WikiJournal Preprints/CARD-CC family

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The CARD-CC protein family is defined by an evolutionary conserved "caspase activation and recruitment domain" (CARD) and a coiled-coil (CC) domain.[1] Coiled-coils (CC) act as oligomerization domains for many proteins such as structural and motor proteins, and transcription factors. This means that monomers are converted to macromolecular complexes by polymerization.[2] In humans and other jawed vertebrates, the family consists of CARD9 and the three "CARD-containing MAGUK protein" (CARMA)[3] proteins CARD11 (CARMA1), CARD14 (CARMA2) and CARD10 (CARMA3).

Evolution and species distribution edit

CARD-CC protein family structure

The protein family is ancient and can be found as far back as Cnidaria, but has almost exclusively been studied in humans and mice. Notably, the protein family is absent in insects and nematodes, which makes it impossible to study its function in the most popular invertebrate model organisms (Drosophila and C. elegans). Invertebrates only have a CARD9-like ancestral CARD-CC member, and the earliest occurrence of a CARD-CC member with the CARMA domain composition is in the jawless vertebrate hagfish. All four CARD-CC family members are present in sharks, indicating that the 3 distinct CARMA CARD-CC family members were formed by two duplication events just before or very early in the jawed vertebrate evolution. The four CARD-CC members in mice and humans differ in expression domains, where CARD9 is mostly expressed in myelocytes, CARD11 in lymphocytes, while CARD10 and CARD14 are mostly expressed in non-hemapoetic cells. This gene expression differentiation between the four CARD-CC family members conserved at least as far back as frogs (Xenopus tropicalis) and fish (Danio rerio),[4] indicating that the four CARD-CC family members have had distinct functions since early jawed vertebrate evolution.

Functions edit

Graphical overview of signaling pathways dependent on a CARD-CC family member

A common theme for all four CARD-CC family proteins in mice and humans is that they are activated by different protein kinase C isoforms,[5] and recruit BCL10 and the paracaspase MALT1 upon activation, forming a so-called CBM complex. There are four different CBM complexes, defined by which CARD-CC family member that is responsible for its assembly: CBM-9 (CARD9), CBM-1 (CARD11/CARMA1), CBM-2 (CARD14/CARMA2) and CBM-3 (CARD10/CARMA3). [6] CBM complex assembly results in recruitment of TRAF6 to MALT1 and downstream activation of NF-κB transcriptional activity and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The different CARD-CC family members show different expression pattern and gain- or loss of function mutation in the different CARD-CC family proteins cause different phenotypes.

References edit

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