Progress and Prospects in Parkinson's Research/Therapy/Neuroprotection/NSAIDs
There are strong indicators of positive neuroprotection from PD by NSAIDs in the following citations, but there are also some contra-indications.
NSAIDs is an abbreviation of Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. They are also referred to as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents/analgesics (NSAIAs) or nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIMs). They are drugs with analgesic and antipyretic (fever-reducing) effects and which have, in higher doses, anti-inflammatory effects.
Common forms, which can be purchased over the counter in most countries, are aspirin, ibuprofen and nuproxen.
Aubin et al  reported that The neurotoxic effects of the dopamine-selective neurotoxin MPTP (15 mg/kg, s.c.), in mice, were totally prevented by systemic administration of salicylate (ED50 = 40 mg/kg, i.p.), aspirin (ED50 = 60 mg/kg, i.p.), or the soluble lysine salt of aspirin, Aspegic (ED50 = 80 mg/kg, i.p.).
Casper et al  examined the effects of aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen on cultured primary rat embryonic neurons. All three NSAIDs significantly attenuated the decrease in dopamine uptake caused by glutamate, indicating preservation of neuronal integrity.
Sairam et al  evaluated the effect of NSAIDs on rats with induced (MPP+) Parkinsonism.
Celeoxib showed no effect. Diclofenac was effective only at high doses. Cyclooxygenase inhibitor significantly attenuated striatal DA depletion.
The present study establishes potent neuroprotective activity of SA and suggests the use of aspirin in adjuvant therapy in Parkinson's disease.
Chen et al  carried out an epidemiological study of 44,507 men and 98,845 women which included 415 cases of PD. They concluded that regular aspirin users had a lower risk of PD.
Chen et al  reviewed a large cohort of people and found that ibuprofen use may delay or prevent the onset of PD., but the same was not the case for aspirin or other NSAIDs.
Ton et al  evaluated a cohort of 206 PD cases and 383 controls. Their findings:-
Our results provide only limited support for the hypothesis that use of aspirin may reduce the risk of this disease, and no indication of protection from other NSAIDs.
Esposito et al  reviewed the potential role of NSAIDs in the treatment of PD.
Wahner et al  compared 293 PD cases with 286 controls and found:-
• A decreased risk of PD among regular aspirin users. (especially women)
• A stronger protective effect among non-aspirin NSAID users
Gao et al  reviewed a cohort of 136,197 people including 291 PD cases. They confirmed a reduced PD risk amongst regular users of ibuprofen but not among other NSAID users.
Driver et al  made a study of a very large cohort and concluded:-
This case-control study did not find evidence that NSAID use reduces Parkinson's disease risk
Becker et al  sought to resolve contradictions trown up by prevous studies into the neuroprotective potential of NSAIDs using a large health database. Their conclusions:-
In this large observational study with data from the UK primary care, the long-term use of NSAIDs, aspirin, or acetaminophen was not associated with a substantially altered risk of developing PD.
Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease NSAIDs.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
- Substances with possible neuroprotective properties:
- Caffeine,--Celastrol,--Co-Enzyme Q10,--Creatine,--DHA,--Exendin-4 (EX-4),--GDNF,--Glutathione (GSH),--GM1,--Isradipine,--Melatonin,--Minocycline,--Nicotine,--NSAIDs,--Phenylbutyrate,--Phytic Acid,--Probucol,--Quinoxaline,--Rasagiline,--Riboflavin,--Statins,--Tolcapone,--Urate & Uric Acid,--Vitamin D,--Vitamin E,--
- Aubin, N,; Curet, O,; Deffois, A. and Carter, C. (1998) Abstract J. Neurochem. 71 (4):1635 - 1642. Aspirin and salicylate protect against MPTP-induced dopamine depletion in mice. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9751197
- Casper D.; Yaparpalvi, U.; Rempel, N. and Werner, P.(2000)Abstract Neurosci, Lett. 289 (3):201 - 204. Ibuprofen protects dopaminergic neurons against glutamate toxicity in vitro. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10961664
- Sairam K.; Saravanan, K. S.; Banerjee, R. and Mohanakumar, K. P. (2003) Abstract Brain Res. 966 (2):245 - 252. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate, but not diclofenac or celecoxib, protects against 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in rats. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12618347
- Chen, H.; Zhang, S. M.; Hernán, M. A.; Schwarzschild, M. A,; Willett, W. C.; Colditz, G. A.; Speizer, F. E. and Ascherio, A.(2003) Abstract Arch. Neurol. 60 (8):1059- 1064 Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of Parkinson disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12925360 ,
- Chen, H.; Jacobs, E.; Schwarzschild, M. A.; McCullough, M. L.; Calle, E. E,; Thun, M. J. and Ascherio, A. (2005) Abstract Ann. Neurol. 58 (6):963 - 967. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use and the risk for Parkinson's disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16240369
- Ton, T G.; Heckbert, S R.; Longstreth, W. T. Jr.; Rossing, M. A.; Kukull, W. A.; Franklin G. M.; Swanson PD.; Smith-Weller, T. and Checkoway, H. (2006) Abstract Mov. Disord. 21 (7):964 - 969. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of Parkinson's disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16550541
- Esposito, E.; Di Matteo, V,; Benigno, A.; Pierucci, M,; Crescimanno, G. and Di Giovanni, G. (2007) Abstract Exp. Neurol. 205 (2):295-312. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in Parkinson's disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17433296
- Wahner, A. D.; Bronstein, JM.; Bordelon, Y. M. and Ritz, B.(2007) Abstract Neurology. 69 (19):1836 - 1842. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may protect against Parkinson disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17984451
- Gao X.; Chen, H.; Schwarzschild, M. A. and Ascherio, A.(2011) Abstract Neurology. 76 (10):863 - 869. Use of ibuprofen and risk of Parkinson disease. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21368281
- Driver, J. A.; Logroscino, G.; Lu, L.; Gaziano, J. M. and Kurth, T.(2011)Abstract BMJ. 342:d198. Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of Parkinson's disease: nested case-control study. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21252104
- Becker C.; Jick, S. S. and Meier, C. R.(2011) Abstract Eu.r J. Neurol. 18 (11):1336 - 1342. NSAID use and risk of Parkinson disease: a population-based case-control study. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21457177a