Progress and Prospects in Parkinson's Research/Causes/Toxins/Ziram

Background edit

Ziram is an organic zinc salt used as a fungicide. It has been in use since 1949. The formula is C6H12N2S4Zn and the name is derived from Zinc dithiocarbamate. It is marketed under a variety of names and is used primarily on almonds and stone fruits.

Research edit


Chou et al [1] examined the effect of Ziram on dopaminergic cells in vitro and concluded:-

These results demonstrate that ziram causes selective dopaminergic cell damage in vitro by inhibiting an important degradative pathway implicated in the etiology of PD. Chronic exposure to widely used dithiocarbamate fungicides may contribute to the development of PD, and elucidation of its mechanism would identify a new potential therapeutic target.


Wang et al [2] examined the relationship between the incidence of PD and exposure to toxins in the Central Valley of California and concluded:-

“Those exposed to ziram, maneb, and paraquat together experienced the greatest increase in PD risk. Our results suggest that pesticides affecting different mechanisms that contribute to dopaminergic neuron death may act together to increase the risk of PD considerably.”

Further Reading edit


Wang, X.F.; Li, S.; Chou, A.P. and Bronstein, J.M. Neurobiol Dis. 23(1):198-205.

Inhibitory effects of pesticides on proteasome activity: implication in Parkinson's disease.


Extoxnet database entry for Ziram.

PAN pesticides database entry for Ziram

Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Ziram.

This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.

Pubmed (abstracts)

Pubmed_Central (Full_Text)


Related Pages edit

Causes > Toxins

Sub Pages:

Cadmium - Copper - Dieldrin - Manganese - Maneb - Mercury - MPTP - n-Hexane - Paraquat - Rotenone - Toluene - Trichloroethylene - Ziram

References edit

  1. Chou, A.P.; Maidment, N.; Klintenberg, R.; Casida, J.E.; Li, S.; Fitzmaurice, A.G.; Fernagut, P.O.; Mortazavi, F.; Chesselet, M.F. and Bronstein, J.M. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283(50):34696-34703. Ziram causes dopaminergic cell damage by inhibiting E1 ligase of the proteasome.
  2. Wang, A. Costello S.; Cockburn M.; Zhang X.; Bronstein, J. and Ritz, B. (2011) Eur. J. Epidemiol. 26(7):547-55. Parkinson's disease risk from ambient exposure to pesticides.