AP European History at GRCHS
AP European History at GRCHSEdit
- This course is taught to some sophomores attending George Rogers Clark High School in Winchester, KY. The class is taught by Brent Sizemore in room G-103 and covers the required content for the College Board's AP European History Exam. The class is taught in a lecture format, with outside reading material provided. Time is also set aside to cover Document Based Questions and Free Response Questions to be discussed later.
Reading Material / General ReferenceEdit
Recommended reading for the course are:Edit
- Merriman, John (February 2004). A History of Modern Europe: One-Volume Edition, Second Edition, Vol. 1 / Edition 2. Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc.. ISBN 0393979105.
- Mckay, John P.; Hill, Bennett D.; Buckler, John (2006). A History of Western Society 8th Edition AP Edition. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 9780618522736.
Additional Reading Material / ReferenceEdit
- Here you can find all the official information regarding the AP European History Exam including example Free Response Questions (FRQs and DBQs) College Board
- Students are provided a note outline to aid in comprehension. The note outlines are listed below and are highly encouraged to be edited and added to. Permission to do this has been granted by the teacher. This section is NOT intended to be used as a substitute for actually taking notes. Taking notes is a required part of the course for each individual to complete on their own. This is simply a location for the students to collectively organize and share their notes for future reference and catch up on notes during days they were absent. All informational sources for the following section are either from A History of Modern Europe: One-Volume Edition, Second Edition, Vol. 1 / Edition 2 by John Merriman (Details above), A History of Western Society 8th Edition AP Edition by John McKay (Details above), prior knowledge of the author, or should be cited in text. If you are a student editor, please only edit within the double horizontal lines, add information that is true, and DO NOT delete any colons, they are there for correct formatting.
Previous lecture packets have been moved to the pages on the links below. They are divided by the quarter in which their exams were given. Current lecture packets are in-line.
I. Industrial Revolution (1800-1870):
A time when Europe made a small scale manufacture into a large scale manufacture. You will now see the development of few complex markets.
- a. Demographic Explosion (187 million , 266 million , 435 million )
A population increase.
- a. Other Reasons for Population Boom
Agriculture Revolution - People started to eat better. Armies didn't kill anybody, Medicine, better diets, better hydgene, electricity, and hot water.
- b. Credit & Banking Systems
Rise of modern and functioning banks. The banks supplied a lot of loans and the government got involed and helped this.
- c. Large-Scale Manufacturing
This leads into an entirely new revolution. Standard living - How you live.
- a. Mass Production in the Factory System
- i. Interchangeable Parts
All parts are standard (identical). If something broke, you could replace it faster.
- ii. Division of Labor
When you divide up what you do. They found a group of people that are good at something, and made them do that specific job.
- iii. Assembly Lines
As the product moved down the line, people work on it until it's done.
- d. Mechanization
Replacing people's work with machines.
- a. Resistance to Mechanization
People try to stop Mechanization to save their jobs and prevent change.
- i. Captain Swing
A guy that was 10' tall that took a big wrench and broke machines.
- ii. Luddites
Mythical guy that is 15' tall that broke machines and burned down factories. Factory owners prosecuted and hung Captain Swings and Luddites
- e. Urbanization
A proccess where a society becomes more city focused. People move to the city to get work, in turn, factories move to the city to get workers.
- a. Baron Georges Haussmann (1809-1891) & Urban Planning
A French urban planner. The problem with Urbanization is that you can't predict what the population will be. Haussmann says they need to reorganize cities to plan for the future. This is called Urban Planning. He redesigned Paris to update it and make it more modern. He tried to use a grid system on Boulevards.
- b. Population of Urban Areas
By 1909, European cities had over 1 million people in each city.
- i. London
4.2 million people live here. London was the commercial capital of the world. It served as the Emperial state of Britain.
- f. Immigration to the United States
With all the oppurtunities in Europe, poor people have to make money, so they move to America.
- a. Zionist Movement
A growing movement for European Jews that are trying to make a Jewish state so Jews can have peace.
- i. Theodor Herzl (1860-1904)
Theodor Herzl began and lead the Zionist Movement.
- g. Transportation
Steam engines were applied to other machines for transportation (Trains and Steam Ships).
- a. Growth of Railroads (6,600 miles by 1850’s)
The more railroads that a nation had was a sign of a thriving nation and advancement. Also, where you sat on trains depended on your class.
II. Industrial Work & Workers:
A set of workers that have a specific skill that they apply to work.
- a. Gender & Family in the Industrial Age
Women and family are the backbone of the Industrial Revolution. But the harder jobs are always done by men. women and children didn't make as much as men. Women got about 1/2 of men's salary, and children got about 1/4 of men's salary. The men still control the house. Women Jobs - Domestic Services, Textiles, and Prostitution.
- b. Child Labor
Children were thrusted into the working world. child labor was very common. Back then, children were seen as adults. They had very dangerous jobs, and they were small and easy to control by employers. The Working Class wanted their children to work, but the Middle Class didn't.
- a. Factory Act of 1833
Prohibits child labor for those under 9 years old. Children from 9-14 could only work for 8 hrs. By the time children were 14, they could work as much as they wanted. Children began to lie about their age to work longer and get paid more.
- c. Gap in the Standard of Living
- a. Aristocracy of Labor
- d. The Consumer Explosion
- a. Baron Pierre de Coubertin (1863-1937)
- e. Social Mobility
- f. Poor Relief & Charities for the “Social Question”
- a. Poor Law (Act) of 1834
- b. Foundling Homes
- g. Unionism & Social Protest
- a. Question of Class Consciousness
III. National Industrial Experiences:
- a. Great Britain
- b. France
- c. The German States
- a. Rise of Germany as an Economic Power
- i. Reasons for German Superiority
- d. Southern & Eastern Europe
- a. Italy & Piedmont-Sardinia
- b. Spain
- c. Russia
IV. Rapid Industrialization (1870-1914) & Belle Epoque (Good Old Days):
- a. New Technologies & Scientific Discoveries
- a. Henry Bessemer (1813-1898)
- b. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
- c. Wilhelm Rontgen (1845-1923)
- d. Robert Koch (1843-1910)
- e. Werner von Siemens (1816-1892)
- f. Thomas Edison (1847-1931)
- g. Isaac Singer (1811-1875)
- h. Fritz Haber (1868-1934)
- i. Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913)
- j. Henry Ford (1863-1947)
- k. Louis Renault (1877-1944)
- l. Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin (1838-1917)
- m. Wilbur & Orville Wright
- n. Samuel Morse (1791-1872)
- o. Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922)
- p. Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937)
- q. Marie Curie (1867-1934)
- r. Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937)
- s. James Maxwell (1831-1879)
- t. Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
V. Origins of Socialism:
- a. Socialism vs. Nationalism
- b. Utopian Socialism
- a. Claude-Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825)
- b. Charles Fourier (1772-1837)
- i. Communes
- c. Robert Owen (1771-1858)
- c. Practical Socialism
- a. Louis Blanc (1811-1882)
- i. Reform Socialism
- b. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865)
- d. Scientific Socialism (Communism)
- a. Karl Marx (1818-1883)
- b. Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)
- c. Communist Manifesto (1848)
- i. Class Struggle & Consciousness
- ii. Proletariat (Working Class) Revolution
- iii. Communism
- d. Communist League (1848)
- e. Socialist First International (1864-1876)
- f. Second International (1889-1916)
- i. Marxist Socialists
- ii. Reform Socialists
VI. Unit 7 I.D. Terms:
1) Industrial Revolution:
2) Mass Production:
4) Factory Act of 1833:
5) Aristocracy of Labor:
6) Poor Law of 1834:
7) Working Class Consciousness:
9) Utopian Socialism:
10) Claude-Henri de Saint-Simon:
11) Charles Fourier:
12) Practical Socialism:
13) Louis Blanc:
14) Pierre-Joseph Proudhon:
15) Scientific Socialism:
16) Karl Marx:
17) Socialist First International:
18) Second International:
19) Marxist Socialists:
20) Reform Socialists:
I. Responses to Industrialization:
- a. State Social Change
- a. Sickness Insurance Law of 1883 (Germany)
- i. What It Did
- b. Factory Act of 1875 (Great Britain)
- c. Old Age Pension Act of 1908 (Great Britain)
- d. National Insurance Bill of 1911 (Great Britain)
- b. The Trade Union Movement
- a. General Confederation of Labor (1885)
- c. Syndicalists
- a. Difference w/ Unionism & Socialism
- b. Georges Sorel (1847-1922) & Syndicalist Action
- i. Reflections on Violence (1908)
- c. Heroic of Age of Syndicalists (1895-1907)
- d. European Socialists
- a. French Workers’ Party (1883)
- i. Jules Guesde (1845-1922)
- ii. “Impossibilists”
- iii. “Possibilists”
- b. French Section of the Working-Class International (S.F.I.O.) (1905)
- i. Jean Jaures (1859-1914)
- c. Fabian Society (1884) [Great Britain]
- d. German Social Democratic Party (1875) [S.P.D.]
- i. In Germany
- ii. Karl Kautsky (1854-1938)
- e. Anarchism
- a. International Working-Class Alliance (Black International)
- i. Czar Alexander II of Russia (1881)
- ii. King Umberto I of Italy (1900)
- iii. U.S. President William McKinley (1901)
- iv. French President Sadi Carnot (1894)
- f. The Quest for Women’s Rights
- a. Maria Montessori (1870-1952)
- b. Women’s Social & Political Union (1903)
- c. Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928)
- g. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) & the Embrace of the Irrational
- h. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and the Study of the Irrational
- i. Auguste Comte (1798-1857) & Positivism
- a. Positivism
- j. Sociology
- a. Max Weber (1864-1920)
- i. Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904-1905)
- b. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
- c. Gustave Le Bon (1841-1931)
- i. The Crowd (1895)
- k. William Morris (1834-1896) & Symbolism
- a. Symbolism
II. Artistic Responses to Industrialization:
- a. Romanticism
- b. Realism
- a. Jean-Francois Millet (1814-1875)
- i. The Gleaners (1857)
- ii. The Angelus (1859)
- b. Gustave Courbet (1819-1877)
- i. The Stonebreakers (1849)
- ii. Burial at Ornans (1849)
- c. Impressionism
- a. Eduard Manet (1840-1926)
- i. Dejeuner sur L’herbe (Luncheon of the Grass) 
- ii. Bar at the Folies-Bergere (1882)
- b. Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
- i. At the Stock Exchange (1879)
- ii. L’Absinthe (1876-1877)
- c. Claude Monet (1840-1926)
- i. Water Lilies (1900’s)
- ii. Impression, Sunrise (1872-1873)
- d. Post (Neo)-Impressionism
- a. Georges Seurat (1859-1891)
- i. A Sunday on La Grande Jatte (1884)
- e. Expressionism
- a. Eduard Munch (1863-1944)
- i. The Scream (1893)
- f. Modern Art
- a. Pablo Picasso (1881-1973)
- i. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907)
- ii. Guernica (1937)
- g. Avant-Garde
- a. “Bohemian”
- b. Sergey Diaghilev (1872-1929)
- i. The Rite of Spring (1913)
- c. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971)
- d. Oscar Wilde (1854-1900)
III. Unit 7 I.D. Terms:
1) Sickness Insurance Law of 1883:
4) German Social Democratic Party:
6) Emmeline Pankhurst:
7) Friedrich Nietzsche:
8) Sigmund Freud:
9) Auguste Comte:
10) Max Weber:
11) Emile Durkheim:
13) Jean-Francois Millet:
15) Eduard Manet:
16) Claude Monet:
19) Pablo Picasso:
Further resources for studying are:
- Memorize.com A location to create flashcards. Please post links to new flashcard sets below.