# Instructional design/Cognitive behaviors/Teaching Procedures, page 4

Instructional Design > Cognitive behaviors > Teaching Procedures > Define > Learn > Teach > Routine > Power > Steps > Try > Example

## Principles for Teaching Procedural Skills edit

### Needs Analysis edit

The first task of an instructional developer is to decide what to teach, if anything. This requires that a needs analysis--including a goals analysis and learner analysis--be performed (Kaufman, 1979).

#### Goals Analysis edit

The goals analysis will help you identify what the learners need to be able to do after completing the training lessons.

#### Learner Analysis edit

During a learner analysis, you will assess learners’ abilities and identify any deficiencies in their skills. This will tell you how ready and able they are to reach the learning goals, and where the training lessons need to start.

Some methods for performing needs analysis include the following:

- Survey learners
- Interview learners or groups of learners
- Test learners
- Interview qualified teachers or subject matter experts who understand the needs of the learners and the procedures they need to learn

#### Task Analysis edit

After identifying the learning goals, you may need to break the goals down further into tasks, or substeps. This is known as task analysis or content analysis. Using the **fractions example** on the previous page, we may determine that the learner does not know what a common denominator (in step 2) is or how to find one. It would therefore be necessary to also teach the user the concepts of denominator and common denominator, as well as the task of how to find a common denominator. For more information on teaching concepts, refer to the **Concept Classification** lesson.

### Instructional Tactics edit

Once we have determined what the learner needs to learn, we can focus on the instructional tactics for how to teach those tasks, concepts, or procedures to the learners. Instructional tactics are categorized as follows:

**Routine tactics**teach the basic skill or procedure**Power tactics**enrich the learner's experience with that skill or procedure

## Learning Check edit

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Instructional Design | Cognitive Behaviors | Teaching Procedures | < Back | Next > |

## Source and Reference edit

- Procedure Using by Charles M. Reigeluth. Used by Permission.
- Kaufman, R. (1979). Needs Assessment: Concept and Application. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.