Progress and Prospects in Parkinson's Research/Causes/Toxins/Toluene

Background edit

Toluene is a benzene derivative with the chemical formula C6H5CH3. It is used in the manufacture of solvents, paint thinners, lacquers, sealants, printing inks, fuel additives and adhesives. It is a colourless liquid with a distinctive smell. It is the subject of solvent abuse as repeated inhalation induces a euphoric, dissociative state. [1]

Research edit


Hageman et al [2] presented the results of an evaluation of 3 patients who had had sustained exposure to solvents including toluene. They had developed Parkinson symptoms but were unresponsive to levodopa.


Aydin et al [3] carried out MRI scans of 41 patients who had chronically abused solvents – including toluene. They noted significant permanent damage to parts of the brain including the basal ganglia. Some of the patients were showing signs of Parkinson’s Disease.


Pals et al (2003) [4] examined the records of 423 Belgian P.D. patients and found clusters corresponding to their degree of exposure to zinc and toluene.

Further Reading edit


Eisenberg, Daniel P. 150 Quart. J. Biol. Med. 19 150—159.

Neurotoxicity and Mechanism of Toluene Abuse]


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Related Pages edit

Causes > Toxins

Sub Pages:

Cadmium - Copper - Dieldrin - Manganese - Maneb - Mercury - MPTP - n-Hexane - Paraquat - Rotenone - Toluene - Trichloroethylene - Ziram

References edit

  1. Devathasan, G.; Low, D.; Teoh, P.C.; Wan, S.H. and Wong, P.K. (1984). Aust. N.Z. J. Med. 14 (1): 39–43 "Complications of chronic glue (toluene) abuse in adolescents". PMID 6087782.
  2. Hageman G.; van der Hoek, J.; van Hout, M.; van der Laan, G.; Steur, E.J.; de Bruin, W. and Herholz; K. (1999) J Neurol. 246(3):198-206. Parkinsonism, pyramidal signs, polyneuropathy, and cognitive decline after long-term occupational solvent exposure.
  3. Kubilay Aydin, Kubilay Sencer, Serra; Demir, Turkay; Ogel, Kultekin; Tunaci, Atadan and Minareci, Ozenc (2002) American Journal of Neuroradiology 23:1173-1179, Cranial MR Findings in Chronic Toluene Abuse by Inhalation
  4. Pals, P.; Van Everbroeck, B.; Grubben B.; Viaene M.K.; Dom, R.; van der Linden, C.; Santens, P.; Martin, J.J. and Cras, P.(2003) Eur J Epidemiol. 18(12):1133-42. Case-control study of environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease in Belgium.