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- The attributes of liminality or of liminal personae ("threshold people") are necessarily ambiguous (Turner 1969). One's sense of identity dissolves to some extent, bringing about disorientation, but also the possibility of new perspectives. Turner posits that, if liminality is regarded as a time and place of withdrawal from normal modes of social action, it potentially can be seen as a period of scrutiny for central values and axioms of the culture where it occurs (Turner 1969) - one where normal limits to thought, self-understanding, and behavior are undone. In such situations, the very structure of society is temporarily suspended.
- Turner, Victor (1986). The Anthropology of Performance. PAJ Publications.
- Turner, Victor (1986). The Anthropology of Experience. University of Illinois Press.
- Turner, Victor (1985). Liminality, Kabbalah, and the Media. Academic Press.
- Turner, Victor (1982). From Ritual to Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play. PAJ Publications.
- Turner, Victor & Edith Turner (1978). Image and Pilgrimage in Christian Culture: Anthropological Perspectives. Columbia University Press. [^]
- Turner, Victor (1977). "Ndembu Divination and its Symbolism," in: David Landy, ed., Culture, Disease, and Healing: Studies in Medical Anthropology. New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 175–182.
- Douglas, Mary (1975). Implicit Meanings: Essays in Anthropology. Routledge. [^]
- Grice, Paul (1975). "Logic and Conversation," pp. 41-58, in: Cole, Peter & Jerry L. Morgan eds. (1975). Syntax and Semantics, Vol. 3: Speech Act. New York: Academic Press. [^] -- cf. w: implicature
- Turner, Victor (1974). Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors: Symbolic Action in Human Society. Cornell University Press.
- Geertz, Clifford (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books. [^]
- Turner, Victor (1969). The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-structure. Aldine de Gruyter.
- Turner, Victor (1967). The Forest of Symbols. Cornell University Press.
- Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1953). Philosophical Investigations. Blackwell Publishing. [^]
- Ryle, Gilbert (1949). The Concept of Mind. University Of Chicago Press. [^]
- Richards, I. A. (1936). The Philosophy of Rhetoric. Oxford University Press. [^]
- Empson, William (1930). Seven Types of Ambiguity, 2nd ed., London: Chatto & Windus, 1949. [^]
- Malinowski, Bronislaw (1923). "The Problem of Meaning in Primitive Languages." Supplement to: Ogden & Richards (1923), pp. 296-336. [^]
- Ogden, C. K. & I. A. Richards (1923). The Meaning of Meaning: A Study of the Influence of Language upon Thought and of the Science of Symbolism. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. [^]