Brezhoneg Daoù/Lesson 7

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MutationsEdit

This lesson gives a full and rather complex view of mutations as exceptions are described together with the regular cases. For a more straightforward explanation please refer to the lesson in Brezhoneg Unan/Lesson 4

DefinitionEdit

A mutation is the change of the first letter of a word according to different contexts.

Exemples :
     Mamm (mother) --> Ar vamm (the mother)
     Kozh (old)    --> Mamm gozh (Grand mother)

Table of mutationsEdit

Mutations in Breton obey to regular phonetics laws.

They are summarized in the table below (details to be found in the rest of this page) :

Breton Complete Table Mutations.jpg

Mutations to soften ("dre vlotaat")Edit



Initial K G Gw P B M T D
Mutation G C’h W B V V D Z


Soft mutation happens in the following cases :


  • after a, da, daou, div, dindan, diwar, dre, e (possessive), eme, en em, en ur, hanter, holl, na, ne, pa, pe, re, war...
  • after the article for the feminine singular words and the related adjective
  • after the article for the masculine plural person names (except when the plural is in -où) and the related adjective


Please note :

  • D will not mute after names
  • K becomes C'H for names after the article when there is no other mutation
  • P, T, K will not mute for adjectives when the related names ends by another letter than L, M, N, R or a vowel.



Soft Mutation will be noted (S!)
Following letters are affected:
B becomes V
D becomes Z
K becomes G
G becomes C'H
GW becomes W
P becomes B
M becomes V
T becomes D


Examples :

Breur (brother) gives Da vreur
Dant (tooth) gives Da zant
Glin (kneel) gives Da c'hlin


Mutations after the articleEdit

Here is a summary for mutations after the article : Bzhg Table Article mutations.jpg

Here is a presentation of the rules regarding the mutations after the aticle : Bzhg Article mutations.jpg

Go to the Quiz

Mutations of the adjective epithetEdit

Here is a summary for mutations of the adjective epithet : Bzhg Table Epithet mutations.jpg

Here is a presentation of the rules regarding the mutations of the adjective epithet : Bzhg Epithet mutations.jpg

Go to the Quiz

Mutations to harden ("dre galetaat")Edit

Initial B D G
Mutation P T K

Hard mutation happens in the following cases :

  • Possessive "ho" (yours)
  • After "az, "ez", "'z" (you - sg.)
  • After "da'z ..." (to yours ...)
  • After "ez" (in yours ...)



Hard Mutation will be noted (H!)
Following letters are affected:
B becomes P
D becomes T
G becomes K

Examples :

Breur (brother) gives Ho preur
Dant (tooth) gives Ho tant
Glin (kneel) gives Ho klin

Mixed mutationsEdit

Initial B D G GW M
Mutation V T C'H W V

Mixed mutation happens in the following cases :

  • Present participe
Formed by "o" + Verb.
  • After verb particle "e"
  • After "ma" (That)


Mixed Mutation will be noted (M!)
Following letters are affected:
B becomes V
D becomes T
G becomes C'H
GW becomes W
M becomes V


Examples :

Deskiñ (to learn) gives O teskiñ
Gortoz (to wait) gives O c'hortoz

Spirant mutationsEdit

Initial P T K
Mutation F Z C'H

Spirant mutation happens in the following cases :

  • After "ma" or "va" (mine)
  • After "he" (Hers)
  • After "o" (Theirs)
  • After numbers : tri, teir, pevar, peder, nav


Spirant Mutation will be noted (Sp!)
Following letters are affected:
P becomes F
T becomes Z
K becomes C'H

Examples :

Penn (head) gives Va fenn
Kador (chair) gives Va c'hador

ExceptionsEdit

BloazEdit

Bloaz mutes into Vloaz after :

  • Pet ?
  • The cardinal numbers except after tri, pevar, pemp, nav

Exemple :

  • Pet vloaz eo bremañ ? Daouzek vloaz.
  • Pet vloaz eo bremañ ? Pemp bloaz.

MintinEdit

Mintin mutes into Vintin after :

  • Weekday names
  • Dec'h
  • Warc'hoazh

Exemple :

Dilun vintin, warc'hoazh vintin.


ExercisesEdit

Go to the Quiz