< Remedy‎ | Plants

Rosaceae, the rose family, is a medium-sized family of flowering plants, including 4,828 known species in 91 genera.[1][2][3]

The name is derived from the type genus Rosa. Among the most species-rich genera are Alchemilla (270), Sorbus (260), Crataegus (260), Cotoneaster (260), Rubus (250),[3] and Prunus (200) which contains the plums, cherries, peaches, apricots, and almonds.[4] However, all of these numbers should be seen as estimates – much taxonomic work remains.

The family Rosaceae includes herbs, shrubs, and trees. Most species are deciduous, but some are evergreen.[5]

Prunus amygdalus edit

An almond tree loaded with almonds is shown in S'Aranjassa, Mallorca, Majorca. Credit: Plàcid Pérez Bru.{{free media}}
Sweet Almond (Prunus dulcis) Oil is shown in clear glass vial. Credit: Itineranttrader.{{free media}}

Almonds are 4% water, 22% carbohydrates, 21% protein, and 50% fat (table). In a 100-gram (3+12-ounce) reference amount, almonds supply 2,420 kilojoules (579 kilocalories) of food energy. The almond is a nutritionally dense food (table), providing a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of the B vitamins riboflavin and niacin, vitamin E, and the essential minerals calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and zinc. Almonds are a moderate source (10–19% DV) of the B vitamins thiamine, vitamin B6|vitamin B6, and folate, choline, and the essential mineral potassium. They also contain substantial dietary fiber, the monounsaturated fat, oleic acid, and the polyunsaturated fat, linoleic acid. Typical of nuts and seeds, almonds are a source of phytosterols such as beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, sitostanol, and campestanol.[6]

Regular consumption of almonds may reduce the risk of heart disease by lowering blood levels of LDL cholesterol.[7][8]

Almonds are a rich source of oil, with 50% of kernel dry mass as fat (whole almond nutrition table). In relation to total dry mass of the kernel, almond oil contains 32% monounsaturated oleic acid (an omega-9 fatty acid), 13% linoleic acid (a polyunsaturated Omega-6 fatty acid|omega-6 essential fatty acid), and 10% saturated fatty acid (mainly as palmitic acid, USDA link in table). Linolenic acid, a polyunsaturated omega-3 fat, is not present (table). Almond oil is a rich source of vitamin E, providing 261% of the Daily Value per 100 ml (table).

When almond oil is analyzed separately and expressed per 100 grams as a reference mass, the oil provides 3,700 kJ (884 kcal) of food energy, 8 grams of saturated fat (81% of which is palmitic acid), 70 grams of oleic acid, and 17 grams of linoleic acid (oil table).

Oleum amygdalae, the fixed oil, is prepared from either sweet or bitter almonds, and is a glyceryl oleate with a slight odour and a nutty taste. It is almost insoluble in ethanol but readily soluble in chloroform or diethyl ether. Almond oil is obtained from the dried kernel of almonds.[9] Sweet almond oil is used as a carrier oil in aromatherapy and cosmetics while bitter almond oil, containing benzaldehyde, is used as a food flavouring and in perfume.[10]

Prunus avium edit

Sweet cherry.

Prunus cerasus edit

Ripe sour cherries are shown on a branch. Credit: Rklz2{{free media}}

Prunus cerasus (sour cherry,[11] tart cherry, or dwarf cherry[12]) a species of Prunus in the subgenus Prunus subg. Cerasus (cherries), native to much of Europe and southwest Asia is closely related to the sweet cherry (Prunus avium), but has a fruit that is more acidic. Its sour pulp is edible.[13]

There are two main varieties (groups of cultivars) of the sour cherry: the dark-red Morello cherry and the lighter-red Amarelle cherry.[14]

"Fruits of sour cherry (P cerasus L) cv Amarena Mattarello (AM), Visciola Ninno (VN), and Visciola Sannicandro (VS) (genotypes from the local germplasm) were picked up in June 2003 on a local experimental field (Bari, Italy)."[15]

Anthocyanins: "Cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin 3-sophoroside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, and cyanidin 3-glucoside were identified as major components in the analyzed samples in agreement with the findings previously reported in the literature [4]."[15]

Anthocyanins "are related to the quality index of sour cherries and [...] that sour cherry extracts reduce inflammation, paw edema, alleviate the pain of gout and arthritis [7, 8]."[16]

Rosa canina edit

Rose hips can be eaten raw, like berries, if care is taken to avoid the hairs inside the fruit. The hairs are used as itching powder.[17]

Wild rose hip fruits are particularly rich in vitamin C, containing 426 mg per 100 g[18] or 0.4% by weight (w/w). However, RP-HPLC assays of fresh rose hips and several commercially available products revealed a wide range of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) content, ranging from 0.03 to 1.3%.[19]

Rose hips contain the carotenoids beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene, which are under basic research for a variety of potential biological roles.[20][21] A meta-analysis of human studies examining the potential for rose hip extracts to reduce arthritis pain concluded there was a small effect requiring further analysis of safety and efficacy in clinical trials.[22] Use of rose hips is not considered an effective treatment for knee osteoarthritis.[23]

Rubus allegheniensis edit

Blackberries contain numerous phytochemicals including polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, salicylic acid, ellagic acid, and fiber.[24][25] Anthocyanins in blackberries are responsible for their rich dark color. One report placed blackberries at the top of more than 1,000 polyphenol-rich foods consumed in the United States,[26] but this concept of a health benefit from consuming darkly colored foods like blackberries remains scientifically unverified and not accepted for health claims on food labels.[27]

Sugar content of ripe blackberries has glucose and fructose at similar compositions, with small amounts of sucrose and many beneficial nutrients including anthocyanins, vitamins and phenolics.

Rubus pensilvanicus edit

Rubus pensilvanicus is in flower. Credit: SB_Johnny.{{free media}}

Rubus plicatus edit

Fruit is of Rubus plicatus, Goleniow, NW Poland. Credit: Kenraiz.{{free media}}

Rubus vestitus edit

Rubus vestitus is a European species of brambles called European blackberry. Credit: Daderot.{{free media}}
Blackberries (Rubus fruticosus) is an aggregation of European blackberries. Credit: Ivar Leidus.{{free media}}

The scientific study of brambles is known as "batology".

See also edit

References edit

  1. "The Plant List: Rosaceae". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanic Garden. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  2. Christenhusz, M. J. M.; Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website".
  4. Bortiri, E.; Oh, S.-H.; Jiang, J.; Baggett, S.; Granger, A.; Weeks, C.; Buckingham, M.; Potter, D. et al. (2001). "Phylogeny and Systematics of Prunus (Rosaceae) as Determined by Sequence Analysis of ITS and the Chloroplast trnLtrnF Spacer DNA". Systematic Botany 26 (4): 797–807. doi:10.1043/0363-6445-26.4.797. 
  5. Watson, L.; Dallwitz, M.J. (1992). The families of flowering plants: Descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. Version: 21 March 2010. 
  6. "Effects of almond consumption on the reduction of LDL-cholesterol: a discussion of potential mechanisms and future research directions". Nutrition Reviews 69 (4): 171–85. April 2011. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00383.x. PMID 21457263. 
  7. Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Paulionis, Lina; Poon, Theresa; Lee, Han Youl (16 August 2016). "The effects of almond consumption on fasting blood lipid levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". Journal of Nutritional Science 5: e34. doi:10.1017/jns.2016.19. ISSN 2048-6790. PMID 27752301. PMC 5048189. // 
  8. "Almonds". TH Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University. 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  9. Soler L, Canellas J, Saura-Calixto F (1988). "Oil content and fatty acid composition of developing almond seeds". J Agric Food Chem 36 (4): 695–697. doi:10.1021/jf00082a007. 
  10. van Wyk, Ben-Erik (2019). Food plants of the world (2nd ed.). CABI. p. 342. ISBN 9781789241303. 
  11. "Prunus cerasus". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  12. BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  13. Little, Elbert L. (1980). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees: Eastern Region. New York: Knopf. p. 498. ISBN 0-394-50760-6. 
  14. Webster’s New International Dictionary of the English Language. Springfield, Massachusetts: G. & C. Merriam Co., 1913. See amarelle at p. 67.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Federica Blando, Carmela Gerardi, and Isabella Nicoletti (15 June 2004). "Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L) Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods". Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2004 (5): 253-258. Retrieved 2 September 2021. 
  16. Ana Šarić & Sandra Sobočanec & Tihomir Balog & Borka Kušić & Višnja Šverko & Verica Dragović-Uzelac & Branka Levaj & Zrinka Čosić & Željka Mačak Šafranko & Tatjana Marotti (11 September 2009). [ "Improved Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Potential in Mice Consuming Sour Cherry Juice (Prunus Cerasus cv. Maraska)"]. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 64: 231-237. doi:10.1007/s11130-009-0135-y. Retrieved 14 February 2022. 
  17. Albert MR (1998). "Novelty shop "itching powder". Australasian Journal of Dermatology 39 (3): 188–9. doi:10.1111/j.1440-0960.1998.tb01281.x. PMID 9737050. 
  18. "Rose Hips, wild (Northern Plains Indians) per 100 g". US Department of Agriculture, National Nutrient Database, Standard Reference Release 28. 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  19. Ziegler SJ (1986). "Fast and Selective Assay of l-Ascorbic Acid in Rose Hips by RP-HPLC Coupled with Electrochemical and/or Spectrophotometric Detection". Planta Medica 52 (5): 383–7. doi:10.1055/s-2007-969192. PMID 17345347. 
  20. Jacoby FC; Wokes F (1944). "Carotene and lycopene in rose hips and other fruit". Biochem J 38 (3): 279–82. doi:10.1042/bj0380279. PMID 16747793. 
  21. Horváth, G; Molnár, P; Radó-Turcsi, E; Deli, J; Kawase, M; Satoh, K; Tanaka, T; Tani, S et al. (2012). "Carotenoid composition and in vitro pharmacological activity of rose hips". Acta Biochimica Polonica 59 (1): 129–32. doi:10.18388/abp.2012_2187. PMID 22428123. 
  22. Christensen, R; Bartels, E. M.; Altman, R. D.; Astrup, A; Bliddal, H (2008). "Does the hip powder of Rosa canina (rosehip) reduce pain in osteoarthritis patients?--a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 16 (9): 965–72. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2008.03.001. PMID 18407528. 
  23. McAlindon, T. E.; Bannuru, R. R.; Sullivan, M. C.; Arden, N. K.; Berenbaum, F; Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M.; Hawker, G. A.; Henrotin, Y et al. (2014). "OARSI guidelines for the non-surgical management of knee osteoarthritis". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 22 (3): 363–88. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2014.01.003. PMID 24462672. 
  24. "Nutrition facts for raw blackberries". Conde Nast. 2012.
  25. Sellappan, S.; Akoh, C. C.; Krewer, G. (2002). "Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Georgia-grown blueberries and blackberries". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (8): 2432–2438. doi:10.1021/jf011097r. PMID 11929309. 
  26. Halvorsen BL, Carlsen MH, Phillips KM (July 2006). "Content of redox-active compounds (ie, antioxidants) in foods consumed in the United States". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84 (1): 95–135. doi:10.1093/ajcn/84.1.95. PMID 16825686. 
  27. Gross PM (1 March 2009). "New Roles for Polyphenols. A 3-Part report on Current Regulations & the State of Science". Nutraceuticals World.

External links edit