Progress and Prospects in Parkinson's Research/Causes/Toxins/Toluene
Toluene is a benzene derivative with the chemical formula C6H5CH3. It is used in the manufacture of solvents, paint thinners, lacquers, sealants, printing inks, fuel additives and adhesives. It is a colourless liquid with a distinctive smell. It is the subject of solvent abuse as repeated inhalation induces a euphoric, dissociative state. 
Hageman et al  presented the results of an evaluation of 3 patients who had had sustained exposure to solvents including toluene. They had developed Parkinson symptoms but were unresponsive to levodopa.
Aydin et al  carried out MRI scans of 41 patients who had chronically abused solvents – including toluene. They noted significant permanent damage to parts of the brain including the basal ganglia. Some of the patients were showing signs of Parkinson’s Disease.
Pals et al (2003)  examined the records of 423 Belgian P.D. patients and found clusters corresponding to their degree of exposure to zinc and toluene.
Eisenberg, Daniel P. 150 Quart. J. Biol. Med. 19 150—159.
Neurotoxicity and Mechanism of Toluene Abuse
Use the following links to query the PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases using the Search terms:- Parkinson's_Disease Toluene.
This will list the latest papers on this topic. You are invited to update this page to reflect such recent results, pointing out their significance.
- Devathasan, G.; Low, D.; Teoh, P.C.; Wan, S.H. and Wong, P.K. (1984). Aust. N.Z. J. Med. 14 (1): 39–43 "Complications of chronic glue (toluene) abuse in adolescents". PMID 6087782.
- Hageman G.; van der Hoek, J.; van Hout, M.; van der Laan, G.; Steur, E.J.; de Bruin, W. and Herholz; K. (1999) J Neurol. 246(3):198-206. Parkinsonism, pyramidal signs, polyneuropathy, and cognitive decline after long-term occupational solvent exposure. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10323318
- Kubilay Aydin, Kubilay Sencer, Serra; Demir, Turkay; Ogel, Kultekin; Tunaci, Atadan and Minareci, Ozenc (2002) American Journal of Neuroradiology 23:1173-1179, Cranial MR Findings in Chronic Toluene Abuse by Inhalation http://www.ajnr.org/cgi/content/full/23/7/1173
- Pals, P.; Van Everbroeck, B.; Grubben B.; Viaene M.K.; Dom, R.; van der Linden, C.; Santens, P.; Martin, J.J. and Cras, P.(2003) Eur J Epidemiol. 18(12):1133-42. Case-control study of environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease in Belgium. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14758870