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- Conversation Theory regards social systems as symbolic, language-oriented systems where responses depend on one person's interpretation of another person's behavior, and where meanings are agreed through conversations. But since meanings are agreed, and the agreements can be illusory and transient, scientific research requires stable reference points in human transactions to allow for reproducible results. Pask found these points to be the understandings which arise in the conversations between two participating individuals, and which he defined rigorously.
Conversation Theory describes interaction between two or more cognitive systems, such as a teacher and a student or distinct perspectives within one individual, and how they engage in a dialog over a given concept and identify differences in how they understand it.
- Wilson, Edward (1998). Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. New York: Knopf. [^]
- Pask, Gordon (1996). "Heinz von Foerster's Self-Organisation, the Progenitor of Conversation and Interaction Theories." Systems Research, 13(3): 349–362. [^]
- Pask, Gordon (1993). Interactions of Actors (IA), Theory and Some Applications.
- Swanson, Don R. (1986). "Fish oil, Raynaud's Syndrome, and Undiscovered Public Knowledge." Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 30 (1): 7-18. [^]
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- Kochen, Manfred, ed. (1975). Information for Action: from Knowledge to Wisdom. New York: Academic Press. [^]
- Pask, Gordon (1976). Conversation Theory, Applications in Education and Epistemology. Elsevier.
- Pask, Gordon (1975). Conversation, Cognition and Learning. Elsevier. [^]
- Pask, Gordon (1975). The Cybernetics of Human Learning and Performance. Hutchinson.
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- Kochen, Manfred (1969). "Stability in the Growth of Knowledge." American Documentation, 20 (3): 186-197. [^]
- Bernal, J. D. (1939). The Social Function of Science. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. [^]
- Wells, H. G. (1938). World Brain. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran & Co. [^]
- Ogden, C. K. & I. A. Richards (1923). The Meaning of Meaning: A Study of the Influence of Language upon Thought and of the Science of Symbolism. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. [^]