The name is derived from the type genus Rosa. Among the most species-rich genera are Alchemilla (270), Sorbus (260), Crataegus (260), Cotoneaster (260), Rubus (250), and Prunus (200) which contains the plums, cherries, peaches, apricots, and almonds. However, all of these numbers should be seen as estimates – much taxonomic work remains.
The family Rosaceae includes herbs, shrubs, and trees. Most species are deciduous, but some are evergreen.
Prunus amygdalus edit
Almonds are 4% water, 22% carbohydrates, 21% protein, and 50% fat (table). In a 100-gram (3+1⁄2-ounce) reference amount, almonds supply 2,420 kilojoules (579 kilocalories) of food energy. The almond is a nutritionally dense food (table), providing a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of the B vitamins riboflavin and niacin, vitamin E, and the essential minerals calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and zinc. Almonds are a moderate source (10–19% DV) of the B vitamins thiamine, vitamin B6|vitamin B6, and folate, choline, and the essential mineral potassium. They also contain substantial dietary fiber, the monounsaturated fat, oleic acid, and the polyunsaturated fat, linoleic acid. Typical of nuts and seeds, almonds are a source of phytosterols such as beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, sitostanol, and campestanol.
Almonds are a rich source of oil, with 50% of kernel dry mass as fat (whole almond nutrition table). In relation to total dry mass of the kernel, almond oil contains 32% monounsaturated oleic acid (an omega-9 fatty acid), 13% linoleic acid (a polyunsaturated Omega-6 fatty acid|omega-6 essential fatty acid), and 10% saturated fatty acid (mainly as palmitic acid, USDA link in table). Linolenic acid, a polyunsaturated omega-3 fat, is not present (table). Almond oil is a rich source of vitamin E, providing 261% of the Daily Value per 100 ml (table).
When almond oil is analyzed separately and expressed per 100 grams as a reference mass, the oil provides 3,700 kJ (884 kcal) of food energy, 8 grams of saturated fat (81% of which is palmitic acid), 70 grams of oleic acid, and 17 grams of linoleic acid (oil table).
Oleum amygdalae, the fixed oil, is prepared from either sweet or bitter almonds, and is a glyceryl oleate with a slight odour and a nutty taste. It is almost insoluble in ethanol but readily soluble in chloroform or diethyl ether. Almond oil is obtained from the dried kernel of almonds. Sweet almond oil is used as a carrier oil in aromatherapy and cosmetics while bitter almond oil, containing benzaldehyde, is used as a food flavouring and in perfume.
Prunus avium edit
Prunus cerasus edit
Prunus cerasus (sour cherry, tart cherry, or dwarf cherry) a species of Prunus in the subgenus Prunus subg. Cerasus (cherries), native to much of Europe and southwest Asia is closely related to the sweet cherry (Prunus avium), but has a fruit that is more acidic. Its sour pulp is edible.
There are two main varieties (groups of cultivars) of the sour cherry: the dark-red Morello cherry and the lighter-red Amarelle cherry.
"Fruits of sour cherry (P cerasus L) cv Amarena Mattarello (AM), Visciola Ninno (VN), and Visciola Sannicandro (VS) (genotypes from the local germplasm) were picked up in June 2003 on a local experimental field (Bari, Italy)."
Anthocyanins: "Cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin 3-sophoroside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, and cyanidin 3-glucoside were identified as major components in the analyzed samples in agreement with the findings previously reported in the literature ."
Anthocyanins "are related to the quality index of sour cherries and [...] that sour cherry extracts reduce inflammation, paw edema, alleviate the pain of gout and arthritis [7, 8]."
Rosa canina edit
Rose hips can be eaten raw, like berries, if care is taken to avoid the hairs inside the fruit. The hairs are used as itching powder.
Wild rose hip fruits are particularly rich in vitamin C, containing 426 mg per 100 g or 0.4% by weight (w/w). However, RP-HPLC assays of fresh rose hips and several commercially available products revealed a wide range of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) content, ranging from 0.03 to 1.3%.
Rose hips contain the carotenoids beta-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene, which are under basic research for a variety of potential biological roles. A meta-analysis of human studies examining the potential for rose hip extracts to reduce arthritis pain concluded there was a small effect requiring further analysis of safety and efficacy in clinical trials. Use of rose hips is not considered an effective treatment for knee osteoarthritis.
Rubus allegheniensis edit
Blackberries contain numerous phytochemicals including polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, salicylic acid, ellagic acid, and fiber. Anthocyanins in blackberries are responsible for their rich dark color. One report placed blackberries at the top of more than 1,000 polyphenol-rich foods consumed in the United States, but this concept of a health benefit from consuming darkly colored foods like blackberries remains scientifically unverified and not accepted for health claims on food labels.
Sugar content of ripe blackberries has glucose and fructose at similar compositions, with small amounts of sucrose and many beneficial nutrients including anthocyanins, vitamins and phenolics.
Rubus pensilvanicus edit
Rubus plicatus edit
Rubus vestitus edit
The scientific study of brambles is known as "batology".
See also edit
- Fruit and its importance
- Gene project
- Glandular system
- Hair colors
- Human skin pigmentation
- List of plant family names
- Medicinal remedies
- Pigmented lesions of the oromucosa
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