WikiJournal of Medicine/Volume 2 Issue 1
WikiJournal of Medicine
Open access • Publication charge free • Public peer review • Wikipedia-integrated
VOLUME 2 (2015)
ISSUE 1Previous issue
Estimating the lost benefits of not implementing a visual inspection with acetic acid screen and treat strategy for cervical cancer prevention in South Africa
Author: Gwinyai Masukume
Introduction: South Africa has had a national cervical cancer screening policy (2002) based on the Pap (Papanicolaou) smear for more than 10 years which has not been effective. Cancer of the cervix remains a very common cancer among women in South Africa. [...]
Authors: John Marr, Elias Hubbard, John Cathey
Based on historical interpretations of the Sūrat al-Fīl, the 105th Meccan Sura of the Qur’an, an epidemic occurred near Mecca circa 570 CE (Common Era), the Year of the Elephant in Islamic history. The five verses of the Sura are thought to be an allegorical description of the “Elephant War epidemic,” so named because invading Axumite (Ethiopian) forces from present-day Yemen included one or more war elephants. The elephants refused to enter the city, causing the Axumites to halt the attack. Interpreted literally, divine intervention then defeated the invaders by sending a flock of birds (ababil) that dropped pellets—a possible allusion to pustules—onto the Axumites, maiming and killing them, and ending the siege of the city. Early historians interpreted the Sura as allegorical for either a smallpox or measles epidemic; available descriptions favor smallpox. The residents of Mecca were spared. Descriptions of the birds and use of the term ababil for birds are consistent with barn swallows (Hirundo rustica, subspecies rustica), which collect clay pellets to make nests. They are attracted to flies following domestic animals. We consider the zoonotic origins, geographical distributions and clinical presentations of two types of smallpox virus, and propose that the epidemic was due to Variola major. Since the prophet Muhammad was born in 570 CE, the events played a critical role in the birth of Islam.
Authors: Lisa G. Kipersztok, Gwinyai Masukume
This is an appendix to a peer-reviewed article. Included in the table are medical terms that have analogies related to food and drink (and also related to items involved in the preparation or consumption of food and drink).
Authors: Mikael Häggström, Jonatan Mattila
Aerococcus urinae is a type of bacteria that can lead to infections in the urinary system. This work describes a 73 year old man who had an infection with Aerococcus urinae. Samples of blood and urine were taken from the patient, and when put on blood cells the bacteria weakly changed the color of the blood cells around them. This result is called alpha hemolysis, and can be seen in Image 1. Adding Gram stain to the bacteria turned them violet, and therefore the bacteria were Gram-positive. This can be seen in microscopy in Image 2. The patient was treated with antibiotics.
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