Progress and Prospects in Parkinson's Research/Therapy/Neuroprotection/Vitamin D
Vitamin D was isolated by an American researcher, Elmer McCollum in 1921. He called it Vitamin D because it was the fourth such compound to be identified. Nutritionally it is found in fish (particularly salmon and tuna) and in dairy products. Vitamin D3 is also uniquely synthesised by the action of ultra-violet rays from sunlight on the skin.
Wang et al  induced PD in rats after first treating them with enhanced levels of vitamin D3.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=wang%20vitamin%20D%20hoffer%202001
Taken together, our data indicate that D3 pretreatment attenuates the hypokinesia and DA neuronal toxicity induced by 6-OHDA.
Smith et al  evaluated the potential benefits of calcitriol in the treatment of PD. This is the hormonally active form of vitamin D and it has been implicated as an agent that has neuroprotective effects in various animal models of diseases, possibly by upregulating GDNF (q.v.). Parkinsonism was invoked in rats by the administration of 6-OHDA, and these were then treated with calcitriol. . It was found that GDNF was significantly increased in the substantia nigra, but not in the striatum.
These results suggest that long-term treatment with calcitriol can provide partial protection for dopaminergic neurons against the effects of intraventricularly administered 6-OHDA.
Butler et al examined a large cohort of PD patients with a view to establishing genetic links to Vitamin D receptors, Their conclusions state:-
Our findings suggest VDR as a potential susceptibility gene and support an essential role of vitamin D in PD.
Luong and Nguyễn  argue the case for Vitamin D’s therapeutic properties in the treatment of PD and evaluate the following genomic factors in this context:-
- Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC);
- VDR and 1α-hydroxylase;
- The Cytochrome P450 (CYP);
- The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS);
- Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1);
- Neurotrophic Factors (NTFs);
- Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1);
- Sp1 Transcription Factor.
together with the following non-genomic factors:-
- Diabetes Mellitus (DM);
- L-Type Voltage-Sensitive Calcium Channels (L-VSCC);
- Nerve Growth Factor (NGF);
- Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs);
- Prostaglandins (PGs);
- Oxidative Stress;
- Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS).
Today Literature search:
- Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Vitamin D.
- This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
- Substances with possible neuroprotective properties:
- Caffeine,--Celastrol,--Co-Enzyme Q10,--Creatine,--DHA,--Exendin-4 (EX-4),--GDNF,--Glutathione (GSH),--GM1,--Isradipine,--Melatonin,--Minocycline,--Nicotine,--NSAIDs,--Phenylbutyrate,--Phytic Acid,--Probucol,--Quinoxaline,--Rasagiline,--Riboflavin,--Statins,--Tolcapone,--Urate & Uric Acid,--Vitamin D,--Vitamin E,--
See also: Vitamin D deficiency
- Wang, J. Y.; Wu J.N.; Cherng TL.;. Hoffer, B. J.; Chen, H. H.;Borlongan, C. V.; and Wang, Y.(2001) Abstract Brain Res. 15;904(1):67-75.Vitamin D(3) attenuates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in rats.
- Smith, M. P,; Fletcher-Turner, A,; Yurek, D. M, and Cass, W. A.(2006) Abstract Neurochem. Res. 31 (4):533 - 539.Calcitriol protection against dopamine loss induced by intracerebroventricular administration of 6-hydroxydopamine http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16758362
- Butler. M. W.; Burt, A.; Edwards, T. L.; Zuchner, S.;; Scott W. K.; Martin, E. R.; Vance, J. M. (2011)Abstract Ann, Hum. Genet.;75 (2):201 - 210. Vitamin D receptor gene as a candidate gene for Parkinson disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21309754
- Luong, Khanh and Nguyễn (2012) Full Text ISRN Neurol. 2012: 134289. Role of Vitamin D in Parkinson's Disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3349248/?tool=pmcentrez