AP European History at GRCHS/The Second Quarter

Unit 4Edit


I. Scientific Revolution (1540-1700), The Century of Genius:

a. The Scientific Revolution is
b. Its Goal
c. Its Big Question
d. Its Developments
e. It Began

II. Pre-Scientific Revolution Thought (Aristotelian-Ptolemaic Cosmology):

a. Major Scholars
b. Aristotle & the Geocentric Theory
c. Ptolemy & the Perfect Spheres

III. Challenges to the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic Cosmology & the Birth of the Revolution:

a. Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543), & the Heliocentric Theory (Copernican Astronomy)
a. Concerning the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres (1543)
i. Spheres
ii. The Earth
iii. The Solar System
iv. The Universe
v. Motion (Heliocentric Theory)
b. Reality for Copernicus
b. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), Non-Linear Path of Knowledge, & Confusion
a. A New Star (1573)
i. Supernovas
ii. Copernicus & Motion
iii. Motion
b. Reality for Brahe
c. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) & Ellipses
a. A New Astronomy (1609)
i. Elliptical Orbit
ii. Planetary Motion
b. Reality for Kepler
d. Galileo (1564-1642), Inertia, & Prosecution by the Church
a. Dialogue Concerning Two World System – Ptolemaic & Copernican (1632)
i. Inertia
ii. Planets
b. Reality for Galileo
e. Francis Bacon (1561-1626) & the Scientific Method
a. Of the Proficiency and Advancement of Learning (1605)
i. Inductive Reasoning
ii. Scientific Method
b. Reality for Bacon
f. Rene Descartes (1596-1650), Cartesian Dualism, & the Scientific Method
a. Discourse on Method (1637)
i. Deductive Reasoning
ii. Cartesian Dualism (Cartesianism)
b. Reality for Descartes
g. Isaac Newton (1642-1727), The Universal Law of Gravitation, & the Ultimate Victory of Science
a. Principia (1687)
i. Calculus Theoretical Physics
ii. Newtonian Synthesis/Thermodynamics/Gravity
b. Reality of Newton
h. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), Rejection of Galen, & Modern Biology
a. Problems w/ Anatomy
b. His Findings

IV. Diffusion of Scientific Thought:

a. Culture of Science
a. Royal Society for Improving Natural Knowledge (1662)
b. French Royal Academy of Science (1666)
b. Science, Religion, & Education
c. Consequences of Scientific Revolution

V. The Enlightenment (1680-1800), The Age of Reason:

a. The Enlightenment is
b. Its Goal
c. Its Big Question
d. Its Developments
a. (Classical) Liberalism
e. It Began

VI. Pre-Enlightenment Thought (Absolutism & Thomas Hobbes):

a. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), the Social Contract, & Leviathan (1651)
a. His Social Contract

VII. Intellectual Influences on Enlightened Thought:

a. John Locke (1632-1704), Natural Rights, & Tabula Rasa
a. Two Treatises of Government (1689)
b. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)
i. Tabula Rasa (Blank Slate)
ii. Born Good
iii. Human Nature & Politics
iv. Natural Rights
v. His Social Contract
b. Bernard de Fontenelle (1657-1757) & the Idea of Progress
a. Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds (1686)
i. Religion & Absolute Monarchy
ii. Knowledge & Progress
b. Foundations

VIII. The Republic of Ideas/Letters & the Philosophes:

a. Salons
b. Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) & Separation of Powers
a. The Spirit of Laws (1748)
i. Laws
ii. Constitutionalism
iii. Separation of Powers
iv. Authority of the King
v. Government in France
c. Voltaire (1694-1778)
a. Candide (1759)
i. Superstition & Fanaticism
ii. Religion
iii. Monarchs & Nobles
iv. “Everything is for the best” & “Cultivate your own garden”
d. Denis Diderot (1713-1784) & the Encyclopedia
a. Encyclopedia (1751-1776)
e. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) & the Social Contract
a. Discourse on the Arts & Sciences (1762)
i. Society & Corruption
ii. Property
iii. Republic & Voting
iv. Legislatures
b. The Social Contract (1762)
i. Social Contract
ii. Citizens
iii. Common Good & General Will of the People
f. David Hume (1711-1776) & Skeptical Philosophy
a. A Treatise of Human Nature (1739)
i. Skepticism
ii. Impressions
g. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) & German Idealism
a. Critique of Pure Reason (1781)
i. Ideas Over Emotion
ii. German Idealism

IX. Economic Liberalism:

a. Francois Quesnay (1694-1774) & the Physiocrats
a. Economic Table (1758)
i. Price Controls & Free Trade
ii. Agricultural Science
b. Adam Smith (1723-1790) & Laissez-Faire Economics
a. Wealth of Nations (1776)
i. Free Market
ii. Invisible Hand & Market Forces
iii. Social Happiness
iv. Merchant Happiness

X. Enlightenment Ideas & Culture:

a. Religious Enthusiasm
a. John Wesley (1703-1791) & Methodism
i. Methodism
b. Diversity of Print
c. Rococo Art Style (Late Baroque)
a. Basic Themes
b. Jean-Antoine Watteau (1684-1721)
i. Pilgrimage to Cythera (1721)
c. William Hogarth (1697-1764)
i. Marriage a-la-mode (1743-1745)

XI. Unit 4 I.D. Terms:

1) Scientific Revolution:

2) Aristotelian-Ptolemaic Cosmology:

3) Nicholas Copernicus:

4) Heliocentric Theory:

5) Tycho Brahe:

6) Johannes Kepler:

7) Galileo:

8) Francis Bacon:

9) Rene Descartes:

10) Cartesian Dualism:

11) Isaac Newton:

12) Newtonian Synthesis:

13) Enlightenment:

14) Classical Liberalism:

15) Thomas Hobbes:

16) Baron de Montesquieu:

17) Voltaire:

18) Denis Diderot:

19) Jean-Jacques Rousseau:

20) Social Contract:

21) Economic Liberalism:

22) Francois Quesnay:

23) Adam Smith:

24) Laissez-faire Economics:

25) Rococo:


I. 18th Century Europe, The Age of Revolution:

II. The Social Order of 18th Century Europe:

a. Nobility
a. Barefoot Nobility
i. Nobles & Sources of Revenue
b. The Landed Elite (Gentry)
a. Gentry & Sources of Revenue
c. The “Middle Sort” (Bourgeoisie)
a. Middling Sort & Sources of Revenue
d. Clergy
e. Peasantry
a. Peasant Reality
b. “Weapons of the Weak”

III. Economic Change through the Agricultural Revolution:

a. Agricultural Revolution (1650-1750)
a. Growth in Agriculture
i. Fertilizers & Soil-Regenerating Crops
ii. Crop Rotation
iii. Enclosure Movement (System) of Common Lands
iv. Animal Husbandry
v. Land Reclamation
vi. Results
a. Most Productive Regions
b. Agricultural Individualism (Commercial Agriculture)
b. Population Growth (120 to 190 million)
a. Reasons for Population Growth
b. Disease & Famine
c. Basic Sanitation
d. War
e. Marriage & Life Expectancy
i. Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) & Essay on the Principle of Population (1798)
c. Manufacturing: Guilds & Domestic Industry
a. Decline of Guilds (18th Century)
b. Cottage Industry (Proto-Industrialization) [Putting Out System]
i. Results
d. Inventions
a. James Watt (1736-1819) & the Steam Engine
b. Henry Cort (1740-1800) & the “Puddling Process”
c. John Kay (1704-1764) & Flying Shuttle
d. James Hargreaves (1720-1778) & Spinning Jenny
e. Richard Arkwright (1732-1792), the Water Frame, & Factories
i. Factories
ii. Results
e. Dominance of the British Economy
a. Reasons for Dominance
f. Expanding of the Continental Economy
a. Reasons for Subservience

IV. Social & Cultural Change in 18th Century Europe:

a. Growth of Towns & Cities (Urbanization)
a. Cultural Attractions
b. Consumer Revolution
b. Social Movement within the Elite (The Triangle of Land-Ownership) [Middling Sort, Gentry, & Nobility]
a. On Continental Europe
b. In Great Britain
i. Gentry
ii. Nobility
iii. Middling Sort
c. Changing Conditions of the Poor
d. Social Control
a. Work Houses/Poor Houses

V. Politics of 18th Century Europe:

VI. Enlightened Absolutism (Enlightened Despots/Monarchs):

a. Enlightened Absolutism in Reality
a. Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) of Milan
i. On Crime & Punishment (1764)
a. People & the Law
b. Punishment
c. Utilitarianism
b. Catherine II (the Great) of Russia (1762-1796)
i. Educational Reforms
ii. Financial Reforms
iii. Cultural Reforms
iv. Legislative Reform
v. Legal Reforms
a. Charter of the Nobility of 1785
vi. Rebellions
a. Pugachev’s Rebellion (1773-1774)
vii. Reactions to Catherine’s Reforms
c. Joseph II of Austria (1780-1790)
i. Governmental Reforms
ii. Financial Reforms
iii. Educational Reforms
iv. Legal Reforms
v. Religious Reforms
a. Edict of Toleration (1781)
vi. Reaction to Joseph’s Reforms
d. Frederick II [the Great] {Old Fritz} (1740-1786)
i. Economic Reforms
ii. Educational Reforms
iii. Legal Reforms
a. Prussian Civil Code (1794)
b. Essay of the Forms of Government (1781)
iv. Bureaucratic Reforms
v. Reaction to Frederick’s Reforms

VII. The States System of 18th Century (Balance of Power):

a. Warfare in the 18th Century
a. Navies
b. Global Rivalries
a. Britain’s Empire
i. British East India Company
b. Spain’s Empire
c. Dutch’s Empire
d. France’s Empire
c. Conflicts Between the Great Powers
a. The Prussian-Austrian Dynastic Rivalries in Central Europe
i. Charles VI of Austria (1711-1740) & Succession
ii. Pragmatic Sanction (1713)
iii. Maria Theresa (1740-1780), Daughter of Charles VI
iv. Frederick II & His Reaction to Austrian Succession
a. Others Joining In
b. The Act of War (Invasion of Silesia)
b. War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)
i. Also Called King George’s War (North America) & included the War of Jenkins Ear
ii. Maria Theresa & Internal Problems
iii. Maria Theresa & External Problems
iv. Maria Theresa & Her Plea to the Hungarian Diet (1740)
v. Maria Theresa & Alliances
a. King George’s War
b. War of Jenkins’ Ear
vi. Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)
c. Prelude to the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)
i. Diplomatic Resolution of 1756
ii. The Act of War (1756)
d. The Seven Years’ War
i. Alliances for Prussia
ii. Alliances against Prussia
iii. Fighting in North America (French & Indian War [1754-1763])
iv. Fighting in India
v. Fighting in Central Europe
vi. Losses for Prussia
vii. A Surprising Ally in Peter III of Russia (1762)
a. Catherine II & Peter III
viii. Peace in the Works
ix. Treaty of Paris (1763)
a. France Loses
b. Great Britain Gains
c. Spain Gains
e. War of Bavarian Succession (1778-79)

VIII. Political Changes in Great Britain:

a. The Stuarts in Great Britain
a. Act of Succession (1701)
b. William III (of Orange) Death in 1702
c. Anne I (1665-1714) & Problems w/ the Jacobins
i. Queen Anne’s War (War of the League of Augsburg (1790’s)
ii. Act of Union (1707)
d. Anne’s Death in 1714, Rise of the Hanoverian House in Great Britain
b. The House of Hanover
a. George I (1714-1727)
b. Scottish Uprising by the Jacobins & James II [The Pretender] (1715)
c. George II (1727-1760) [son of George I]
i. Bonnie Prince Charlie [Charles Edward Stuart] (1720-1788) & the Last Jacobin Uprising (1745-1746)
ii. War of Jenkins’s Ear (1739-1748)
iii. King George’s War (1740-1748)
c. Expansion of the Central Government under George II
a. Financial Crash & the South Sea Company Bubble (1719-1720)
i. The Problem
ii. The Crash (1720)
b. Robert Walpole (1676-1745), [W] First Prime Minister (1715-1742), & Recovery
i. His Reforms
ii. Loss of Political Clout
d. Role of the House of Commons in the 18th Century
a. Loss of Confidence in the House of Commons
b. Whigs vs. Tories in the Commons
c. George III (1760-1820) & Loyal Parliamentary Opposition
i. Whig Opposition
d. Edmund Burke (1729-1797), Member of Parliament
e. Rise of British Nationalism in the 18th Century

IX. Challenges to Established Authorities:

a. British Radicals in Great Britain
a. They Called For
b. John Wilkes (1727-1797), the Original Radical in British Politics (1760’s)
a. His Main Complaint
b. Significance
c. American Revolutionaries in the Colonies
a. Colonial Leaders
b. British Radicals & American Independence
c. British Government Response
d. War of American Independence
i. Oddity of This Event
ii. The War
e. Results
d. Parlement and the French Monarchy (1750’s to 1780’s)
a. Parlement in Reality
b. Jansenists Power in Parlement
c. Trouble w/ Taxation
i. Louis XV & Parlement (1771)
d. Public Opinion on the Dissolution of Parlement
e. Results
f. Economic Revelation for Louis XV
g. Louis XVI (1774-1793)
i. The Final Act of French Economic Collapse

X. Fading Powers in Europe: The Ottoman Empire & Poland:

a. Decline of Ottoman Turkish Power in Europe
a. Internal Problems
b. External Problems
c. “The Sick Man of Europe”
b. The Disappearance of Poland
a. War of Polish Succession (1733-1735)
i. Results
b. First Partition of Poland (1772)
c. Second Partition of Poland (1793)
d. Third Partition of Poland (1795)

XI. Unit 4 I.D. Terms:

1) Agricultural Revolution:

2) Enclosure Movement:

3) Commercial Agriculture:

4) Cottage Industry:

5) Richard Arkwright:

6) Enlightened Absolutism:

7) Cesare Beccaria:

8) Catherine II:

9) Pugachev’s Rebellion:

10) Charter of the Nobility:

11) Joseph II:

12) Frederick II:

13) Prussian Civil Code:

14) Pragmatic Sanction:

15) Maria Theresa:

16) War of Austrian Succession:

17) Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle:

18) The Seven Years’ War:

19) Treaty of Paris:

20) Anne I:

21) Act of Union:

22) Hanoverians:

23) Robert Walpole:

24) Louis XV:

25) The Partitions of Poland:

Unit 5Edit


I. French Revolution (1789-1799), End of the Ancien Regime:

a. Modern Questions – rights of the people, the role of the state in society, democratic values, role of religion in society,

the ideas of economic freedom, sanctity of property, duties of a citizen, the idea of nation (nationalism)

b. The French Revolution was
c. The Ancien Regime was
d. Causes of the French Revolution
a. Enlightenment Ideas
b. Inequalities in Society
i. First Estate
ii. Second Estate
iii. Third Estate
a. What was the Third Estate?
iv. Reality of the Estates System
c. Financial Crisis
i. Problems w/ Agriculture
ii. Problems w/ War
iii. Problems w/ Public Confidence
iv. Problems w/ Parlement

II. First Stages of the French Revolution:

a. Calling of the Assembly of Notables (1787)
a. The 1st & 2nd Estates
b. The 3rd Estate
c. Louis’ Reaction
b. “Revolt of the Nobility”, in Parlement (1788)
c. Estates General (June 1789) & the Paper Revolution
a. Decision on Voting Reform
b. Decision on Representative Body
c. Decision on the List of Grievances
d. Louis’ Reaction to the 3rd Estate
e. Locked Out (July 1789)
f. The Tennis Court Oath & the National Assembly
i. The Paper Revolution
d. The People of Paris
a. The Storming of the Bastille (July 14th, 1789)
i. The Bastille
ii. Destruction of the Bastille
a. Acceptance of Violence
e. The Countryside’s Revolt & the Great Fear
a. The City vs. the Countryside

III. Consolidation of the Revolution under the National Assembly (Moderate Phase):

a. Creation of the Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen (August 1789)
a. Its Ideas
b. The Problem
b. Popular Resentment
a. Jean-Paul Marat (1743-1793) & The Friend of the People
c. The March to Versailles (October 1789)
a. It Began
b. It Became
c. It Ended
d. Significance
d. Reform of the Church
a. Church Property
i. Aristocratic Flight
b. Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790)
i. It Said
ii. Discontent by the Countryside & Thoughts of Counter-Revolution
e. Constitution of 1791
a. It Said
f. Growth of Politics in Paris
a. Main Individuals in Parisian Politics
i. George-Jacques Danton (1759-1794)
ii. Olympe de Gouges (1755-1793)
a. Declaration of the Rights of Women
iii. Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794)
iv. Jean-Paul Marat
b. Main Political Club (Jacobins)
c. Main Parisian Group (Sans-Culottes)
i. Their Name
a. Their Ideas

IV. Growing Radicalism of the Revolution under the Legislative Assembly:

a. Louis’ Flight to Varennes (June 1791)
a. National Assembly’s Reaction
b. Significance
b. Dissolution of the National Assembly, Creation of the Legislative Assembly (Sept. 1791)
a. Left-Right Politics
i. Left
ii. Right
c. Reactions to the French Revolution in Europe
a. Persecution of Radicals
b. Edmond Burke
i. Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790)
c. Thomas Paine (1737-1809)
i. The Rights of Man (1791-1792)
d. Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
i. Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792)
d. Austria’s (Leopold II, Marie’s brother) & Prussia’s (Frederick William II) Reaction to the Revolution
a. Declaration of Pillnitz (August 1791)
b. Legislative Assembly’s Response
e. The Brunswick Manifesto (July 1792)
a. It Said
f. The Second Revolution (August 1792)
g. Prussia’s & Austria’s invasion of France (Sept. 1792)
a. Marat’s Influence
b. The September Massacres (1792)

V. The National Convention during the Radical Phase:

a. Dissolution of the Legislative Assembly, Creation of the National Convention (Sept. 1792)
a. The Problem w/ the Convention
b. Preemptive Declaration of War on Great Britain & the Dutch Republic
i. The Revolutionary Wars & First Coalition against France (Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, D.U.P)
c. End of Monarchy, Rise of Republic (January 1793)
d. Division in the Convention
i. Girondins
ii. Jacobins
b. Military Woes (March 1793)
c. Counter-Revolution Begins (Summer 1793)
d. Start of the Reign of The Terror (June 1793)
a. Those Accused
b. Revolutionary Tribunal
c. Committee of Public Safety
i. Law of Suspects (Sept. 1793)
e. Societal Changes to France during the Reign of Terror
a. De-Christianization
b. The Cult of the Supreme Being & the Republic of Virtue
c. Revolutionary Calendar
f. Call to End to the Terror (April 1794)
g. The Great Terror

VI. Final Stages of the Revolution:

a. The Thermidorian Reaction (July 1794)
b. Dissolution of the National Convention, Creation of the Directory (1794-1799)
a. Reforms
b. Problems
c. Abbe Sieyes & His Prediction
c. Second Coalition Against France (Russia, Great Britain, Austria) [1798]
d. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)
e. The 18th of Brumaire (18th of October)

VII. Unit 5 I.D. Terms:

1) French Revolution:

2) Ancien Regime:

3) Louis XVI:

4) First Estate:

5) Second Estate:

6) Third Estate:

7) Assembly of Notables:

8) Estates General:

9) Tennis Court Oath:

10) National Assembly:

11) The Bastille:

12) Great Fear:

13) Declaration of the Rights of Man:

14) Civil Constitution of the Clergy:

15) Constitution of 1791:

16) Jacobin Club:

17) Maximilien Robespierre:

18) Sans-Culottes:

19) Legislative Assembly:

20) Declaration of Pillnitz:

21) Brunswick Manifesto:

22) September Massacres:

23) National Convention:

24) The Revolutionary Wars:

25) Reign of Terror:

26) Revolutionary Tribunal:

27) Committee of Public Safety:

28) Thermidorian Reaction:

29) Directory:

30) Napoleon Bonaparte:


I. Napoleonic Era (1799-1815):

a. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), A Star Rising
a. Military Accomplishments
b. Involvement w/ the Directory
c. Coup d’état of the Directory (October 1799), Creation of the Consulate
d. Structure of the Consulate
i. Napoleon as First Consul
ii. Council of State
iii. Tribunate
a. Senate
iv. Legislative Body
v. Districts & Perfects
e. Reforms of the Consulate
i. Peace w/ the Catholic Church (Concordat of 1801)
a. Catholicism
b. Bishops
c. Church Property
d. Clergy
e. Minister of Religion
ii. End of the Revolutionary Wars
a. Treaty of Luneville (1801)
b. Treaty of Amiens (1802)
c. Imperial Recess of 1803
iii. Louisiana Purchase (1803)
b. The French Empire under Emperor Napoleon I (1804-1815)
a. Basic Reforms of the Empire
i. Council of State
a. New Powers
ii. Bank of France
iii. Expansion of Schools
iv. Napoleonic Code (Civil Code of 1804)
a. Basic Ideas
v. Social Hierarchy
vi. Military Recruitment
a. Legion of Honor
c. The Napoleonic Wars (1805-1813)
a. Napoleonic Warfare
b. Napoleonic Tactics
c. Napoleonic Battles
d. Third Coalition against France (1805)
i. Battle of Trafalgar (1805)
ii. Battle of Ulm (October 1805)
iii. Battle of Austerlitz (December 1805)
iv. Confederation of the Rhine (1806)
a. Francis II of Austria & Death of the Holy Roman Empire
v. Battle of Jena (1806)
vi. Battle of Friedland (1807)
vii. Treaty of Tilsit (1807)
a. It Said
viii. Battle of Wagram (1809)
ix. Outcome of the early Napoleonic Wars
a. Nepotism in Europe
d. The Tide Turns Against Napoleon
a. Continental System (1806)
i. What it did
ii. Problems from Great Britain
iii. Problems with France
iv. British Retaliation under the Orders of Council (1807)
a. Purpose
v. French Retaliation under the Milan Decrees (1807)
a. Purpose
vi. Failure by 1811
b. The Spanish Ulcer, the Peninsular War (1808-1813)
i. Spanish Rebellion
ii. Portuguese & British Support
c. Nationalism in Napoleonic Europe
i. Creation of a National Identity
d. Napoleon’s Treatment of Conquered Lands
e. Military Reforms in Prussia & Austria
i. Reforms
ii. Baron Heinrich Karl vom und zum Stein
e. Empire’s Decline & the Russian Invasion (1812-1813)
a. Internal Opposition under Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
b. External Opposition
i. Napoleon’s Response
c. The Russian Campaign (June 1812-March 1813)
i. Reasons for Failure
a. Scorched Earth Policy
b. The Russian Winter
ii. Napoleon’s Retreat (March 1813)
d. The Fourth Coalition (1813) against France
i. Battle of the Nations (March 1813)
e. Napoleon’s Forced Abdication (April 6, 1814)
f. The Bourbon Restoration under Louis XVIII (1814)
a. Treaty of Fontainebleau (1814)
b. Treaty of Paris (1814)
c. Louis XVIII (1814-1815, 1815-1824)
i. Constitutional Charter
ii. Problems w/ Louis XVIII
g. Napoleon’s Return & the One Hundred Days (1815)
a. Allied Response
b. Battle of Waterloo (May 1815)

II. Legacy of the French Revolution & Napoleonic Era:

a. French Revolution Post-Mortem
b. Napoleonic Era Post-Mortem

III. Unit 5 I.D. Terms:

1) Napoleonic Era:

2) Consulate:

3) Concordat of 1801:

4) Emperor Napoleon I:

5) French Empire:

6) Napoleonic Code:

7) Napoleonic Wars:

8) Confederation of the Rhine:

9) Treaty of Tilsit:

10) Nepotism:

11) Continental System:

12) Peninsular War:

13) Russian Campaign:

14) Battle of the Nations:

15) Bourbon Restoration:

16) Louis XVIII:

17) Constitutional Charter:

18) Treaty of Paris (1814):

19) One Hundred Days:

20) Battle of Waterloo:

Unit 6Edit


I. Revolutions of 1848:

Massive revolutions that affects all great powers except Great Britain and Russia. Started by France. Shows flaws in concert europe. Famine adds to it and revolutions fail. 

a. Initial Success of the Revolutionaries
Have success, but only because they caught the government by surprise                    
b. Problem with Success
There were many uprisings with many different groups, want different governments
c. Ultimate Failure
People can't find a common ground.  Wants peace and stability back.  Government comes back.

II. The February Revolution in France, the Overthrow of the July (Orleanist) Monarch:

a. The February Revolution
Revolutionaries rise up and protest against the king
a. Louis Philippe’s Response
 He sends in the army to crush the protest. The people start to barricade the streets to protect themselves form the army. Then they make their way to Louis Philippe. 
b. Louis Philippe’s Response to the Protestors
He advocates the throne and leaves Paris. When he leaves, the revolutionaries become the government
b. Declaration of the Second French Republic
The government (protestors) plans to hold elections to vote in who they want to represent themselves. 
c. Internal Divisions in the Provisional Government
There was a problem: Before they could set up the republic, they needed to decide who will be president. 
a. Legitimists:
They wanted someone who was royalty (Bourbons). 
b. Orleanists:
They wanted Louis Philippe back, but with a stronger legislator. 
c. Supporters of Louis Napoleon (1808-1873):
They supported the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, Louis Napoleon. Louis Napoleon was basically exactly like his Uncle. 
d. European Reactions
Major powers worry about the second French revolution. Many governments wanted to intervene in French issues, but I had revolutions of their own. 
e. April Election Results
Out of 900 delicates, the revolutionaries only win about 100 seats. The majority are the conservatives (supporters of Louis Napoleon). The revolutionaries decide to overthrow their own government yet again. 
f. Crisis in France & the June Days
June Days- A gigantic battle between revolutionaries and the conservatives. The revolutionaries lost. 
a. Government’s Response to the June Days
They want a more conservative government, and get rid of the republic. 
g. Candidates for the Election in November
a. Louis Napoleon
Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte and inhereter of his uncle's legacy. 
b. Louis Cavaignac (1802-1857)
The guy that lead the army during June Days. 
c. Alexandre-Auguste Ledru-Rollin (1807-1874)
The radical candidate. 
h. December Election Results
Louis Napoleon wins presidency and most of the government is Louis Napoleon supporters. 1 term is 4 years. 
i. The Agony of the Second French Republic
Louis Napoleon begins to reorganize the government so he can have more power. 
a. Louis Napoleon’s Reforms
1. Passes censorship laws. 
2. All political clubs and cafes were closed. 
3. If you wanted to vote, you had to own land. 
j. Death of the Second French Republic & Rise of the Second French Empire (November 1851)
After 4 years, Louis Napoleon doesn't want to step down. On the anniversary of his Uncle taking control of France, Louis Napoleon takes control of France and puts the constitution on hold. 
a. Louis Napoleon’s Call for Legitimacy & the People’s Plebiscite Vote
Louis Napoleon asked the people if they wanted him as Emperor. 95% of the French people said yes and voted themselves into slavery. 
b. Declaration of the Second French Empire under Napoleon III (January 1852)
Napoleon III declares himself the second French Emperor. 

III. Revolution in the German Confederation, Prussia & the Frankfurt Parliament:

a. Causes of Revolution in the German States
When France rises up, the Germans rise up. The people have a lack of food and a lack of representatives in government.  
b. March Revolutions
Describing all revolutions happening in Europe after France.
c. Revolution in Bavaria
News of the French Revolution spreads, and the people of Bavaria rise up. The King of Bavaria sends in his army to stop the protests. the people barricade the streets to protect themselves from the army and made their way to the king. 
a. Ludwig I’s (King of Bavaria) Response
He advocates the thrown and leaves Bavaria.
d. Revolutions in Saxony & Hanover
As word spreads about revolutions, Saxony and Hanover rise up. The army comes in, protestors put up barricades, and the King flees. 
e. Revolution in Prussia under Frederick William IV
Within Berlin, students rise up and the army comes in, protestors put up barricades, but Frederick William IV doesn't leave right then.
a. Frederick William IV’s Response
He passes reforms, lightens censorship laws, and lets Liberals come into government. The King says that if the revolutionaries write a constitution, he will sign it. 
b. The March Days
Frederick William IV leads an army to have a sneak attack and crush the revolutionaries. This didn't work. Frederick William IV leaves Berlin. 
c. United Assembly of Prussia (March 1848)
The revolutionaries of Berlin's legislator. This gave everybody the same rights.
f. The Frankfurt Parliament (German Constituent National Assembly) & Attempted Unification
This was supposed to be a legislator congress that supports all germans. They believe this will lead to German unification.
a. Elections for the Frankfurt Parliament
The people that are elected have different ideas. They begin to argue and lie to each other.
i. Important Questions include what type of GOV will the nation have, who will have the right to vote, will PRU or AUS go along w/ this plan, which state/King will accept the title of King of Germany if they want a Constitutional Monarchy
b. Two Major Ideas Behind Germain Unification
i. Kleindeutsch:
This means "Smaller Germany". When Germany is unified, it will not include Austria.
ii. Grossdeutsch:
This means "Greater Germany". When Germany is unified, it will include Austria.
c. The Frankfurt Parliament’s 1st Decision on Unification
They will go with the Kleindeutsch. 
d. The Frankfurt Parliament’s 2nd Decision on Unification, Basic Rights of the German People (December 1848)
The passage of a constitution for basic rights will set up the idea of a Constitutional Monarchy.
e. The Frankfurt Parliament’s 3rd Decision on Unification
They decide they have to offer the crown to Prussia. Frederick William IV refuses the crown because he did not want a crown from the people.
i. Significance
Prussia wants to do it their way. 
1848-Prussia or Austria.
After 1848-Only Prussia. 

f. Collapse of the Revolution in Berlin
Frederick William IV has a massive army that comes into Berlin and demolishes the revolution. Frederick William IV begins to squash all revolutions throughout Germany.

g. End of Revolutions in Germany
Frederick William IV ends all of them.
g. Prussian-Austrian Rivalry
This is about who is going to reunite Germany. Austria has to many problems so Prussia has to be the one. Austria and Prussia will have one last war.

IV. Revolution in Austria:

Austria is afraid of Nationalism because it has the potential to destroy the nation.
a. Causes for the Revolutions
b. Start of the Revolution, the Hungarian Revolt
Austria doesn't send any troops there. the Hungarians wanted to make a deal. They wanted it to be the Austrian-Hungarian Empire.
a. March Laws
Passed by the Hungarian Diet. It says that:
-The Austrian King will remain king, but the Hungarians will have their own army. Hungary also wants to conduct their own foreign policy.
The problem is, the Austrian King doesn't reconize the March Laws because he hasn't signed it. 

c. Revolutions within Hungary, Revolt of the Croats, Serbs, & Slovenes

a. Reason for Internal Revolts
The people have to pay taxes to both Austria and Hungary. also, the Hungarian Diet only applies to hungarians, NOT the Croats, Serbs, or Slovenes.
d. Revolution in Vienna

a. Ferdinand I’s, King of Austria, Response
He flees. But before he flees, he fires Meterneck to try to stop the revolution. This doesn't work.
e. Revolution in Bohemia
The Czechs rise up in revolt.
a. Czech Revolutionary Goal
To unite all he Czechs into a Czech Republic
f. Revolution of the Austrian Germans
The Austrian-Germans rise up against Ferdinand I to unite with Germany. 
g. Revolution in Italy
Italy can't beat Austria even when Austria doesn't have an army.
h. Counter-Revolution in Habsburg Central Europe

a. Abdication of Ferdinand I, Coronation of King Francis Joseph I (1848-1916)
Ferdinand I steps down and lets his intelligent nephew take control. Francis Joseph I decides that they should have a counter revolution.  

b. Prince Felix zu Schwarzenberg (1800-1852)
He is a general of the Austrian army. He thinks that Austria should attack the weakpont of the revolutionaries.
c. Austrian Counter-Attack in Bohemia
Austria bombards Prague and destroys everybody. The people that surrender are executed.
i. German Revolutionaries’ Response:
Most of the revolts die down and most of the Austrian-Germans are silenced. 
d. Austrian Counter-Attack in Vienna
The Austrian army goes to Vienna and destroys everybody and retakes Vienna.
e. Austrian Counter-Attack in Hungary, Support from Russia & the Croats
Nicholas I sends a Russian army to help Austria. Then the Croats will rise up and smash the Hungarian revolt.
i. Joseph Jelacic (1801-1859):
A Croation general who leads the Croats in the counter-attack.
f. Restoration of Habsburg Control
Everything is back to normal. This proves that Austria is barely strong enough to contain its national uprisings.

V. Revolution in Italy:

Italy will try to beat Austria (but can't). Revolutions against the pope will begin.
a. Rival Powers in Italy
Liberals, Nationalists, Revolutionaries, and Conservatives.
a. Piedmont-Sardinia & the House of Savoy
Piedmont-Sardinia is the most powerful Italien state. Piedmont-Sardinia gets all of Italy to rise up in a revolt. The House of Savoy will eventually become the royal family.
b. The Five Glorious Days, Attack on Milan
A period of time when revolutions occur accross Europe. Most of Austrians control is in Milan. The revolutionaries set up barricades throughout the country and they think that this will finally kick Austria out.
a. Divisions on Unification & Charles Albert of Piedmont-Sardinia (1831-1849)
Charles Albert wants to be crowned the king of Italy. The people are diversified. Some want Piedmont-Sardinia, some wanted a republuc, some want a constitutional monarchy, and others want unification under the Pope.   
b. Divisions on the Government of (Attempted) United Italy

c. Revolution in Rome
The Pope is a conservative. The Pope sends in his army to stop the protests. The people barricade the streets to protect themselves from the army and made their way to him. After that, the Pope leaves Rome. 
a. Foreign Intervention
The French sends an army to crush revolutions against the Pope. With French help, the Pope and his army will beat the revolutionaries.
b. Battle for Rome (June)
The French and the Pope's armies have a climactic battle with the revolutionaries. Most of the revolutionaries were slaughtered and the Pope takes back control. 
d. Joseph Radetzky (1766-1858) & the Austrian Counter-Attack in Italy
As revolutionaries were debating, Radetzky comes in and forces them into battle.
a. Results of Radetzky’s Campaign
Revolutions crumble and Austria gains control once again.
b. Abdication of Charles Albert, Coronation of Victor Emmanuel II (1849-1861)
Victor Emmanuel II is the new king. H's charged with the task of uniting Italy. He realizes that Piedmont-Sardinia is the only one that has enough power to do so.

VI. The Legacy of the Revolutions of 1848:

It proved that unless you have a gameplan, you'll be defeated and beaten down.
Liberals will call for reform.
Public opinion will be the first thing that nations will have to think about. 

VII. Unit 6 I.D. Terms:

1) Revolutions of 1848:

2) February Revolution:

3) Second French Republic:

4) June Days:

5) Louis Napoleon:

6) Second French Empire:

7) Napoleon III:

8) March Revolutions:

9) Frederick William IV:

10) March Days:

11) Frankfurt Parliament:

12) Kleindeutsch:

13) Grossdeutsch:

14) March Laws:

15) Ferdinand I:

16) Franz Joseph I:

17) Piedmont-Sardinia:

18) Charles Albert:

19) Joseph Radetzky:

20) Victor Emmanuel II:


I. Era of National Unification:

II. Political Unification of Italy under Piedmont-Sardinia:

a. Leadership of Italian Unification
a. King Victor Emmanuel II
b. Camillo di Cavour (1810-1861), Chief Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia
b. Alliances & Warfare for Italian Unification (Jan. 1859)
a. Why France & Napoleon III?
b. Treaty of Plombieres (Savoy & Nice)

i. Napoleon III’s Belief

ii. Austria’s Response to the Alliance
iii. Cavour’s Response to Conscription

iv. Austria’s Response to Cavour’s Decree
a. German States’ Response to Austria’s Aggression
v. Austria’s Ultimatum
vi. France’s Response
c. Italian War of Unification (1859)
a. Battles of Magenta & Solferino (June 1859)
b. Napoleon III’s Fear & Withdrawal

i. Armistice at Villafranca (July 1859)
c. Treaty of Turin (March 1860)
d. The Liberation of Southern Italy (1860) by Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882)
a. Garibaldi & Southern Italy
b. April 1860 Revolt in the Kingdom of the Two Siclies (Naples & Sicily)
i. Garibaldi, His “Red Shirts”, & Palermo
ii. Invasion of Naples
iii. Cavour & Garibaldi
c. North & South Unite with a Plebiscite Vote (November 1860)

i. Results of the Vote for Unification
e. The Nation of Italy (March 1861)
a. Venetia (1866)
b. Rome (1870)
i. Law of Papal Guarantees (May 1871)
f. Limits of Unification

a. Regional Differences
b. North vs. South
c. Economic Woes & the North-South Gap

d. Emigration to the United States
e. Papal Resistance
f. The Mafia in Sicily

III. Political Unification of Germany under Prussia:

a. Advantages in the German States
a. German Confederation

b. Zollverein (1819) & Frederick List (1789-1846)

i. Significance
c. Prussia
b. Leadership of German Unification
a. William I (1797-1888)

b. Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898), Iron Chancellor of Prussia (1862-1890)

i. Realpolitik (Statecraft)

c. Prussian Constitutional Crisis

a. The Crisis Was

b. The Solution, Otto von Bismarck as Chancellor (1862)
i. The Loophole

ii. Significance

d. Alliances & Warfare for German Unification

a. His Plan for Eliminating External Blocks

b. Friendship with Russia & the Polish Revolt (1863)

i. The Results
e. The Danish War (1864), the Pretext for War with Austria

a. Claim of German Oppression Schleswig & Holstein (1864)

b. German Response
c. Treaty of Vienna (1864)
f. Bismarck & the European Stage (1865)
a. France & Austrian Humiliation
b. Italy & Venetia (Prussian-Italian Alliance)
c. German Confederation & a National Parliament

g. The Conflict over Schleswig & Holstein & the Seven Weeks’ War [Austro-Prussian] (1866)

a. Austria’s Response
b. The War

c. Treaty of Prague (August 1866)
h. The North German Confederation, the Framework for German Unification

i. Significance
ii. Expansion of the Zollverein

i. The Conflict with France & the Final Step to German Unification (1870)

a. Political Isolation of France
i. Austria
ii. Italy
iii. Russia
b. The Calls for War Boil with a Conflict over Spanish Succession (1870)

i. The Effect
c. The Ems Dispatch (Telegraph) (July 1870)

i. The Effect
d. Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)
i. Treaty of Frankfurt (January 1871)
ii. Territorial Gains & Indemnity
e. Declaration of the German Empire (January 1871)

i. State Structure

j. Politics of the German Empire
a. Kulturkampf (1873) & the War on Catholicism

i. Reforms Against Catholicism

ii. End of Kulturkampf

b. Problems with the Social Democratic Party

i. Reforms Against the Social Democrats

c. William II (1888-1918), son of William I

i. Resignation of Bismarck as Chancellor (1890)

ii. Germany Without Bismarck

IV. National Awakening in Habsburg Lands:

a. Advantages from Regionalism
a. Habsburg Monarchy
b. Officials & Languages
c. Ethnic Nobility
d. Catholicism
e. Local Control
b. Constitutional Reforms
a. October Diploma of 1860
b. February Patent of 1861
c. Compromise of 1867, the Dual Monarchy, & the Austro-Hungarian Empire
i. What It Did

V. Unit 6 I.D. Terms:

1) Unification :

2) Italian Unification:

3) Camillo di Cavour:

4) Treaty of Turin:

5) Giuseppe Garibaldi:

6) Law of Papal Guarantees:

7) German Unification:

8) William I:

9) Otto von Bismarck:

10) Realpolitik:

11) Schleswig & Holstein:

12) Austro-Prussian War:

13) North German Confederation:

14) Zollverein:

15) Ems Dispatch:

16) Franco-Prussian War:

17) Treaty of Frankfurt:

18) Kulturkampf:

19) William II:

20) Compromise of 1867:


I. Dominant Powers in the Age of Liberalism:

Great Britain was reforming without problem.  Russia had a massive call for reforms and revolution.  France was revolting.

II. The Victorian Age in Great Britain:

Queen Victoria. Her morals and beliefs were a symbol of the time period. she had the lots of middle-class values, but she was still very aristocratic and conservative.

a. The Victorian Consensus under Queen Victoria (1819-1901) & Prince Albert (1819-1861)
A set of values that blanketed society.  It cemented a new national culture that all classes would share.
a. Entrepreneurial Ethnic
A set of ethics that held entrepreneur very high in society.  It was capitalistic, symbolized by Adam Smith's ideas, and encouraged competition within the market.
b. Involvement of the State
 There was very little government intervention, especially economically.  It was a free market, however the problem of poverty still remained.

c. Morality
A set of moral codes that showed what is prim and proper.
d. The Family
The family was the central unit of the Victorian age. Middle-class families were becoming smaller, their children where in courage to follow in the footsteps of their parents.
b. The Liberal Era of Victorian Politics (19th Century)
During this time period debate was highly encouraged, the first liberal parties made their rise, and the people trusted the parliament.
a. Liberal Dominance post-1832 Reform Bill & Whig Divisions
The whig party began to divide.
i. Liberal Party
A political party seeking social reform and wanted the government to expand to help the lower classes.
a. It Drew Support From
Businesses, Catholics, working and lower class, liberal middle-class
b. Strong In
the House of Commons
c. Party Leader in William Gladstone (1809-1898)
Dominates liberal politics.  Defined being a liberal.  Encourage domestic policy.  Didn't like to involve the continent.  He wanted to make the Liberal party the party of reform
b. Conservative Opposition
that TORRES became the Conservatives.  The conservatives were mostly a minority.
i. Conservative Party
  The conservative party wanted to increase Britain's influence in the world.  They encouraged foreign-policy and wanted to invest more in colonies.
a. It Drew Support From
the upper class and the Anglican Church
b. Strong In
The House of Lords
c. Party Leader in Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881)
The political rival of Gladstone.  He wanted the Conservatives to be the party of the rich.  He disliked liberal politics.  He felt the Liberal policy was too liberal.  He was supported by Queen Victoria.
c. The Politics of Voter Reform
  The Liberals wanted more people to vote
i. The Liberal Reform Bill
a big debate over poll taxes the Liberal party wanted to lower the poll tax
a. What It Did
in the poorest rural areas it lowered taxes.
b. Liberal Support
Gladstone thought it was moral and utilitarian
c. Conservative Opposition
opposed saying Queen Victoria didn't want to be a democratic monarch
d. Result
it failed to pass.
ii. The Conservative Reform Bill (The Reform Bill of 1867)
Conservatives will oppose bills published by the Liberals.  The Conservatives try to gain support by passing a bill.
a. What It Did
expanded the right to vote to 4/5 of all male citizens
b. Liberal Support
Gladstone supports it
c. Conservative Support
they support it as well
d. Result
the bill passes.  Unintentionally the next major election, Liberals win big support.
d. Irish Home Rule & the Pacification of Ireland
Every few years the Irish try to revolt.
i. The Irish Land Act of 1870
passed to make the Irish happy.  The Irish farmers who rent land are now protected.
ii. Irish Land League (1879)
formed by Irish men.  Press for more reform.  They wanted true land reform.
iii. Charles Parnell (1846-1891) & Home Rule
in Irish Protestants in Parliament proposes home rule.  Ireland will have its own administration but is still loyal to Britain. It fails to pass.
iv. Irish Republican Brotherhood (1879)
  Forms in response to home rule being put down.  There were radical calls for independence and violence.
v. Divisions in Parliament & the Liberal Party (1879-1882)
This put more pressure on the House of Commons.  Gladstone and the Liberals tried to push through massive reforms.
a. Why Try?
conservative liberals ask why do you try?  Irishmen will never be happy, they say.
vi. Violence & the Coercion Act (1882)
after several acts of violence the Coercion Act denied the rights of the accused in Ireland.
vii. Joseph Chamberlain (1836-1914) & the Liberal Party Split (1885)
replaces Gladstone as the new leader of the Liberal party.
viii. Home Rule Bill & Failures (1886 & 1893)
leads to a conservative majority.

ix. Passage of Home Rule (September 1914) & Ulster
the bill finally passes.  It was an act of unity, in August World War I started.  The problem was that the Northern Protestants didn't like a Catholic Ireland.
c. New Contours in British Political Life, King Edward VII (1901-1910)
  Queen Victoria's son Edward starts a new age.  During this time there were new parties and more violence.

a. New Unionism
  The first party, they wanted a new radical union movement. the working class wanted rights, and they would use violence.
i. Black Monday (1887)
  A nationwide strike occurs.  The police are sent out to tame the riots, and at the end of the day hundreds are dead.
ii. Taff Vale Decision (1901)
in act of law stating that not only is it illegal to strike, but the striking workers must reimburse for previous strikes.  This was passed by both the conservative and Liberal parties.
b. Rise of the Labour Party (1890’s)
the Labour Party tries to be huge true party of the working class reform.  They rally around the Taft Vale decision
c. Conservative Decline (1890’s-1910’s)
d. Liberal & Labour Government (1910’s)

i. Trade Disputes Act of 1906
ii. Parliament Bill of 1911 & George V (1911-1936)

iii. William Lloyd George & the Last Liberal Majority (1910’s-1920’s)

III. Reform, Expansion, & Revolution in Tsarist Russia:

a. The Crimean War (1853-1856), the Shattering of Concert Europe

a. It Started
b. It Became
c. War Breaks Out (1853)

d. The War Ends
i. Florence Nightingale (1820-1910)
ii. Alfred Tennyson (1809-1892) & The Charge of the Light Brigade

e. Peace of Paris (1856)

b. Stirrings of Discontent in Russia

a. Westernizes vs. Slavophiles
i. Westernizers
ii. Slavophiles
a. Vissarion Belinsky (1811-1848)

b. Alexander Herzen (1812-1870)

c. Nikolay Gogol (1809-1852)

iii. Pan-Slavism

c. Czar Alexander II (1855-1881) & Emancipation of the Serfs

a. Serfdom in Russia

b. Emancipation of the Serfs (April 5, 1861)
i. The Problem

c. Other Reforms of Alexander II
i. Creation of Zemstvos

ii. Dumas
iii. Creation of the Judicial Branch (1864)
iv. The Army

v. Third Section
d. Expansion of the Russian Empire under Alexander III (1881-1894), son of Alexander II

a. Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878)
i. Treaty of San Stefano (1878)
b. The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
i. Nicholas II (1894-1917)
ii. It Started

iii. The War

iv. Treaty of Portsmouth (1905)
e. The Revolution of 1905
a. Protests at St. Petersburg (January 1905)
b. Czar Nicholas II’s Response & Bloody Sunday (January 22nd)

c. Czar Nicholas II’s Response & the Duma (National Parliament)

d. October Manifesto of 1905
e. Sergey Witte (1849-1915) & Resolution

f. Dissolution of the Duma (April 1906)

i. Significance

IV. Reforms of the Second Empire & Rise of the Third Republic:

a. The Authoritarian Empire

b. Economic Growth in France

a. Construction Projects

i. Construction of the Suez Canal (1869)

b. Significance

c. Foreign Policy of the Second Empire

a. Mexico & Cinco de Mayo (1867)
b. Italian War of Unification (1859)
c. Franco-Prussian War and the Siege of Paris (1870-1871)
i. Significance
d. Declaration of the Third Republic (Sept. 4, 1870)
a. Provisional Government

e. Parisian Revolt & the Paris Commune (March 1871)

a. The Paris Commune (March 1871)
b. End of the Paris Commune (May 1871)
f. The Chamber of Deputies & the Third Republic
a. Structure of the Third Republic
g. Anti-Semitism in the Third Republic & the Dreyfus Affair (1894)

a. Captain Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935)

b. The Dreyfus Affair
c. Dreyfus’ Release (1899)

V. Unit 6 I.D. Terms:

1) Victorian Consensus:

2) Liberal Party:

3) William Gladstone:

4) Conservative Party:

5) Benjamin Disraeli:

6) The Reform Bill of 1867:

7) Irish Home Rule:

8) Labour Party:

9) Parliament Bill of 1911:

10) Crimean War:

11) Westernizers:

12) Slavophiles:

13) Alexander II:

14) Alexander III:

15) Nicholas II:

16) Russo-Japanese War:

17) Revolution of 1905:

18) Third French Republic:

19) Paris Commune:

20) Dreyfus Affair: