VOLUME 2 (2015)
Authors: Mikael Häggström, Jonatan Mattila
Aerococcus urinae is a type of bacteria that can lead to infections in the urinary system. This work describes a 73 year old man who had an infection with Aerococcus urinae. Samples of blood and urine were taken from the patient, and when put on blood cells the bacteria weakly changed the color of the blood cells around them. This result is called alpha hemolysis, and can be seen in Image 1. Adding Gram stain to the bacteria turned them violet, and therefore the bacteria were Gram-positive. This can be seen in microscopy in Image 2. The patient was treated with antibiotics.
Authors: Lisa G. Kipersztok, Gwinyai Masukume
This is an appendix to a peer-reviewed article. Included in the table are medical terms that have analogies related to food and drink (and also related to items involved in the preparation or consumption of food and drink).
Authors: John Marr, Elias Hubbard, John Cathey
Abstract: Based on historical interpretations of the Sūrat al-Fīl, the 105th Meccan Sura of the Qur’an, an epidemic occurred near Mecca circa 570 CE (Common Era), the Year of the Elephant in Islamic history. The five verses of the Sura are thought to be an allegorical description of the “Elephant War epidemic,” so named because invading Axumite (Ethiopian) forces from present-day Yemen included one or more war elephants. The elephants refused to enter the city, causing the Axumites to halt the attack. Interpreted literally, divine intervention then defeated the invaders by sending a flock of birds (ababil) that dropped pellets—a possible allusion to pustules—onto the Axumites, maiming and killing them, and ending the siege of the city. Early historians interpreted the Sura as allegorical for either a smallpox or measles epidemic; available descriptions favor smallpox. The residents of Mecca were spared. Descriptions of the birds and use of the term ababil for birds are consistent with barn swallows (Hirundo rustica, subspecies rustica), which collect clay pellets to make nests. They are attracted to flies following domestic animals. We consider the zoonotic origins, geographical distributions and clinical presentations of two types of smallpox virus, and propose that the epidemic was due to Variola major. Since the prophet Muhammad was born in 570 CE, the events played a critical role in the birth of Islam.
Author: Gwinyai Masukume
Introduction: South Africa has had a national cervical cancer screening policy (2002) based on the Pap (Papanicolaou) smear for more than 10 years which has not been effective. Cancer of the cervix remains a very common cancer among women in South Africa. Zambia was able to integrate Visual Inspection with Acetic acid screening for cervical cancer and treatment successfully within its public sector HIV/AIDS treatment program while minimizing the need for additional resources. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact on cervical cancer high grade pre-cursor lesions, new cases and deaths from cervical cancer had South Africa implemented a nurse driven Visual Inspection with Acetic based screen and treat strategy like Zambia (Botswana and Zimbabwe) did. Methods: Using publicly available published evidence based data a statistical model was developed to estimate the aforementioned outcomes that could have been prevented in South Africa had the country followed Zambia’s strategy. Results: South Africa could have prevented over five years at least 3 300 high-grade cervical pre-cursor lesions, and assuming one round of Visual Inspection with Acetic screening and treatment, 50 cases of cervical cancer and 40 deaths from cervical cancer. Conclusion: Had South Africa adopted a pragmatic low cost method to prevent cervical cancer like Zambia (Botswana and Zimbabwe) did, substantial morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer would have been prevented. Important public health lessons for politicians, policy makers and others can be drawn from this missed opportunity.
- ↑ NU Hospital Group
- ↑ Oregon Health & Science University
- ↑ University College Cork