temperate and subarctic Europe, Asia, and North America.[363][364][365][366][367]

Veratrum species are vigorous herbaceous perennials with highly poisonous black rhizomes, and panicles of white or brown flowers on erect stems.[368] In English they are known as both false hellebores and corn lilies. However, Veratrum is not closely related to hellebores, corn, or lilies.

"First isolated from Veratrum grandiflorum by Takaoka in the 1940s [19], [resveratrol (RSV, 3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene)] RSV is found in food sources such as fruits, vegetables, and chocolate, and is better known as a constituent of grapes and wines, although it is present in only minimal quantities [18,20]. Due to its presence in wine, RSV attracted attention in the early 1990s to explain "the French paradox", which suggested that people from France had a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease despite their high intake of saturated fats, presumably as a result of moderate red wine consumption [21]."[369]

Viburnum lentagoEdit

 
The nannyberry is a small round blue-black drupe. Credit: D. E. Herman, USDA.{{free media}}

Family: Adoxaceae

As suggested by the alternative name sweet viburnum, the fruit is (unlike that of many viburnums) edible.[370]

Withania somniferaEdit

Family Solanaceae.

The main phytochemical constituents in ashwagandha are withanolides – which are triterpene lactones – withaferin A, alkaloids, steroidal lactones, tropine, and cuscohygrine.[371] Some 40 withanolides, 12 alkaloids, and numerous sitoindosides have been isolated.[371] Withanolides are structurally similar to the ginsenosides of Panax ginseng, leading to a common name for W. somnifera, "Indian ginseng".[371]

Wollemia nobilisEdit

 
A NPWS firefighter looks up at one of the ancient Wollemi pines discovered in 1994 he has been sent in to protect. Credit: NPWS firefighter.{{fairuse}}

Wollemia is a genus of coniferous trees in the family Araucariaceae.

"Desperate efforts by firefighters on the ground and in the air have saved the only known natural grove of the world-famous Wollemi pines from destruction during the record-breaking bushfires in NSW."[372]

"The rescue mission involved water-bombing aircraft and large air tankers dropping fire retardant. Helicopters also winched specialist firefighters into the remote gorge to set up an irrigation system to increase the moisture content of the ground fuels to slow the advance of any fire."[372]

"Wollemi National Park is the only place in the world where these trees are found in the wild and, with less than 200 left, we knew we needed to do everything we could to save them."[373]

"Fossil evidence indicates that the trees existed between 200 and 100 million years ago and were once present across the whole of Australia."[374]

Xanthorhiza simplicissimaEdit

Family: Ranunculaceae.

Berberine is found Xanthorhiza simplicissima (yellowroot).[375]

ZanthoxylumEdit

Family Rutaceae.

Historically, Zanthoxylum (Prickly ash) bark was used in traditional medicine.[376]

Species identified in Nigeria contains several types of alkaloids including benzophenanthridines (nitidine, dihydronitidine, oxynitidine, fagaronine, dihydroavicine, chelerythrine, dihydrochelerythrine, methoxychelerythrine, norchelerythrine, oxychelerythrine, decarine and fagaridine), furoquinolines (dictamine, 8-methoxydictamine, skimmianine, 3-dimethylallyl-4-methoxy-2-quinolone), carbazoles (3-methoxycarbazole, glycozoline), aporphines (berberine, tembetarine,[377] magnoflorine, M-methyl-corydine), canthinones (6-canthinone), acridones (1-hydroxy-3-methoxy-10-methylacridon-9-one, 1-hydroxy-10-methylacridon-9-one, zanthozolin), and aromatic and aliphatic amides.[378] Hydroxy-alpha sanshool is a bioactive component of plants from the genus Zanthoxylum, including the Sichuan pepper.

AporphinesEdit

Aporphines include berberine and tembetarine found in Prickly ash bark.[377]

BenzophenanthridinesEdit

Benzophenanthridines incude nitidine, dihydronitidine, oxynitidine, fagaronine, dihydroavicine, chelerythrine, dihydrochelerythrine, methoxychelerythrine, norchelerythrine, oxychelerythrine, decarine and fagaridine found in Prickly ash bark.[377]

CarbazolesEdit

Carbazoles include 3-methoxycarbazole and glycozoline found in Prickly ash bark.[377]

FuroquinolinesEdit

Furoquinolines include dictamine, 8-methoxydictamine, skimmianine, and 3-dimethylallyl-4-methoxy-2-quinolone found in Prickly ash bark.[377]

Zingiber miogaEdit

Family: Zingiberaceae.

Zingiber officinaleEdit

Family: Zingiberaceae.

The characteristic fragrance and flavor of ginger result from volatile essential oil that compose 1-3% of the weight of fresh ginger, primarily consisting of sesquiterpenes, beta-bisabolene and zingiberene, zingerone, shogaols, and gingerols with [6]-gingerol (1-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-decanone) as the major pungent compound.[25][379] Some 400 chemical compounds exist in raw ginger.[25]

Zingerone is produced from gingerols during drying, having lower pungency and a spicy-sweet aroma.[379] Shogaols are more pungent formed from gingerols during heating, storage or via acidity.[25][379] Numerous monoterpenes, amino acids, dietary fiber, protein, phytosterols, vitamins, and dietary minerals are other constituents.[25] Fresh ginger also contains an enzyme zingibain which is a cysteine protease and has similar properties to rennet.

Ginger could decrease body weight in obese subjects and increase HDL-cholesterol.[380]

Zingiber zerumbetEdit

Family: Zingiberaceae.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Chemicals from Plants". Cambridge University Botanic Garden. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  2. Tapsell, L.C.; Hemphill, I.; Cobiac, L. (August 2006). "Health benefits of herbs and spices: the past, the present, the future". Med. J. Aust. 185 (4 Suppl): S4–24. doi:10.5694/j.1326-5377.2006.tb00548.x. PMID 17022438. https://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2450&context=hbspapers. 
  3. Lai, P.K.; Roy, J.; Roy (June 2004). "Antimicrobial and chemopreventive properties of herbs and spices". Curr. Med. Chem. 11 (11): 1451–1460. doi:10.2174/0929867043365107. PMID 15180577. 
  4. "Greek Medicine". National Institutes of Health, USA. 16 September 2002. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
  5. Hefferon, Kathleen (2012). Let Thy Food Be Thy Medicine. Oxford University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0199873982. https://books.google.com/books?id=iORoAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA46. 
  6. Rooney, Anne (2009). The Story of Medicine. Arcturus Publishing. p. 143. ISBN 978-1848580398. https://books.google.com/books?id=jBMEAwAAQBAJ&pg=PT143. 
  7. "Active Plant Ingredients Used for Medicinal Purposes". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 18 February 2017. Below are several examples of active plant ingredients that provide medicinal plant uses for humans.
  8. Hayat, S.; Ahmad, A. (2007). Salicylic Acid – A Plant Hormone. Springer Science and Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4020-5183-8. https://archive.org/details/salicylicacidpla0000unse. 
  9. Ahn, K. (2017). "The worldwide trend of using botanical drugs and strategies for developing global drugs". BMB Reports 50 (3): 111–116. doi:10.5483/BMBRep.2017.50.3.221. PMID 27998396. PMC 5422022. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5422022/. 
  10. Bastida, Jaume; Lavilla, Rodolfo; Viladomat, Francesc Viladomat (2006). "Chemical and Biological Aspects of Narcissus Alkaloids". In Cordell, G. A.. The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Biology. 63. pp. 87–179. doi:10.1016/S1099-4831(06)63003-4. ISBN 978-0-12-469563-4. 
  11. "Galantamine". Drugs.com. 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  12. Birks, J. (2006). Birks, Jacqueline S. ed. "Cholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD005593. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005593. PMID 16437532. 
  13. "King's American Dispensatory: Adonis". Retrieved 17 April 2006.
  14. Bailey, L. H. (2005). Manual of Gardening (Second Edition). Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/9550. 
  15. "Микстура Бехтерева". LEKARSTVENNIK.RU. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Shang, Xiaofei; Maio, Xiaolou; Yang, Feng; Wang, Chunmei; Li, Bing; Wang, Weiwei; Pan, Hu; Guo, Xiao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jiyu (4 February 2019). "The Genus Adonis as an Important Cardiac Folk Medicine: A Review of the Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology". Frontiers in Pharmacology. 10: 25. doi:10.3389/fphar.2019.00025. PMID 30778296. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 Shikov, Alexander N.; Pozharitskaya, Olga N.; Makarov, Valery G.; Wagner, Hildebert; Verpoorte, Rob; Heinrich, Michael (3 July 2014). "Medicinal Plants of the Russian Pharmacopoeia; their history and applications". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 153 (3): 481–536. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2014.04.007. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  18. Rouhi, Hossein Reza; Aboutalebian, Mohammad Ali; Saman, Maryam; Karimi, Fatemeh; Champiri, Roya Mahmoudieh (2013). "SEED GERMINATION AND DORMANCY BREAKING METHODS FOR PHEASANT'S EYE (Adonis vernalis L.)"(PDF). International Journal of Agriculture: Research and Review. 3 (1): 172–175. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  19. Rouhi, Hossein Reza; Aboutalebian, Mohammad Ali; Saman, Maryam; Karimi, Fatemeh; Champiri, Roya Mahmoudieh (2013). "SEED GERMINATION AND DORMANCY BREAKING METHODS FOR PHEASANT'S EYE (Adonis vernalis L.)"(PDF). International Journal of Agriculture: Research and Review. 3 (1): 172–175. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  20. Esmail, Al-Snafi Ali (2015). "THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS: A REVIEW OF PLANTS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS (PART 1)". International Journal of Pharmacology & Toxicology. 5 (3): 163–176. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  21. Esmail, Al-Snafi Ali (2015). "THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES OF MEDICINAL PLANTS: A REVIEW OF PLANTS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS (PART 1)". International Journal of Pharmacology & Toxicology. 5 (3): 163–176. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Suseela Lanka (15 October 2018). "A review on Aloe Vera - the wonder medicinal plant". Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics 8 (5-s): 94-99. http://jddtonline.info/index.php/jddt/article/download/1962/1393. Retrieved 1 January 2022. 
  23. King GK, Yates KM, Greenlee PG, Pierce KR, Ford CR, McAnalley BH, Tizard IR (1995). "The effect of Acemannan Immunostimulant in combination with surgery and radiation therapy on spontaneous canine and feline fibrosarcomas". J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 31 (5): 439–447. doi:10.5326/15473317-31-5-439. PMID 8542364. 
  24. Eshun K, He Q (2004). "Aloe vera: a valuable ingredient for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries—a review". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 44 (2): 91–96. doi:10.1080/10408690490424694. PMID 15116756. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 "Aloe". Drugs.com. 30 December 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2021. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "drugs" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "drugs" defined multiple times with different content
  26. "Aloe vera". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. 1 October 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  27. Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (2007). "Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aloe Andongensis Extract, Aloe Andongensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Extract, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Juice, Aloe Arborescens Leaf Protoplasts, Aloe Barbadensis Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Polysaccharides, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Aloe Ferox Leaf Extract, Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice, and Aloe Ferox Leaf Juice Extract". Int. J. Toxicol. 26 (Suppl 2): 1–50. doi:10.1080/10915810701351186. PMID 17613130. https://web.archive.org/web/20171215084026/http://gov.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/pr274.pdf. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  28. Yunes Panahi, Seyyed Masoud Davoudi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Fatemeh Beiraghdar, Yahya Dadjo, Iraj Feizi, Golnoush Amirchoopani & Ali Zamani (12 October 2011). "Efficacy of Aloe vera/olive oil cream versus betamethasone cream for chronic skin lesions following sulfur mustard exposure: a randomized double-blind clinical trial". Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology 31 (2): 95-103. doi:10.3109/15569527.2011.614669. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15569527.2011.614669. Retrieved 1 January 2022. 
  29. Darwis Iswandi, Graharti Risti, Asthri Agtara Liza (19 November 2019). "Potency of Aloe vera as Antidiabetic, Antioxidant, and Antilipidemic Therapeutic Modalities". Potency of Aloe vera as Antidiabetic, Antioxidant, and Antilipidemic Therapeutic Modalities 8 (1): 268-272. http://repository.lppm.unila.ac.id/17095/1/Majority%20Maret%2019%20Mahasiswa.pdf. Retrieved 1 January 2022. 
  30. Pegg, Ronald B.; Rybarczyk, Anna and Amarowicz, Ryszard (2008). "Chromatographic separation of tannin fractions from a bearberry leaf (Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi L. Sprengel) extract by Se-HPLC". Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences 58 (4): 485–490. doi:10.17221/234/2008-cjfs. 
  31. "Uva ursi". Drugs.com. 19 July 2017. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  32. 32.0 32.1 "Arbutin, CID 440936". PubChem, National Library of Medicine, US National Institutes of Health. 16 November 2019. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  33. De Arriba, S. G; Naser, B; Nolte, K. U (2013). "Risk assessment of free hydroquinone derived from Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi folium herbal preparations". International Journal of Toxicology 32 (6): 442–53. doi:10.1177/1091581813507721. PMID 24296864. 
  34. 34.0 34.1 BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  35. Thomas C. Fuller (1986). Poisonous plants of California. University of California Press. pp. 201–. ISBN 978-0-520-05569-8. https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_0-op0XwlDmQC. Retrieved 21 April 2013. 
  36. Singh, S.; Singh, T. D.; Singh, V. P.; Pandey, V. B. (February 2010). "Quaternary Alkaloids of Argemone mexicana". Pharmaceutical Biology 48 (2): 158–160. doi:10.3109/13880200903062622. PMID 20645832. 
  37. Chang YC, Hsieh PW, Chang FR, Wu RR, Liaw CC, Lee KH, Wu YC (February 2003). "Two new protopines argemexicaines A and B and the anti-HIV alkaloid 6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine from formosan Argemone mexicana". Planta Medica 69 (2): 148–52. doi:10.1055/s-2003-37710. PMID 12624820. 
  38. Angier, Bradford (1974). Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books. pp. 104. OCLC 799792. https://archive.org/details/fieldguidetoedib00angi/page/104/mode/2up. 
  39. Ohta, Yoshio; Takatani, Kenichi; Kawakishi, Shunro (1995). "Decomposition Rate of Allyl Isothiocyanate in Aqueous Solution". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 59: 102–103. doi:10.1271/bbb.59.102. 
  40. Cole, Rosemary A. (1976). "Isothiocyanates, nitriles and thiocyanates as products of autolysis of glucosinolates in Cruciferae". Phytochemistry 15 (5): 759–762. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)94437-6. 
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 Aguiar, Sebastian; Borowski, Thomas (2013). "Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri". Rejuvenation Research 16 (4): 313–326. doi:10.1089/rej.2013.1431. ISSN 1557-8577. PMID 23772955. PMC 3746283. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3746283/. 
  42. Kongkeaw, C; Dilokthornsakul, P; Thanarangsarit, P; Limpeanchob, N; Norman Scholfield, C (2014). "Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on cognitive effects of Bacopa monnieri extract.". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 151 (1): 528–35. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.008. PMID 24252493. 
  43. Neale, Chris; Camfield, David; Reay, Jonathon; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew (5 February 2013). "Cognitive effects of two nutraceuticals Ginseng and Bacopa benchmarked against modafinil: a review and comparison of effect sizes". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 75 (3): 728–737. doi:10.1111/bcp.12002. ISSN 0306-5251. PMID 23043278. PMC 3575939. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3575939/. 
  44. "Health fraud scams: Unproven Alzheimer's disease products (Bacopa monnieri listed)". US Food and Drug Administration. 22 December 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  45. William A Correll, Jr. (5 February 2019). "FDA Warning Letter: Peak Nootropics LLC aka Advanced Nootropics". Office of Compliance, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations, US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  46. William A Correll, Jr. (5 February 2019). "FDA Warning Letter: TEK Naturals". Office of Compliance, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations, US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  47. Sivaramakrishna, C; Rao, CV; Trimurtulu, G; Vanisree, M; Subbaraju, GV (2005). "Triterpenoid glycosides from Bacopa monnieri". Phytochemistry 66 (23): 2719–2728. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.09.016. PMID 16293276. 
  48. Garai, S; Mahato, SB; Ohtani, K; Yamasaki, K (2009). "Dammarane triterpenoid saponins from Bacopa monnieri". Can J Chem 87 (9): 1230–1234. doi:10.1139/V09-111. 
  49. Chakravarty, A.K; Garai, S.; Masuda, K; Nakane, T; Kawahara, N. (2003). "Bacopasides III–V: Three new triterpenoid glycosides from Bacopa monnieri". Chem Pharm Bull 51 (2): 215–217. doi:10.1248/cpb.51.215. PMID 12576661. 
  50. Chatterji, N; Rastogi, RP; Dhar, ML (1965). "Chemical examination of Bacopa monniera Wettst: Part II—Isolation of chemical constituents". Ind J Chem 3: 24–29. 
  51. Chakravarty, AK; Sarkar, T; Nakane, T; Kawahara, N; Masuda, K (2008). "New phenylethanoid glycosides from Bacopa monnieri". Chem Pharm Bull 50 (12): 1616–1618. doi:10.1248/cpb.50.1616. PMID 12499603. 
  52. Bhandari, Pamita; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Kaul, Vijay K. (2007). "Cucurbitacins from Bacopa monnieri". Phytochemistry 68 (9): 1248–1254. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.03.013. ISSN 0031-9422. PMID 17442350. 
  53. Zhang Q, Cai L, Zhong G, Luo W (2010). "Simultaneous determination of jatrorrhizine, palmatine, berberine, and obacunone in Phellodendri Amurensis Cortex by RP-HPLC". Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi = Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi = China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica 35 (16): 2061–4. doi:10.4268/cjcmm20101603. PMID 21046728. 
  54. "Berberine". WebMD.
  55. See e.g. "Barberry" @ Alternative Medicine @ University of Maryland Medical Center
  56. Mokhber-Dezfuli N, Saeidnia S, Gohari AR, Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi M. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of berberis species. Pharmacogn Rev. 2014;8(15):8–15. doi:10.4103/0973-7847.125517
  57. 57.0 57.1 "Executive Summary Bixin". National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. National Institutes of Health. November 1997. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  58. Smith, James; Wallin, Harriet (2006). "Annatto Extracts: Chemical and Technical Assessment" (PDF). JECFA (FAO). Retrieved 10 June 2013.
  59. Kuntz, Lynn A. (4 August 2008). "Natural Colors: A Shade More Healthy". Food Product Design. Virgo Publishing, LLC. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
  60. Ângela de Almeida Meireles, Maria; Lima Cavalcante de Albuquerque, Carolina. "Processo otimizado para obtenção de óleo rico em antioxidantes de urucum". Inova. Unicamp. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
  61. Morton, Julia F. (1960). "Can Annatto (Bixa orellana, L.), an old source of food color, meet new needs for safe dye?". Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 73: 301–309. http://journals.fcla.edu/fshs/article/view/101136/97080. Retrieved 10 October 2018. 
  62. Vilar, Daniela de Araújo; Vilar, Marina Suênia de Araujo; Moura, Túlio Flávio Accioly de Lima e; Raffin, Fernanda Nervo; Oliveira, Márcia Rosa de; Franco, Camilo Flamarion de Oliveira; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo et al. (2014). "Traditional Uses, Chemical Constituents, and Biological Activities of Bixa orellana L.: A Review". The Scientific World Journal 2014: 857292. doi:10.1155/2014/857292. ISSN 2356-6140. PMID 25050404. PMC 4094728. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4094728/. 
  63. Khare, C. P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants. New York: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. https://www.springer.com/medicine/complementary+%26+alternative+medicine/book/978-0-387-70637-5. 
  64. 64.0 64.1 "Boswellia sacra". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved November 24, 2012.
  65. 65.0 65.1 65.2 Ahmed Al-Harrasi and Salim Al-Saidi (27 August 2008). "Phytochemical analysis of the essential oil from botanically certified oleogum resin of Boswellia sacra (Omani Luban)". Molecules 2008 (13): 2181-2189. doi:10.3390/molecules13092181. https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/13/9/2181/pdf. Retrieved 2 September 2021. 
  66. Pole, Sebastian (2013) Ayurvedic Medicine: The Principles of Traditional Practice. Singing Dragon Press. p.179
  67. "Boswellia serrata". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 15 October 2014.
  68. Dragos, Dorin; Gilca, Marilena; Gaman, Laura; Vlad, Adelina; Iosif, Liviu; Stoian, Irina; Lupescu, Olivera (2017-01-16). "Phytomedicine in Joint Disorders". Nutrients 9 (1): 70. doi:10.3390/nu9010070. ISSN 2072-6643. PMID 28275210. PMC 5295114. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5295114/. 
  69. Cameron, M; Chrubasik, S (22 May 2014). "Oral herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (5): CD002947. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002947.pub2. ISSN 1469-493X. PMID 24848732. PMC 4494689. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4494689/. 
  70. Mehrzadi, S.; Tavakolifar, B.; Huseini, H. F.; Mosavat, S. H.; Heydari, M. (2018). "The Effects of Boswellia serrata Gum Resin on the Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile of Diabetic Patients: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.". Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine 23: 2515690X18772728. doi:10.1177/2515690X18772728. PMID 29774768. PMC 5960856. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5960856/. 
  71. "Camellias from China". Rhododendron Dell — Plant collections. Dunedin Botanic Garden. 8 Mar 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2016.
  72. Camellia sasanqua in BoDD – Botanical Dermatology Database
  73. Khan N, Mukhtar H (2013). "Tea and health: studies in humans". Current Pharmaceutical Design 19 (34): 6141–7. doi:10.2174/1381612811319340008. PMID 23448443. PMC 4055352. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4055352/. 
  74. 74.0 74.1 I.T. Johnson & G. Williamson, Phytochemical functional foods, Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing, 2003, pp. 135-145
  75. Committee on Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer, Assembly of Life Sciences, National Research Council, Diet, nutrition, and cancer, Washington: D.C National Academies Press, 1982, p. 286.
  76. USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods, Release 2.1 (2007)
  77. 77.0 77.1 77.2 "Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (tea), including catechins in green tea, and improvement of endothelium-dependent vasodilation (ID 1106, 1310), maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 1310, 2657), maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations (ID 1108), maintenance of normal blood LDL cholesterol concentrations (ID 2640), protection of the skin from UV-induced (including photo-oxidative) damage (ID 1110, 1119), protection of DNA from oxidative damage (ID 1120, 1121), protection of lipids from oxidative damage (ID 1275), contribution to normal cognitive function (ID 1117, 2812), "cardiovascular system" (ID 2814), "invigoration of the body" (ID 1274, 3280), decreasing potentially pathogenic gastro-intestinal microorganisms (ID 1118), "immune health" (ID 1273) and "mouth" (ID 2813) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006". European Food Safety Authority. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
  78. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA)2, 3 European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy (2010). "Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to various food(s)/food constituent(s) and protection of cells from premature aging, antioxidant activity, antioxidant content and antioxidant properties, and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061". EFSA Journal 8 (2): 1489. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1489. 
  79. A. Bascom, Incorporating herbal medicine into clinical practice, Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company, 2002, p. 153.
  80. Seeram, Navindra P.; Henning, Susanne M.; Niu, Yantao; Lee, Rupo; Scheuller, H. Samuel; Heber, David (2006-03-01). "Catechin and Caffeine Content of Green Tea Dietary Supplements and Correlation with Antioxidant Capacity". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54 (5): 1599–1603. doi:10.1021/jf052857r. ISSN 0021-8561. PMID 16506807. 
  81. "Update on the USP Green Tea Extract Monograph". USP. April 10, 2009.
  82. 82.0 82.1 82.2 "Green tea". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. September 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2018. Green tea extracts haven't been shown to produce a meaningful weight loss in overweight or obese adults. They also haven't been shown to help people maintain a weight loss.
  83. Filippini, T; Malavolti, M; Borrelli, F; Izzo, AA; Fairweather-Tait, SJ; Horneber, M; Vinceti, M (March 2020). "Green tea (Camellia sinensis) for the prevention of cancer.". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3: CD005004. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005004.pub3. PMID 32118296. PMC 7059963. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059963/. 
  84. 84.0 84.1 Filippini T, Malavolti M, Borrelli F, Izzo AA, Fairweather-Tait SJ, Horneber M (2020). "Green tea (Camellia sinensis) for the prevention of cancer.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3: CD005004. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005004.pub3. PMID 32118296. PMC 7059963. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059963/. 
  85. Hou IC, Amarnani S, Chong MT, Bishayee A (June 2013). "Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer: epidemiological evidence". World J Gastroenterol 19 (24): 3713–22. doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i24.3713. PMID 23840110. PMC 3699047. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3699047/. 
  86. Caini, S; Cattaruzza, MS; Bendinelli, B; Tosti, G; Masala, G; Gnagnarella, P; Assedi, M; Stanganelli, I et al. (February 2017). "Coffee, tea and caffeine intake and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer: a review of the literature and meta-analysis". European Journal of Nutrition 56 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1007/s00394-016-1253-6. PMID 27388462. 
  87. Jia L, Liu FT (December 2013). "Why bortezomib cannot go with 'green'?". Cancer Biol Med 10 (4): 206–13. doi:10.7497/j.issn.2095-3941.2013.04.004. PMID 24349830. PMC 3860349. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3860349/. 
  88. Tang J, Zheng JS, Fang L, Jin Y, Cai W, Li D (July 2015). "Tea consumption and mortality of all cancers, CVD and all causes: a meta-analysis of eighteen prospective cohort studies". Br J Nutr 114 (5): 673–83. doi:10.1017/S0007114515002329. PMID 26202661. 
  89. Zhang C, Qin YY, Wei X, Yu FF, Zhou YH, He J (February 2015). "Tea consumption and risk of cardiovascular outcomes and total mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies". Eur J Epidemiology 30 (2): 103–13. doi:10.1007/s10654-014-9960-x. PMID 25354990. 
  90. 90.0 90.1 Kromhout, D; Spaaij, CJ; de Goede, J; Weggemans, RM (August 2016). "The 2015 Dutch food-based dietary guidelines". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70 (8): 869–78. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.52. PMID 27049034. PMC 5399142. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5399142/. 
  91. Liu G, Mi XN, Zheng XX, Xu YL, Lu J, Huang XH (October 2014). "Effects of tea intake on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". Br J Nutr 112 (7): 1043–54. doi:10.1017/S0007114514001731. PMID 25137341. 
  92. Khalesi S, Sun J, Buys N, Jamshidi A, Nikbakht-Nasrabadi E, Khosravi-Boroujeni H (September 2014). "Green tea catechins and blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". Eur J Nutr 53 (6): 1299–1311. doi:10.1007/s00394-014-0720-1. PMID 24861099. 
  93. Mozaffarian, D (January 2016). "Dietary and Policy Priorities for Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes, and Obesity: A Comprehensive Review". Circulation 133 (2): 187–225. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.018585. PMID 26746178. PMC 4814348. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4814348/. 
  94. 94.0 94.1 Onakpoya, I; Spencer, E; Heneghan, C; Thompson, M (August 2014). "The effect of green tea on blood pressure and lipid profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials". Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 24 (8): 823–36. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2014.01.016. PMID 24675010. 
  95. 95.0 95.1 95.2 Larsson SC (January 2014). "Coffee, tea, and cocoa and risk of stroke". Stroke 45 (1): 309–14. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.003131. PMID 24326448. 
  96. Liu K, Zhou R, Wang B, Chen K, Shi LY, Zhu JD, Mi MT (August 2013). "Effect of green tea on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials". Am J Clin Nutr 98 (2): 340–8. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.052746. PMID 23803878. 
  97. Zheng XX, Xu YL, Li SH, Hui R, Wu YJ, Huang XH (April 2013). "Effects of green tea catechins with or without caffeine on glycemic control in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Am J Clin Nutr 97 (4): 750–62. doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.032573. PMID 23426037. 
  98. Zheng XX, Xu YL, Li SH, Liu XX, Hui R, Huang XH (August 2011). "Green tea intake lowers fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol in adults: a meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials". Am J Clin Nutr 94 (2): 601–10. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.010926. PMID 21715508. 
  99. Serban C, Sahebkar A, Antal D, Ursoniu S, Banach M (September 2015). "Effects of supplementation with green tea catechins on plasma C-reactive protein concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Nutrition 31 (9): 1061–71. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2015.02.004. PMID 26233863. 
  100. Jurgens TM, Whelan AM, Killian L, Doucette S, Kirk S, Foy E (2012). "Green tea for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults". Cochrane Database Syst Rev 12: CD008650. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008650.pub2. PMID 23235664. 
  101. "Green Tea". LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury. National Institutes of Health. Green tea extract and, more rarely, ingestion of large amounts of green tea have been implicated in cases of clinically apparent acute liver injury, including instances of acute liver failure and either need for urgent liver transplantation or death.
  102. Mazzanti, Gabriela; Di Sotto, Antonella; Vitalone, Annabella (2015). "Hepatotoxicity of green tea: An update". Archives of Toxicology 89 (8): 1175–1191. doi:10.1007/s00204-015-1521-x. PMID 25975988. 
  103. Javaid A, Bonkovsky HL (2006). "Hepatotoxicity due to extracts of Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis): a growing concern". J Hepatol 45 (2): 334–336. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2006.05.005. PMID 16793166. 
  104. 104.0 104.1 104.2 EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (2018). "Scientific opinion on the safety of green tea catechins". EFSA Journal 16 (4): e05239. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5239. ISSN 1831-4732. PMID 32625874. PMC 7009618. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009618/. 
  105. 105.0 105.1 "Spices, cinnamon, ground". FoodData Central. Agricultural Research Service. 1 April 2019. Archived from the original on 5 September 2020. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  106. "Citrus ×sinensis (L.) Osbeck (pro sp.) (maxima × reticulata) sweet orange". Plants.USDA.gov.
  107. 107.0 107.1 107.2 Xu, Q; Chen, LL; Ruan, X; Chen, D; Zhu, A; Chen, C; Bertrand, D; Jiao, WB et al. (Jan 2013). "The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)". Nature Genetics 45 (1): 59–66. doi:10.1038/ng.2472. PMID 23179022. 
  108. "Orange Fruit Information". 9 June 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  109. "Orange fruit nutrition facts and health benefits". Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  110. "Oranges: Health Benefits, Risks & Nutrition Facts". Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  111. Andrés García Lor (2013). Organización de la diversidad genética de los cítricos (PDF) (Thesis). p. 79.
  112. Velasco, R; Licciardello, C (2014). "A genealogy of the citrus family". Nature Biotechnology 32 (7): 640–642. doi:10.1038/nbt.2954. PMID 25004231. 
  113. Aschoff JK, Kaufmann S, Kalkan O, Neidhart S, Carle R, Schweiggert RM (2015). "In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Carotenoids, Flavonoids, and Vitamin C from Differently Processed Oranges and Orange Juices [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck]". J Agric Food Chem 63 (2): 578–87. doi:10.1021/jf505297t. PMID 25539394. 
  114. Perez-Cacho PR, Rouseff RL (2008). "Fresh squeezed orange juice odor: a review". Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 48 (7): 681–95. doi:10.1080/10408390701638902. PMID 18663618. 
  115. Barros HR, Ferreira TA, Genovese MI (2012). "Antioxidant capacity and mineral content of pulp and peel from commercial cultivars of citrus from Brazil". Food Chem 134 (4): 1892–8. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.03.090. PMID 23442635. 
  116. Rice, Patty C., Amber: Golden Gem of the Ages, Author House, Bloomington, 2006 p.321
  117. Pliny the Elder [-79 CE], trans. John Bostock and Henry Thomas Riley, "Wines Drunk by the Ancient Romans", The Natural History [c. 77 CE], book 14, ch. 15. London: H.G. Bohn, 1855. 253.,Available online at books.google.com/books?id=A0EMAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA253
  118. "Species Information". www.worldagroforestrycentre.org. Archived from the original on 2011-09-30. Retrieved 2009-01-15.
  119. "ICS-UNIDO – MAPs". www.ics.trieste.it. Archived from the original on 2011-08-09. Retrieved 2009-01-16.
  120. Al Faraj, S (2005). "Antagonism of the anticoagulant effect of warfarin caused by the use of Commiphora molmol as a herbal medication: A case report". Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 99 (2): 219–20. doi:10.1179/136485905X17434. PMID 15814041. 
  121. Tierra, Michael (June 3, 2019). "The Emmenagogues: Herbs that move blood and relieve pain: Myrrh". East West School of Planetary Herbology. Retrieved 2019-06-05.
  122. Michael Moore Materia Medica
  123. Tillotson, A., Chrysalis Natural Medicine Clinic, Myrrh Gum (Commiphora myrrha)] https://web.archive.org/web/20070614230838/http://oneearthherbs.squarespace.com/important-herbs/myrrh-gum-commiphora-myrrha.html 2007-06-14
  124. Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases
  125. 125.0 125.1 125.2 125.3 Nelson, KM; Dahlin, JL; Bisson, J; Graham, J; Pauli, GF; Walters, MA (2017). "The Essential Medicinal Chemistry of Curcumin: Miniperspective". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 60 (5): 1620–1637. doi:10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00975. PMID 28074653. PMC 5346970. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5346970/. "None of these studies [has] yet led to the approval of curcumin, curcuminoids, or turmeric as a therapeutic for any disease" 
  126. "Curcumin". PubChem, US National Library of Medicine. 21 November 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  127. Tayyem RF, Heath DD, Al-Delaimy WK, Rock CL (2006). "Curcumin content of turmeric and curry powders". Nutr Cancer 55 (2): 126–131. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc5502_2. PMID 17044766. 
  128. Hong, SL; Lee, G. S; Syed Abdul Rahman, SN; Ahmed Hamdi, OA; Awang, K; Aznam Nugroho, N; Abd Malek, SN (2014). "Essential Oil Content of the Rhizome of Curcuma purpurascens Bl. (Temu Tis) and Its Antiproliferative Effect on Selected Human Carcinoma Cell Lines". The Scientific World Journal 2014: 1–7. doi:10.1155/2014/397430. PMID 25177723. PMC 4142718. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4142718/. 
  129. Hu, Y; Kong, W; Yang, X; Xie, L; Wen, J; Yang, M (2014). "GC-MS combined with chemometric techniques for the quality control and original discrimination of Curcumae longae rhizome: Analysis of essential oils". Journal of Separation Science 37 (4): 404–11. doi:10.1002/jssc.201301102. PMID 24311554. 
  130. Braga, ME; Leal, PF; Carvalho, JE; Meireles, MA (2003). "Comparison of yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extracts obtained using various techniques". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51 (22): 6604–11. doi:10.1021/jf0345550. PMID 14558784. 
  131. 131.0 131.1 "Turmeric". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. May 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  132. Daily, JW; Yang, M; Park, S (2016). "Efficacy of Turmeric Extracts and Curcumin for Alleviating the Symptoms of Joint Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials". Journal of Medicinal Food 19 (8): 717–29. doi:10.1089/jmf.2016.3705. PMID 27533649. PMC 5003001. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5003001/. 
  133. Vaughn, A. R.; Branum, A; Sivamani, RK (2016). "Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) on Skin Health: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence". Phytotherapy Research 30 (8): 1243–64. doi:10.1002/ptr.5640. PMID 27213821. 
  134. White CM, Pasupuleti V, Roman YM, Li Y, Hernandez AV (August 2019). "Oral turmeric/curcumin effects on inflammatory markers in chronic inflammatory diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Pharmacol Res 146: 104280. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2019.104280. PMID 31121255. 
  135. Wang Z, Singh A, Jones G, Winzenberg T, Ding C, Chopra A, Das S, Danda D, Laslett L, Antony B (January 2021). "Efficacy and Safety of Turmeric Extracts for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials". Curr Rheumatol Rep 23 (2): 11. doi:10.1007/s11926-020-00975-8. PMID 33511486. 
  136. "Equisetum telmateia". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  137. Hyde, H. A., Wade, A. E., & Harrison, S. G. (1978). Welsh Ferns. National Museum of Wales ISBN:0-7200-0210-9
  138. Phytopharmaceutical Aspect Of Freeze Dried Water Extract From Tongkat Ali Roots (MS 2409:2011). Malaysia: Scientific and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia. 2011. https://www.msonline.gov.my/download_file.php?file=25552&source=production. Retrieved 2016-08-17. 
  139. Tran, Thi Van Anh; Malainer, Clemens; Schwaiger, Stefan; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H.; Dirsch, Verena M.; Stuppner, Hermann (2014). "NF-κB Inhibitors from Eurycoma longifolia". Journal of Natural Products 77 (3): 483–488. doi:10.1021/np400701k. PMID 24467387. 
  140. Nyerges, Christopher (2016). Foraging Wild Edible Plants of North America: More than 150 Delicious Recipes Using Nature's Edibles. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-4930-1499-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=RwDHCgAAQBAJ. 
  141. Katzer's Spice Pages: Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)
  142. Badgujar, Shamkant B.; Patel, Vainav V.; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H. (2014). "Foeniculum vulgareMill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology". BioMed Research International 2014: 842674. doi:10.1155/2014/842674. ISSN 2314-6133. PMID 25162032. PMC 4137549. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4137549/. 
  143. Díaz-Maroto, M. C; Díaz-Maroto Hidalgo, I. J; Sánchez-Palomo, E; Pérez-Coello, M. S (2005). "Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and supercritical fluid extraction". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (13): 5385–9. doi:10.1021/jf050340+. PMID 15969523. 
  144. Uusitalo, L; Salmenhaara, M; Isoniemi, M; Garcia-Alvarez, A; Serra-Majem, L; Ribas-Barba, L; Finglas, P; Plumb, J et al. (2016). "Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers". Food Chemistry 194: 619–25. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.08.057. PMID 26471600. 
  145. 145.0 145.1 Crane, Peter R. (2013). Ginkgo: The Tree That Time Forgot. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 242. ISBN 9780300213829. 
  146. "Ginkgo". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. 1 August 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  147. "Ginkgo biloba". Drugs.com. 10 December 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  148. Faran, Mina; Tcherni, Anna (1997). Medicinal herbs in Modern Medicine (ṣimḥei marpé bir'fū'ah ha-modernīt). 1. Jerusalem: Akademon (Hebrew University of Jerusalem). pp. 77–78. ISBN 965-350-068-6. , s.v. Ginkgo biloba
  149. "Ginkgo folium". European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  150. "Hedychium coronarium in Flora of China @ efloras.org". www.efloras.org. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
  151. "Hedychium coronarium (white butterfly ginger lily)". www.cabi.org. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
  152. 152.0 152.1 Grubben, Gerardus J. H. (2004). Vegetables. PROTA. pp. 312–313. ISBN 978-90-5782-147-9. https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_6jrlyOPfr24C. 
  153. Tsumbu CN, Deby-Dupont G, Tits M, Angenot L, Frederich M, Kohnen S, Mouithys-Mickalad A, Serteyn D, Franck T (2012). "Polyphenol Content and Modulatory Activities of Some Tropical Dietary Plant Extracts on the Oxidant Activities of Neutrophils and Myeloperoxidase". International Journal of Molecular Sciences 13 (1): 628–650. doi:10.3390/ijms13010628. PMID 22312276. PMC 3269710. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3269710/. 
  154. Zhen, Jing, et al. "Phytochemistry, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and anti-inflammatory activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves." Food chemistry 190 (2016): 673-680
  155. https://biologicalstaincommission.org/the-stain-extracted-from-roselle-is-not-daphniphylline/
  156. Mohamed R. Fernandez J. Pineda M. Aguilar M.."Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seed oil is a rich source of gamma-tocopherol." Journal of Food Science. 72(3):S207-11, 2007 Apr.
  157. Lowry, J.B. (1976). “Floral anthocyanins of some Malesian Hibiscus species”. Phytochemistry 15: 1395–1396.
  158. (Masuda et al., 1999; 2005)
  159. (Wong et al., 2009; Wong & Chan, 2010).
  160. Oxford English Dictionary
  161. Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  162. Lawton, Barbara Perry (2004). Hibiscus: Hardy and Tropical Plants for the Garden. Timber Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-88192-6545. https://books.google.com/books?id=VSEbamKS5uQC. 
  163. Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, ἰβίσκος
  164. Brickell, Christopher, ed (2008). The Royal Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 534. ISBN 9781405332965. 
  165. "Hippomane mancinella". Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
  166. McLendon, Russell. "Why manchineel might be Earth's most dangerous tree". Mother Nature Network. Narrative Content Group. Retrieved 2015-11-29.
  167. 167.0 167.1 167.2 Zangara, A (2003). "The psychopharmacology of huperzine A: an alkaloid with cognitive enhancing and neuroprotective properties of interest in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 75 (3): 675–686. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(03)00111-4. PMID 12895686. 
  168. Lim, WH; Goodger, JQ; Field, AR; Holtum, JA; Woodrow, IE (2010). "Huperzine alkaloids from Australasian and southeast Asian Huperzia". Pharmaceutical Biology 48 (9): 1073–1078. doi:10.3109/13880209.2010.485619. PMID 20731560. 
  169. 169.0 169.1 Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Tian, Jinzhou; Liu, Jian-Ping (2013). "Huperzine A for Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials". PLOS ONE 8 (9): e74916. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074916. PMID 24086396. PMC 3781107. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3781107/. 
  170. Li, J; Wu, HM; Zhou, RL; Liu, GJ; Dong, BR (16 April 2008). "Huperzine A for Alzheimer's disease". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews CD005592 (2): CD005592. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005592.pub2. PMID 18425924. 
  171. 171.0 171.1 Wang, R; Yan, H; Tang, XC (January 2006). "Progress in studies of huperzine A, a natural cholinesterase inhibitor from Chinese herbal medicine". Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 27 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7254.2006.00255.x. PMID 16364207. http://www.chinaphar.com/article/view/3574. Retrieved 6 December 2017. 
  172. Meletis, Chris D.; Jason E. Barke (2004). Herbs and Nutrients for the Mind: A Guide to Natural Brain Enhancers. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 191. ISBN 978-0275983949. https://books.google.com/books?id=a5AMBY9ekzcC&q=Huperzine&pg=PA191. 
  173. Wang, BS; Wang, H; Wei, ZH; Song, YY; Zhang, L; Chen, HZ (2009). "Efficacy and safety of natural acetylcholinesterase inhibitor huperzine A in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: an updated meta-analysis". Journal of Neural Transmission 116 (4): 457–465. doi:10.1007/s00702-009-0189-x. PMID 19221692. https://www.scribd.com/doc/295031747/Efficacy-and-Safety-of-Natural-Acetylcholinesterase-Inhibitor-Huperzine-a-in-the-Treatment-of-Alzheimer-s-Disease-An-Updated-Meta-Analysis. 
  174. Tang, X.C.; He, X.C.; Bai, D.L. (1999). "Huperzine A: A novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitor". Drugs of the Future 24 (6): 647. doi:10.1358/dof.1999.024.06.545143. 
  175. Coleman, BR; Ratcliffe, RH; Oguntayo, SA; Shi, X; Doctor, BP; Gordon, RK; Nambiar, MP (2008). "[+]-Huperzine A treatment protects against N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced seizure/status epilepticus in rats". Chemico-Biological Interactions 175 (1–3): 387–395. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2008.05.023. PMID 18588864. 
  176. Patocka, J (1998). "Huperzine A - an interesting anticholinesterase compound from the Chinese herbal medicine". Acta Medica 41 (4): 155–7. doi:10.14712/18059694.2019.181. PMID 9951045. ftp://orbis.lfhk.cuni.cz/Acta_Medica/1998/!AM498.PDF. 
  177. Raves, ML; Harel, M; Pang, YP; Silman, I; Kozikowski, AP; Sussman, JL (1997). "Structure of acetylcholinesterase complexed with the nootropic alkaloid, (–)-huperzine A". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 4 (1): 57–63. doi:10.1038/nsb0197-57. PMID 8989325. 
  178. Bai, DL; Tang, XC; He, XC (2000). "Huperzine A, A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease". Current Medicinal Chemistry 7 (3): 355–374. doi:10.2174/0929867003375281. PMID 10637369. 
  179. Talbott, SM (2012). Huperzine A (HupA). Routledge. pp. 304–. ISBN 978-1-136-80570-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=9ZZrW_j9XrcC&pg=PA304. 
  180. "Lucid Dreaming: A Beginner's Guide". The Four Hour Work Week. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
  181. Zhang Q, Cai L, Zhong G, Luo W (2010). "Simultaneous determination of jatrorrhizine, palmatine, berberine, and obacunone in Phellodendri Amurensis Cortex by RP-HPLC". Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi = Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi = China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica 35 (16): 2061–4. doi:10.4268/cjcmm20101603. PMID 21046728. 
  182. Robson, Norman K.B. "Hypericaceae Jussieu: St John's Wort Family". Flora of North America. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
  183. "St. John's Wort". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, US National Institutes of Health. September 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
  184. Barnes, J.; Anderson, L.A.; Phillipson, J.D. (2007). Herbal Medicines (3rd ed.). London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. ISBN 978-0-85369-623-0. https://web.archive.org/web/20180701140306/http://file.zums.ac.ir/ebook/366-Herbal%20Medicines,%20Third%20edition-Joanne%20Barnes%20J.%20David%20Phillipson%20Linda%20A.%20Anderson-085369623.pdf. Retrieved 7 February 2015. 
  185. Greeson, Jeffrey M.; Sanford, Britt; Monti, Daniel A. (February 2001). "St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum): a review of the current pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical literature". Psychopharmacology 153 (4): 402–414. doi:10.1007/s002130000625. PMID 11243487. 
  186. 186.0 186.1 Mehta, Sweety (2012-12-18). "Pharmacognosy of St. John's Wort". Pharmaxchange.info. Retrieved 2014-02-16.
  187. Umek A, Kreft S, Kartnig T, Heydel B (1999). "Quantitative phytochemical analyses of six hypericum species growing in slovenia". Planta Med. 65 (4): 388–90. doi:10.1055/s-2006-960798. PMID 17260265. 
  188. Tatsis EC, Boeren S, Exarchou V, Troganis AN, Vervoort J, Gerothanassis IP (2007). "Identification of the major constituents of Hypericum perforatum by LC/SPE/NMR and/or LC/MS". Phytochemistry 68 (3): 383–93. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.11.026. PMID 17196625. 
  189. Schwob I, Bessière JM, Viano J.Composition of the essential oils of Hypericum perforatum L. from southeastern France.C R Biol. 2002;325:781-5.
  190. Agastian, P.; Williams, Lincy; Ignacimuthu, S. (April 2006). "In vitro propagation of Justicia gendarussa Burm. f.–A medicinal plant". Indian Journal of Biotechnology 5 (2): 246–248. ISSN 0975-0967. http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/7756. 
  191. Dennis Thomas, T.; Yoichiro, Hoshino (September 2010). "In vitro propagation for the conservation of a rare medicinal plant Justicia gendarussa Burm. f. by nodal explants and shoot regeneration from callus". Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 32 (5): 943–950. doi:10.1007/s11738-010-0482-1. ISSN 0137-5881. http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11738-010-0482-1. 
  192. medicinal uses pharmacographica indica
  193. Patrick Winn (February 27, 2011). "Indonesia's birth control pill for men". GlobalPost. Retrieved March 2, 2011.
  194. Indonesian Plant Shows Promise for Male Birth Control PBS NewsHour, July 20, 2011
  195. "Indonesia is about to start producing a male birth control pill that will change the world". Coconuts Jakarta. 24 November 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
  196. 196.0 196.1 Zhang, Hong-Jie; Rumschlag-Booms, Emily; Guan, Yi-Fu; Wang, Dong-Ying; Liu, Kang-Lun; Li, Wan-Fei; Nguyen, Van H.; Cuong, Nguyen M. et al.. "Potent Inhibitor of Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Strains Identified from the Medicinal Plant Justicia gendarussa". Journal of Natural Products 80 (6): 1798–1807. doi:10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00004. PMID 28613071. 
  197. Labmanager /2017/06/ plant compound more powerful than azt
  198. 198.0 198.1 "Pakistan Journal of Botany". pakbs.org. Retrieved 2021-12-04.
  199. Widyowati, Retno; Agil, Mangestuti (2018). "Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Several Indonesian Plants Typically Used in Jamu". Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 66 (5): 506–518. doi:10.1248/cpb.c17-00983. PMID 29710047. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/cpb/66/5/66_c17-00983/_article. 
  200. Ratih, Gusti Ayu Made; Imawati, Maria Fatmadewi; Purwanti, Diah Intan; Nugroho, Rendra Rizki; Wongso, Suwidji; Prajogo, Bambang; Indrayanto, Gunawan (2019-06-01). "Metabolite Profiling of Justicia gendarussa Herbal Drug Preparations". Natural Product Communications 14 (6): 1934578X19856252. doi:10.1177/1934578X19856252. ISSN 1934-578X. https://doi.org/10.1177/1934578X19856252. 
  201. Kavitha, S. K.; Viji, V.; Kripa, K.; Helen, A. (2011-07-01). "Protective effect of Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. on carrageenan-induced inflammation". Journal of Natural Medicines 65 (3): 471–479. doi:10.1007/s11418-011-0524-z. ISSN 1861-0293. PMID 21416126. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11418-011-0524-z. 
  202. Aye, Mya Mu; Aung, Hnin Thanda; Sein, Myint Myint; Armijos, Chabaco (January 2019). "A Review on the Phytochemistry, Medicinal Properties and Pharmacological Activities of 15 Selected Myanmar Medicinal Plants". Molecules 24 (2): 293. doi:10.3390/molecules24020293. PMID 30650546. PMC 6359042. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6359042/. 
  203. "Growing and harvesting Mānuka honey". New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  204. "Native honey a sweet antibacterial". Australian Geographic. 2011-03-06. https://web.archive.org/web/20110306093531/http://www.australiangeographic.com.au/journal/native-honey-a-sweet-antibacterial.htm. 
  205. Amiri ZM, Tanideh N, Seddighi A, Mokhtari M, Amini M, Partovi AS, Manafi A, Hashemi SS, Mehrabani D. 2017. The effect of Lithospermum officinale, silver sulfadiazine and alpha ointments in healing of burn wound injuries in rat. World J Plast Surg 6(3): 313–318.
  206. 206.0 206.1 206.2 Shang, X.; Pan, H.; Li, M.; Miao, X.; Ding, H. (2011). "Lonicera japonica Thunb.: Ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important traditional Chinese medicine". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 138 (1): 1–21. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.08.016. PMID 21864666. PMC 7127058. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7127058/. 
  207. Chinese Medical Herbology and Pharmacology, John and Tina Chen, Art of Medicine Press, 1st ed. 2001, p. 171
  208. Bensky, Dan; Barolet, Randall. Chinese Herbal Medicine Formulas & Strategies (2nd ed.). Eastland Press. p. 44. 
  209. Kadioglu, Onat; Saeed, Mohamed; Greten, Henry Johannes; Efferth, Thomas (June 2021). "Identification of novel compounds against three targets of SARS CoV-2 coronavirus by combined virtual screening and supervised machine learning". Computers in Biology and Medicine 133: 104359. doi:10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104359. PMC 8008812. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008812/. 
  210. Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Bhandari, Pamita; Gupta, Ajai P.; Uniyal, Sanjay K.; Kaul, Vijay K. (2005). "Biflavonoids from Lonicera japonica". Phytochemistry 66 (23): 2740–4. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.10.002. PMID 16293275. 
  211. Peng, Youyuan; Liu, Fanghua; Ye, Jiannong (2005). "Determination of Phenolic Acids and Flavones in Lonicera japonica Thumb. By Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection". Electroanalysis 17 (4): 356. doi:10.1002/elan.200403102. 
  212. Kakuda, Rie; Imai, Mio; Yaoita, Yasunori; Machida, Koichi; Kikuchi, Masao (2000). "Secoiridoid glycosides from the flower buds of Lonicera japonica". Phytochemistry 55 (8): 879–81. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00279-X. PMID 11140518. 
  213. Ho Son, Kun; Young Jung, Keun; Wook Chang, Hyeun; Pyo Kim, Hyun; Sik Kang, Sam (1994). "Triterpenoid saponins from the aerial parts of Lonicera japonica". Phytochemistry 35 (4): 1005–8. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)90656-3. PMID 7764625. 
  214. Kwak, Wie Jong; Han, Chang Kyun; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Kim, Hyun Pyo; Kang, Sam Sik; Son, Kun Ho (2003). "Loniceroside C, an Antiinflammatory Saponin from Lonicera japonica". Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 51 (3): 333–5. doi:10.1248/cpb.51.333. PMID 12612424. 
  215. 215.0 215.1 215.2 215.3 Olivier Potterat (2010): "Goji (Lycium barbarum and L. chinense): Phytochemistry, pharmacology and safety in the perspective of traditional uses and recent popularity". Planta medica, volume 76, issue 1, pages 7-19. doi=10.1055/s-0029-1186218
  216. Loraine Bonturi (2015), "Attività farmacologiche e possibili bersagli molecolari dei polisaccaridi del Lycium barbarum (LBP)" Graduation Thesis, Pharmacy Department, University of Pisa. Accessed on 2018-06-12.
  217. "Lycium europaeum". letsplant.org. Let's Plant. 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  218. "Lycium europaeum L." Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  219. Aidi Wannes, Wissem; Saidani Tounsi, Moufida (2020). "Phytochemical composition and health properties of Lycium europaeum L.: A review". Acta Ecologica Sinica. doi:10.1016/j.chnaes.2020.09.008. 
  220. Han, H.; Jung, J.K.; Han, S.B.; Nam, S.Y.; Oh, K.W.; Hong, J.T. (2011). "Anxiolytic-like effects of 4-O-methylhonokiol isolated from magnolia officinalis through enhancement of GABAergic transmission and chloride influx". Journal of Medicinal Food 14 (7–8): 724–731. doi:10.1089/jmf.2010.1111. PMID 21501091. 
  221. Kalman, D.S.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, R.; Schwartz, H.I.; Krieger, D.R.; Garrison, R. (2008). "Effect of a proprietary Magnolia and Phellodendron extract on stress levels in healthy women: A pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial". Nutrition Journal 7 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-7-11. PMID 18426577. PMC 2359758. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2359758/. 
  222. Ma, L.; Chen, J.; Wang, X.; Liang, X.; Luo, Y.; Zhu, W.; Wang, T.; Peng, M. et al. (2011). "Structural modification of honokiol, a biphenyl occurring in magnolia officinalis: The evaluation of honokiol analogues as inhibitors of angiogenesis and for their cytotoxicity and structure-activity relationship". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 54 (19): 6469–6481. doi:10.1021/jm200830u. PMID 21853991. 
  223. Fried, L.E.; Arbiser, J.L. (2009). "Honokiol, a multifunctional antiangiogenic and antitumor agent". Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 11 (5): 1139–1148. doi:10.1089/ars.2009.2440. PMID 19203212. 
  224. Hu J.; Chen L.-J.; Liu L.; Chen X.; Chen P.; Yang G.-L.; Hou W.-L.; Tang M.-H. et al. (2008). "Liposomal honokiol, a potent anti-angiogenesis agent, in combination with radiotherapy produces a synergistic antitumor efficacy without increasing toxicity". Experimental & Molecular Medicine 40 (6): 617–628. doi:10.3858/emm.2008.40.6.617. PMID 19116447. 
  225. Lee YJ, Lee YM, Lee CK, Jung JK, Han SB, Hong JT (2011). "Therapeutic applications of compounds in the Magnolia family". Pharmacol. Ther. 130 (2): 157–176. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2011.01.010. PMID 21277893. 
  226. Fakhrudin, N.; Ladurner, A.; Atanasov, A.G.; Heiss, E.H.; Baumgartner, L.; Markt, P.; Schuster, D.; Ellmerer, E.P. et al. (April 2010). "Computer-aided discovery, validation, and mechanistic characterization of novel neolignan activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma". Mol. Pharmacol. 77 (4): 559–66. doi:10.1124/mol.109.062141. PMID 20064974. 
  227. Atanasov AG, Wang JN, Gu SP, Bu J, Kramer MP, Baumgartner L, Fakhrudin N, Ladurner A, Malainer C, Vuorinen A, Noha SM, Schwaiger S, Rollinger JM, Schuster D, Stuppner H, Dirsch VM, Heiss EH (October 2013). "Honokiol: A non-adipogenic PPARγ agonist from nature". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects 1830 (10): 4813–4819. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.06.021. PMID 23811337. PMC 3790966. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3790966/. 
  228. Lee, Young-Jung; Lee, Yoot Mo; Lee, Chong-Kil; Jung, Jae Kyung; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae (2011). "Therapeutic applications of compounds in the Magnolia family". Pharmacology & Therapeutics 130 (2): 157–76. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2011.01.010. PMID 21277893. 
  229. Zhang Q, Cai L, Zhong G, Luo W (2010). "Simultaneous determination of jatrorrhizine, palmatine, berberine, and obacunone in Phellodendri Amurensis Cortex by RP-HPLC". Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi = Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi = China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica 35 (16): 2061–4. doi:10.4268/cjcmm20101603. PMID 21046728. 
  230. Carson, C. F.; Hammer, K. A.; Riley, T. V. (17 January 2006). "Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil: a Review of Antimicrobial and Other Medicinal Properties". Clinical Microbiology Reviews 19 (1): 50–62. doi:10.1128/CMR.19.1.50-62.2006. PMID 16418522. PMC 1360273. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1360273/. 
  231. O'Brien, Peter; Dougherty, Tony (2007). The effectiveness and safety of Australian Tea Tree oil. Barton, A.C.T.: RIRDC. pp. 9–12. ISBN 978-1741515398. http://www.gelair.com.au/pdf/RIRDC-Paper-Efficacy-and-Toxicity.pdf. Retrieved 19 August 2015. 
  232. Brophy, Joseph J.; Craven, Lyndley A.; Doran, John C. "Melaleuca - Their Botany, Essential Oil and uses (Preliminaries)" (PDF). Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
  233. Doran, John C. (1999). Tea tree: the genus melaleuca. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic. pp. 221–224. ISBN 9057024179. 
  234. Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. Volume 2. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2002. pp. 188, 199. ISBN 978-92-4-154537-2. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2002/9241545372.pdf. Retrieved October 29, 2010. 
  235. Frampton, Alex (2009). The Complete Illustrated Book of Herbs. The Reader's Digest Association. 
  236. "Peppermint". Botanical Online. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  237. 237.0 237.1 "Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha × piperita". 9 March 2012.
  238. "Flora of NW Europe: Mentha × piperita". September 19, 2009.
  239. Thomson Healthcare (2007). PDR for Herbal Medicines (4th ed.). p. 640. ISBN 978-1-56363-678-3. 
  240. Leung, A. Y. (1980). Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients used in food, drugs and cosmetics. New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. 231. ISBN 9780471049548. https://archive.org/details/encyclopediaofco00leun. 
  241. Dolzhenko, Yuliya; Bertea, Cinzia M.; Occhipinti, Andrea; Bossi, Simone; Maffei, Massimo E. (2010). "UV-B modulates the interplay between terpenoids and flavonoids in peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.)". Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 100 (2): 67–75. doi:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2010.05.003. PMID 20627615. 
  242. Duke's Data Base http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/duke/highchem.pl |date=December 2017 }}
  243. Robert Irving Krieger (2001). Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology: Principles. Academic Press. p. 823. ISBN 978-0-12-426260-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=ib8Qhju9EQEC&pg=PA823. Retrieved 11 October 2010. 
  244. "Peppermint Oil = rat repelent". 21 May 2018.
  245. Kumar, Sarita; Wahab, Naim; Warikoo, Radhika (April 2011). "Bioefficacy of Mentha piperita essential oil against dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L". Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 1 (2): 85–8. doi:10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60001-4. PMID 23569733. 
  246. Garrett, Howard (2003). Dear Dirt Doctor: Questions Answered the Natural Way. University of Texas Press. p. 54. ISBN 9781477304143. https://books.google.com/books?id=k2rUBAAAQBAJ. 
  247. Singh, Bharat P. (2010). Industrial Crops and Uses. Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International. p. 144. ISBN 9781845936167. https://books.google.com/books?id=I1j2ZtzZXgUC. 
  248. Schmidt, E.; Bail, S.; Buchbauer, G.; Stoilova, I.; Atanasova, T.; Stoyanova, A.; Krastanov, A.; Jirovetz, L. (2009). "Chemical composition, olfactory evaluation and antioxidant effects of essential oil from Mentha x piperita". Natural Product Communications 4 (8): 1107–1112. doi:10.1177/1934578X0900400819. PMID 19768994. 
  249. "Kuwanon G: an antibacterial agent from the root bark of Morus alba against oral pathogens"
  250. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit in hyperlipidaemia rats Yang X., Yang L., Zheng H. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2010 48:8-9 (2374-2379)
  251. Mulberry fruit protects dopaminergic neurons in toxin-induced Parkinson's disease models. Kim H.G., Ju M.S., Shim J.S., Kim M.C., Lee S.H., Huh Y., Kim S.Y., Oh M.S. The British Journal of Nutrition 2010 104:1 (8-16)
  252. Albanol a from the root bark of Morus alba L. induces apoptotic cell death in HL60 human leukemia cell line Kikuchi T., Nihei M., Nagai H., Fukushi H., Tabata K., Suzuki T., Akihisa T. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2010 58:4 (568-571)
  253. In vivo hypoglycemic effects of phenolics from the root bark of Morus alba Zhang M., Chen M., Zhang H.-Q., Sun S., Xia B., Wu F.-H. Fitoterapia 2009 80:8 (475-477)
  254. Mulberroside A Possesses Potent Uricosuric and Nephroprotective Effects in Hyperuricemic Mice Wang C.-P., Wang Y., Wang X., Zhang X., Ye J.-F., Hu L.-S., Kong L.-D. [Article in Press] Planta Medica 2010
  255. Kim, JK; Kim, M; Cho, SG; Kim, MK; Kim, SW; Lim, YH (2010). "Biotransformation of mulberroside a from Morus alba results in enhancement of tyrosinase inhibition". Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology 37 (6): 631–7. doi:10.1007/s10295-010-0722-9. PMID 20411402. 
  256. Adaptogenic effect of Morus alba on chronic footshock-induced stress in rats Nade V.S., Kawale L.A., Naik R.A., Yadav A.V. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2009 41:6
  257. Mulberry leaf extract restores arterial pressure in streptozotocin-induced chronic diabetic rats Naowaboot J., Pannangpetch P., Kukongviriyapan V., Kukongviriyapan U., Nakmareong S., Itharat A. Nutrition Research 2009 29:8 (602-608)
  258. Antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antiglycation activities of mulberry leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced chronic diabetic rats Naowaboot J., Pannangpetch P., Kukongviriyapan V., Kongyingyoes B., Kukongviriyapan U. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 2009 64:2 (116-121)
  259. Neutralization of local and systemic toxicity of Daboia russelii venom by Morus alba plant leaf extract Chandrashekara K.T., Nagaraju S., Usha Nandini S., Basavaiah , Kemparaju K. Phytotherapy Research 2009 23:8 (1082-1087)
  260. Tam, Dao Ngoc Hien; Nam, Nguyen Hai; Elhady, Mohamed Tamer; Tran, Linh; Hassan, Osama Gamal; Sadik, Mohamed; Tien, Phan Thi My; Elshafei, Ghada Amr et al. (2020-05-07). "Effects of Mulberry on the Central Nervous System: A Literature Review". Current Neuropharmacology 18 (2): 193–219. doi:10.2174/1570159X18666200507081531. PMID 32379591. PMC 8033976. http://www.eurekaselect.com/181734/article. 
  261. Zhang, Hongxia; Ma, Zheng Feei; Luo, Xiaoqin; Li, Xinli (2018-05-21). "Effects of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Consumption on Health Outcomes: A Mini-Review". Antioxidants 7 (5): 69. doi:10.3390/antiox7050069. ISSN 2076-3921. PMID 29883416. PMC 5981255. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5981255/. 
  262. Hussain, Fahad; Rana, Zohaib; Shafique, Hassan; Malik, Arif; Hussain, Zahid (2017-10-01). "Phytopharmacological potential of different species of Morus alba and their bioactive phytochemicals: A review". Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 7 (10): 950–956. doi:10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.015. ISSN 2221-1691. 
  263. Metwally, Fateheya Mohamed; Rashad, Hend; Mahmoud, Asmaa Ahmed (March 2019). "Morus alba L. Diminishes visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, behavioral alterations via regulation of gene expression of leptin, resistin and adiponectin in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet". Physiology & Behavior 201: 1–11. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.12.010. ISSN 0031-9384. PMID 30552920. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2018.12.010. 
  264. 264.0 264.1 Andallu, Bondada; Varadacharyulu, N. Ch (2003). "Antioxidant role of mulberry (Morus indica L. cv. Anantha) leaves in streptozotocin-diabetic rats". Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry 338 (1–2): 3–10. doi:10.1016/S0009-8981(03)00322-X. ISSN 0009-8981. PMID 14637259. 
  265. Andallu, B.; Suryakantham, V.; Lakshmi Srikanthi, B.; Reddy, G. K. (2001). "Effect of mulberry (Morus indica L.) therapy on plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes". Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry 314 (1–2): 47–53. doi:10.1016/S0009-8981(01)00632-5. ISSN 0009-8981. PMID 11718678. 
  266. "Effects of Flavonoids in Morus indica on Blood Lipids and Glucose in Hyperlipidemia-diabetic Rats". Chinese Herbal Medicines 4 (4): 314–318. November 2012. doi:10.3969/j.issn.1674-6348.2012.04.008. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1674638412600458. Retrieved 5 April 2019. 
  267. Sohn, H. Y.; Son, K. H.; Kwon, C. S.; Kwon, G. S.; Kang, S. S. (November 2004). "Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of 18 prenylated flavonoids isolated from medicinal plants: Morus alba L., Morus mongolica Schneider, Broussnetia papyrifera (L.) Vent, Sophora flavescens Ait and Echinosophora koreensis Nakai". Phytomedicine 11 (7–8): 666–672. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2003.09.005. ISSN 0944-7113. PMID 15636183. 
  268. 268.0 268.1 Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Jing, Ying; Wang, Guo-Cai; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Hui-Nan; Ye, Wen-Cai (October 2010). "Four new flavonoids from the leaves of Morus mongolica". Fitoterapia 81 (7): 813–815. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2010.04.010. ISSN 0367-326X. PMID 20450963. 
  269. 269.0 269.1 Chen, Hu; Yu, Wansha; Chen, Guo; Meng, Shuai; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia (December 21, 2017). "Antinociceptive and Antibacterial Properties of Anthocyanins and Flavonols from Fruits of Black and Non-Black Mulberries". Molecules 23 (1): 4. January 2018. doi:10.3390/molecules23010004. ISSN 1420-3049. PMID 29267231. PMC 5943937. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5943937/. 
  270. Huang, Lian; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Narukawa, Yuji; Hada, Noriyasu; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki (October 2016). "Application of a new method, orthogonal projection to latent structure (OPLS) combined with principal component analysis (PCA), to screening of prostaglandin E2 production inhibitory flavonoids in Scutellaria Root". Journal of Natural Medicines 70 (4): 731–739. doi:10.1007/s11418-016-1004-2. ISSN 1340-3443. PMID 27164908. 
  271. Shi, Ya-Qin; Fukai, Toshio; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Chang, Wen-Jin; Yang, Pei-Quan; Wang, Feng-Peng; Nomura, Taro (February 2001). "Cytotoxic Flavonoids with Isoprenoid Groups from Morus mongolica". Journal of Natural Products 64 (2): 181–188. doi:10.1021/np000317c. ISSN 0163-3864. PMID 11429996. 
  272. J.M. Suttie (2002). "Morus alba L." United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  273. 273.0 273.1 273.2 273.3 "Morus nigra (black mulberry)". CABI. 20 November 2019. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  274. 274.0 274.1 274.2 James A. Duke (1983). "Morus alba L., Moraceae: White mulberry, Russian mulberry, Silkworm mulberry, Moral blanco". Handbook of Energy Crops. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  275. "Mulberry". California Rare Fruit Growers. 1997. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  276. "Search for Morus". The Plant List, Kew Botanic Gardens. 2013.
  277. Wunderlin, Richard P. (1997). "Broussonetia papyrifera". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 3. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  278. "White mulberry – Morus alba In: Ohio Perennial and Biennial Weed Guide". The Ohio State University. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  279. 279.0 279.1 279.2 "Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to various food(s)/food constituent(s) and protection of cells from premature aging, antioxidant activity, antioxidant content and antioxidant properties, and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061". EFSA Journal (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) 8 (2): 1489. 2010. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1752. 
  280. "Morus nigra". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  281. "Definition And Classification Of Commodities (Draft) 8. Fruits And Derived Products". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
  282. RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. pp. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965. 
  283. Zeng, Q; Chen, H (2015). "Definition of Eight Mulberry Species in the Genus Morus by Internal Transcribed Spacer-Based Phylogeny.". PLOS ONE 10 (8): e0135411. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0135411. PMID 26266951. 
  284. "Nutmeg and derivatives (Review)". Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. September 1994. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  285. 285.0 285.1 "Nutmeg spice, In: Encyclopædia Britannica Online"..
  286. 286.0 286.1 286.2 "Description of components of nutmeg". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. September 1994. Retrieved 2017-04-13.
  287. Abourashed, E. A.; El-Alfy, A. T. (2016). "Chemical diversity and pharmacological significance of the secondary metabolites of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.)". Phytochemistry Reviews 15 (6): 1035–1056. doi:10.1007/s11101-016-9469-x. PMID 28082856. PMC 5222521. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5222521/. 
  288. Piras, A.; Rosa, A.; Marongiu, B.; Atzeri, A.; Dessì, M. A.; Falconieri, D.; Porcedda, S. (2012). "Extraction and separation of volatile and fixed oils from seeds of Myristica fragrans by supercritical CO2: Chemical composition and cytotoxic activity on Caco-2 cancer cells". Journal of Food Science 77 (4): C448–53. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02618.x. PMID 22429024. 
  289. Ehrenpreis, J. E.; Deslauriers, C; Lank, P; Armstrong, P. K.; Leikin, J. B. (2014). "Nutmeg Poisonings: A Retrospective Review of 10 Years Experience from the Illinois Poison Center, 2001–2011". Journal of Medical Toxicology 10 (2): 148–151. doi:10.1007/s13181-013-0379-7. PMID 24452991. PMC 4057546. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4057546/. 
  290. Crask, Paul (2017-11-05). Grenada: Carriacou and Petite Martinique. Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 9781784770624. https://books.google.com/books?id=dKA5DwAAQBAJ&q=nutmeg+essential+oil+toothpaste+cough+syrup&pg=PA21. 
  291. "Nutmeg". www.clovegarden.com. Retrieved 2017-07-22.
  292. Flora of China: Osmanthus fragrans
  293. Flora of Pakistan: Osmanthus fragrans
  294. Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Osmanthus fragrans
  295. Loureiro, João de. 1790. ora Cochinchinensis 1: 29, Osmanthus fragrans
  296. Zhou S.,"Flower herbal tea used for treatment of menopathies"., Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2008 28:3 (202–204)
  297. Lee H.-H., Lin C.-T., Yang L.-L. "Neuroprotection and free radical scavenging effects of Osmanthus fragrans.", Journal of Biomedical Science 2007 14:6 (819–827)
  298. 298.0 298.1 298.2 298.3 298.4 "Avocados, raw, all commercial varieties, per 100 grams". NutritionData.com. 2013. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
  299. Zhang Q, Cai L, Zhong G, Luo W (2010). "Simultaneous determination of jatrorrhizine, palmatine, berberine, and obacunone in Phellodendri Amurensis Cortex by RP-HPLC". Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi = Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi = China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica 35 (16): 2061–4. doi:10.4268/cjcmm20101603. PMID 21046728. 
  300. "Prunus cerasus". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  301. Little, Elbert L. (1980). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees: Eastern Region. New York: Knopf. p. 498. ISBN 0-394-50760-6. 
  302. Webster’s New International Dictionary of the English Language. Springfield, Massachusetts: G. & C. Merriam Co., 1913. See amarelle at p. 67.
  303. 303.0 303.1 Federica Blando, Carmela Gerardi, and Isabella Nicoletti (15 June 2004). "Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L) Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods". Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2004 (5): 253-258. https://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/specialissues/429543.pdf#page=22. Retrieved 2 September 2021. 
  304. Oh, Hyuncheol (2006). "Remophilanetriol: A New Eremophilane from the Roots of Rehmannia glutinosa". ChemInform 37 (2). doi:10.1002/chin.200602189. 
  305. Albert MR (1998). "Novelty shop "itching powder". Australasian Journal of Dermatology 39 (3): 188–9. doi:10.1111/j.1440-0960.1998.tb01281.x. PMID 9737050. 
  306. "Rose Hips, wild (Northern Plains Indians) per 100 g". US Department of Agriculture, National Nutrient Database, Standard Reference Release 28. 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  307. Ziegler SJ (1986). "Fast and Selective Assay of l-Ascorbic Acid in Rose Hips by RP-HPLC Coupled with Electrochemical and/or Spectrophotometric Detection". Planta Medica 52 (5): 383–7. doi:10.1055/s-2007-969192. PMID 17345347. 
  308. Jacoby FC; Wokes F (1944). "Carotene and lycopene in rose hips and other fruit". Biochem J 38 (3): 279–82. doi:10.1042/bj0380279. PMID 16747793. 
  309. Horváth, G; Molnár, P; Radó-Turcsi, E; Deli, J; Kawase, M; Satoh, K; Tanaka, T; Tani, S et al. (2012). "Carotenoid composition and in vitro pharmacological activity of rose hips". Acta Biochimica Polonica 59 (1): 129–32. doi:10.18388/abp.2012_2187. PMID 22428123. http://www.actabp.pl/pdf/1_2012/129.pdf. 
  310. Christensen, R; Bartels, E. M.; Altman, R. D.; Astrup, A; Bliddal, H (2008). "Does the hip powder of Rosa canina (rosehip) reduce pain in osteoarthritis patients?--a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 16 (9): 965–72. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2008.03.001. PMID 18407528. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0026445/. 
  311. McAlindon, T. E.; Bannuru, R. R.; Sullivan, M. C.; Arden, N. K.; Berenbaum, F; Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M.; Hawker, G. A.; Henrotin, Y et al. (2014). "OARSI guidelines for the non-surgical management of knee osteoarthritis". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 22 (3): 363–88. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2014.01.003. PMID 24462672. 
  312. "Nutrition facts for raw blackberries". Nutritiondata.com. Conde Nast. 2012.
  313. Sellappan, S.; Akoh, C. C.; Krewer, G. (2002). "Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Georgia-grown blueberries and blackberries". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (8): 2432–2438. doi:10.1021/jf011097r. PMID 11929309. 
  314. Halvorsen BL, Carlsen MH, Phillips KM (July 2006). "Content of redox-active compounds (ie, antioxidants) in foods consumed in the United States". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84 (1): 95–135. doi:10.1093/ajcn/84.1.95. PMID 16825686. 
  315. Gross PM (1 March 2009). "New Roles for Polyphenols. A 3-Part report on Current Regulations & the State of Science". Nutraceuticals World.
  316. Guo, Xiaorong; Wang, Xiaoguo; Su, Wenhua; Zhang, Guangfei; Zhou, Rui (2011). "DNA Barcodes for Discriminating the Medicinal Plant Scutellaria baicalensis (Lamiaceae) and Its Adulterants". Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 34 (8): 1198–203. doi:10.1248/bpb.34.1198. PMID 21804206. 
  317. Huang, Yu; Tsang, Suk-Ying; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Zhen-Yu (2005). "Biological Properties of Baicalein in Cardiovascular System". Current Drug Targets 5 (2): 177–84. doi:10.2174/1568006043586206. PMID 15853750. 
  318. Kim, Eun Hye; Shim, Bumsang; Kang, Seunghee; Jeong, Gajin; Lee, Jong-soo; Yu, Young-Beob; Chun, Mison (2009). "Anti-inflammatory effects of Scutellaria baicalensis extract via suppression of immune modulators and MAP kinase signaling molecules". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 126 (2): 320–31. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.08.027. PMID 19699788. 
  319. Lim, Beong Ou (2003). "Effects of wogonin, wogonoside, and 3,5,7,2′,6′-pentahydroxyflavone on chemical mediator production in peritoneal exduate cells and immunoglobulin E of rat mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 84 (1): 23–9. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00257-X. PMID 12499072. 
  320. Awad R, Arnason JT, Trudeau V, Bergeron C, Budzinski JW, Foster BC, Merali Z (2003). "Phytochemical and biological analysis of skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora L.): a medicinal plant with anxiolytic properties". Phytomedicine 10 (8): 640–9. doi:10.1078/0944-7113-00374. PMID 14692724. 
  321. Wang H, Hui KM, Chen Y, Xu S, Wong JT, Xue H (2002). "Structure-activity relationships of flavonoids, isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, binding to benzodiazepine site of GABA(A) receptor complex". Planta Med. 68 (12): 1059–62. doi:10.1055/s-2002-36357. PMID 12494329. 
  322. Hui KM, Wang XH, Xue H (2000). "Interaction of flavones from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis with the benzodiazepine site". Planta Med. 66 (1): 91–3. doi:10.1055/s-0029-1243121. PMID 10705749. 
  323. 323.0 323.1 Liao JF, Wang HH, Chen MC, Chen CC, Chen CF (1998). "Benzodiazepine binding site-interactive flavones from Scutellaria baicalensis root". Planta Medica 64 (6): 571–2. doi:10.1055/s-2006-957517. PMID 9776664. 
  324. Edwin Lowell Cooper; Nobuo Yamaguchi (1 January 2004). Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Biomedicine. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 188–. ISBN 978-0-306-48288-5. https://archive.org/details/springer_10.1007-978-1-4757-4820-8. 
  325. Wang F, Xu Z, Ren L, Tsang SY, Xue H (2008). "GABA A receptor subtype selectivity underlying selective anxiolytic effect of baicalin". Neuropharmacology 55 (7): 1231–7. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.07.040. PMID 18723037. 
  326. "Anxiolytic-like effects of baicalein and baicalin in the Vogel conflict test in mice". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 464 (2–3): 141–6. 2003. doi:10.1016/s0014-2999(03)01422-5. PMID 12620506. 
  327. Hui KM, Huen MS, Wang HY, Zheng H, Sigel E, Baur R, Ren H, Li ZW, Wong JT, Xue H (2002). "Anxiolytic effect of wogonin, a benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi". Biochem. Pharmacol. 64 (9): 1415–24. doi:10.1016/s0006-2952(02)01347-3. PMID 12392823. 
  328. Viola H, Wasowski C, Levi de Stein M, Wolfman C, Silveira R, Dajas F, Medina JH, Paladini AC (1995). "Apigenin, a component of Matricaria recutita flowers, is a central benzodiazepine receptors-ligand with anxiolytic effects". Planta Medica 61 (3): 213–6. doi:10.1055/s-2006-958058. PMID 7617761. 
  329. Huen MS, Leung JW, Ng W, Lui WS, Chan MN, Wong JT, Xue H (2003). "5,7-Dihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone, a benzodiazepine site ligand isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, with selective antagonistic properties". Biochem. Pharmacol. 66 (1): 125–32. doi:10.1016/s0006-2952(03)00233-8. PMID 12818372. 
  330. Liu X, Hong SI, Park SJ, Dela Peña JB, Che H, Yoon SY, Kim DH, Kim JM, Cai M, Risbrough V, Geyer MA, Shin CY, Cheong JH, Park H, Lew JH, Ryu JH (2013). "The ameliorating effects of 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-2(4-phenoxyphenyl)-4H-chromene-4-one, an oroxylin A derivative, against memory impairment and sensorimotor gating deficit in mice". Arch. Pharm. Res. 36 (7): 854–63. doi:10.1007/s12272-013-0106-6. PMID 23543630. 
  331. Yoon, Seo Young; dela Peña, Ike; Kim, Sung Mok; Woo, Tae Sun; Shin, Chan Young; Son, Kun Ho; Park, Haeil; Lee, Yong Soo et al. (2013). "Oroxylin A improves attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behaviors in the spontaneously hypertensive rat and inhibits reuptake of dopamine in vitro". Archives of Pharmacal Research 36 (1): 134–140. doi:10.1007/s12272-013-0009-6. ISSN 0253-6269. PMID 23371806. 
  332. Stefanie Schwartz (9 January 2008). Psychoactive Herbs in Veterinary Behavior Medicine. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 139–. ISBN 978-0-470-34434-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=ZP6QVep-x24C&pg=PA139. 
  333. Kim, Yeon Bok; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeji; Park, Chun Geon; Park, Sang Un (2014). "Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Tyrosine Aminotransferase and Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Reductase, and Rosmarinic Acid Accumulation in Scutellaria baicalensis". Natural Product Communications 9 (9): 1311–4. doi:10.1177/1934578X1400900923. PMID 25918800. 
  334. "Simarouba (Simarouba glauca) Database file in the Tropical Plant Database of herbal remedies".
  335. "SIMARUBA: Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews".
  336. Asha Jose, Elango Kannan, Palur Ramakrishnan Anand Vijaya Kumar, SubbaRao Venkata Madhunapantula (January–December 2019). "Therapeutic Potential of Phytochemicals Isolated from Simarouba glauca for Inhibiting Cancers: A Review". Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy 10 (1): 73–80. doi:10.5530/srp.2019.1.12. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329712748. Retrieved 17 January 2020. 
  337. T. G. Umesh (2015). "In-vitro antioxidant potential, free radical scavenging and cytotoxic activity of Simarouba gluaca leaves". International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2: 411–6. https://web.archive.org/web/20200211225738/https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/5b07/35bb85137521c26302efd869a4800ae562d1.pdf. Retrieved 17 January 2020. 
  338. Rémi Tournebize, Points on the ethno-ecological knowledge and practices among four Scheduled Tribes of the Nilgiris: Toda, Kota, Alu Kurumba and Irula, with emphasis on Toda ethnobotany, Institute of Research for Development (Marseille), Thesis 2013, p. 103
  339. RB Mahato, RP Chaudhary, Ethnomedicinal study and antibacterial activities of selected plants of Palpa district, Nepal, Scientific World, Vol. 3, No. 3, July 2005, p. 29[4]
  340. 340.0 340.1 340.2 340.3 Toro, Dr. Sunita V. Toro; Patil, Dr. Anjali R. Patil; Chavan, Prof. (Dr.) N. S. Chavan (2013). Floral wealth of Achara- A sacred village on central west coast of India. Dr. V. B. Helavi. pp. 26–29. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321212997. Retrieved 13 February 2019. 
  341. Antioxidant and Antimutagenic (Anticlastogenic) Effect of Solanum xanthocarpum seed extracts. Santosh Kumar Vaidya, Dharmesh K. Golwala and Darpini S. Patel. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Nanotechnology (ISSN: 0974-3278) 2020: Volume 13, Issue 4, page 5005-5010. [1]
  342. T.K. Lim, Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 11, Modifi ed Stems, Roots, Bulbs, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-26062-4_3
  343. Greutert, H.; Keller, F. (1993-04-01). "Further Evidence for Stachyose and Sucrose/H+ Antiporters on the Tonoplast of Japanese Artichoke (Stachys sieboldii) Tubers". Plant Physiology 101 (4): 1317–1322. doi:10.1104/pp.101.4.1317. ISSN 0032-0889. PMID 12231787. PMC 160655. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC160655/. 
  344. Yin, J; Yang, G; Wang, S; Chen, Y (2006-08-15). "Purification and determination of stachyose in Chinese artichoke (Stachys Sieboldii Miq.) by high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection". Talanta 70 (1): 208–212. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2006.03.027. ISSN 0039-9140. PMID 18970754. 
  345. Paton, Alan; Wu, Zheng-yi; Raven, P. H. (1995). "Flora of China Vol. 17: Verbenaceae through Solanaceae". Kew Bulletin 50 (4): 838. doi:10.2307/4110257. ISSN 0075-5974. 
  346. "Antimicrobial activity of the hexane extract of Stachys sieboldii MIQ leaf". Journal of Life Science 12 (6): 803–811. 2002-12-01. doi:10.5352/jls.2002.12.6.803. ISSN 1225-9918. 
  347. "Antioxidant Activities of Stachys sieboldii MIQ Roots". Journal of Life Science 14 (1): 1–7. 2004-02-01. doi:10.5352/jls.2004.14.1.001. ISSN 1225-9918. 
  348. Ryu BH, Bg P, Song SK (2002). "Antitumor effects of the hexane extract of Stachys Sieboldii". Biotechnol Bioeng 17 (6): 520–524. 
  349. 349.0 349.1 Slobodianiuk, Liudmyla; Budniak, Liliia 2; Marchyshyn, Svitlana ; Demydiak, Olha (2021). INVESTIGATION OF THE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF THE DRY EXTRACT FROM THE HERB OF STACHYS SIEBOLDII M. Italy: Pharmacologyonline. pp. 590-597. https://pharmacologyonline.silae.it/files/archives/2021/vol2/PhOL_2021_2_A067_Slobodianiuk.pdf. Retrieved 6 January 2022. 
  350. Anderson, Edward F. (2001). The Cactus Family. Pentland, Oregon: Timber Press. , pp. 647
  351. >"Taxandria parviceps – Tea Tree". Gardening With Angus. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  352. "Taxandria parviceps". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife.
  353. Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter; Stocks, Nigel P (2017-04-25). "Effect of cocoa on blood pressure". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd008893.pub3. ISSN 1465-1858. PMID 28439881. PMC 6478304. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD008893.pub3. 
  354. "Cocoa nutrient for 'lethal ills'". BBC News. 11 March 2007. Retrieved 30 April 2010.
  355. Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Jaekyoon; Shim, J; Lee, CY; Lee, KW; Lee, HJ (2014). "Cocoa phytochemicals: Recent advances in molecular mechanisms on health". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 54 (11): 1458–72. doi:10.1080/10408398.2011.641041. PMID 24580540. 
  356. Drugs.com (5 January 2021). "Cocoa". Drugs.com. Retrieved 16 September 2021.
  357. Dinchev, Dragomir (May 2007). "Distribution of steroidal saponins in Tribulus terrestris from different geographical regions". Phytochemistry 69 (1): 176–186. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.07.003. PMID 17719068. 
  358. 358.0 358.1 358.2 358.3 358.4 Fereidoon Shahidi and Marian Naczk (2013-06-24). Phenolics in food and nutraceuticals. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press. ISBN 1-58716-138-9. https://web.archive.org/web/20130624105109/http://books.google.com/books?id=vHOJKw4umikC&pg=PA313. 
  359. S. Waliszewski (April 10, 1891). "Chatinine, alcaloïde de la racine de valériane". American Journal of Pharmacy 66. https://web.archive.org/web/20130619055528/http://books.google.com/books?id=aPkKAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA166. 
  360. 360.0 360.1 Marder M, Viola H, Wasowski C, Fernández S, Medina JH, Paladini AC (2003). "6-methylapigenin and hesperidin: new valeriana flavonoids with activity on the CNS". Pharmacol Biochem Behav 75 (3): 537–45. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(03)00121-7. PMID 12895671. 
  361. Fernández S, Wasowski C, Paladini AC, Marder M (2004). "Sedative and sleep-enhancing properties of linarin, a flavonoid-isolated from Valeriana officinalis". Pharmacol Biochem Behav 77 (2): 399–404. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2003.12.003. PMID 14751470. 
  362. Tropicos, Veratrum L.
  363. Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  364. Flora of North America, Vol. 26 Page 72, False hellebore, skunk-cabbage, corn-lily, vérâtre, varaire, Veratrum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1044. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 468. 1754.
  365. Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 82 Veratrum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1044. 1753.
  366. Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Veratrum includes photos and European distribution maps
  367. Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
  368. RHS A–Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. pp. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965. 
  369. Diego de Sá Coutinho, Maria Talita Pacheco, Rudimar Luiz Frozza, and Andressa Bernardi (20 June 2018). "Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Resveratrol: Mechanistic Insights". International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19 (6): 1812-1837. doi:10.3390/ijms19061812. https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/6/1812/pdf. Retrieved 16 September 2021. 
  370. Elias, Thomas S.; Dykeman, Peter A. (2009). Edible Wild Plants: A North American Field Guide to Over 200 Natural Foods. New York: Sterling Publishing. pp. 227. OCLC 244766414. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/244766414. 
  371. 371.0 371.1 371.2 "Ashwagandha". Drugs.com. 2 November 2020. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  372. 372.0 372.1 Peter Hannam (January 15, 2020). "Incredible, secret firefighting mission saves famous 'dinosaur trees'". Sydney, Australia: The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  373. Matt Kean (January 15, 2020). "Incredible, secret firefighting mission saves famous 'dinosaur trees'". Sydney, Australia: The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  374. Cris Brack (January 15, 2020). "Incredible, secret firefighting mission saves famous 'dinosaur trees'". Sydney, Australia: The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  375. Zhang Q, Cai L, Zhong G, Luo W (2010). "Simultaneous determination of jatrorrhizine, palmatine, berberine, and obacunone in Phellodendri Amurensis Cortex by RP-HPLC". Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi = Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi = China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica 35 (16): 2061–4. doi:10.4268/cjcmm20101603. PMID 21046728. 
  376. Wilbur, C. Keith, MD. Revolutionary Medicine 1700-1800. The Globe Pequot Press. Page 23. 1980.
  377. 377.0 377.1 377.2 377.3 377.4 "Tembetarine". Retrieved 2017-05-18.
  378. The Nigerian Zanthoxylum; Chemical and biological values. S. K. Adesina, Afr. J. Trad. CAM, 2005, volume 2, issue 3, pages 282-301 https://web.archive.org/web/20160303183649/https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/9214/1/tc05032.pdf 2016-03-03
  379. 379.0 379.1 379.2 An K, Zhao D, Wang Z, Wu J, Xu Y, Xiao G (2016). "Comparison of different drying methods on Chinese ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): Changes in volatiles, chemical profile, antioxidant properties, and microstructure". Food Chemistry 197 (Part B): 1292–300. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.11.033. PMID 26675871. 
  380. Maharlouei N, Tabrizi R, Lankarani KB, Rezaianzadeh A, Akbari M, Kolahdooz F, Rahimi M, Keneshlou F, Asemi Z. (2019). "The effects of ginger intake on weight loss and metabolic profiles among overweight and obese subjects: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 59 (11): 1753–1766. doi:10.1080/10408398.2018.1427044. PMID 29393665. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10408398.2018.1427044. 

External linksEdit