WikiJournal of Medicine/Volume 4 Issue 1
WikiJournal of Medicine
Open access • Publication charge free • Public peer review • Wikipedia-integrated
VOLUME 4 (2017)
ISSUE 1Previous issue
Authors: Rochelle Tixeira, Ivan Poon, Georgia Atkin-Smith, Aaron Smith, Michael AF Parkes
The disassembly of a dying cell into smaller fragments is a fundamental biological process during apoptosis. Recently, a number of distinct morphologic changes have been identified that could mediate the fragmentation of an apoptotic cell. Presented here is a figure that describes the progression of apoptotic cell disassembly.
Author: Graham Beards
Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhoeal disease among infants and young children. It is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses in the family Reoviridae. Nearly every child in the world is infected with rotavirus at least once by the age of five. Immunity develops with each infection, so subsequent infections are less severe; adults are rarely affected. There are eight species of this virus, referred to as A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H. Rotavirus A, the most common species, causes more than 90% of rotavirus infections in humans. [...]
Authors: Michaël R. Laurent, Lode Van Overbeke
Gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleed) is a common and potentially life-threatening reason for emergency room and intensive care unit admission. This article reports the case of an 83-year-old man with acute GI bleeding from an unusual cause. The clinical information is presented in a step-by-step and question-answer format for learning purposes. This paper is particularly aimed at an internal medicine readership.
Vitamin D as an adjunct for acute community-acquired pneumonia among infants and children: systematic review and meta-analysis
Authors: Zohra Lassi, Soumyadeep Bhaumik
Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity among infants and children, particularly in low and middle income countries. Vitamin D, which plays a role in innate as well as adaptive immunity, is a candidate low-cost intervention as an adjunct for treatment of CAP. [...]
Author: Kholhring Lalchhandama
Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a family of proteins present on the membrane surface of red blood cells (RBCs or erythrocytes) that are infected by the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PfEMP1 is synthesized during the parasite's blood stage (erythrocytic schizogony) inside the RBC, during which the clinical symptoms of falciparum malaria are manifested. Acting as both an antigen and adhesion protein, it is thought to play a key role in the high level of virulence associated with P. falciparum. It was discovered in 1984 when it was reported that infected RBCs had unusually large-sized cell membrane proteins, and these proteins had antibody-binding (antigenic) properties. An elusive protein, its chemical structure and molecular properties were revealed only after a decade, in 1995. It is now established that there is not one but a large family of PfEMP1 proteins, genetically regulated (encoded) by a group of about 60 genes called var. Each P. falciparum is able to switch on and off specific var genes to produce a functionally different protein, rendering evasion from the host's immune system. RBCs carrying PfEMP1 on their surface stick to endothelial cells, which facilitates further binding with uninfected RBCs (through the processes of sequestration and rosetting), ultimately helping the parasite to both spread to other RBCs as well as bringing about the fatal symptoms of P. falciparum malaria.
Author: Marion Wright
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates. Humans and other mammals have two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain. It belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial memory that enables navigation. The hippocampus is located under the cerebral cortex;(allocortical) and in primates it is located in the medial temporal lobe, underneath the cortical surface. It contains two main interlocking parts: the hippocampus proper (also called Ammon's horn) and the dentate gyrus. [...]
Authors: Thomas Shafee, Rohan Lowe
Genes consist of multiple sequence elements that together encode the functional product and regulate its expression. Despite their fundamental importance, there are few freely available diagrams of gene structure. Presented here are two figures that summarise the different structures found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes. Common gene structural elements are colour-coded by their function in regulation, transcription, or translation.
Authors: Thomas Shafee, Mikael Häggström, Diptanshu Das, Gwinyai Masukume
WikiJournal of Medicine is an open access, peer reviewed journal free of publication charges for its authors. It publishes both original research and reviews. It was created in 2014 and has grown rapidly since then. This editorial will highlight its unique features and the developments seen in 2016.
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