AP European History at GRCHS/The First Quarter

Unit 1Edit

1AEdit

Unit 2Edit

2AEdit

I. Age of Exploration:

 A time when Europeans were trying to find a new route to Asia 


a. Reasons to go… God, Gold, & Glory
i. God - people wanted to convert the newly discovered peoples to Christianity
ii. Gold
iii. Glory
iv. The Realities


v. Early Leaders in Exploration Potugal + Spain
b. Technology of Exploration
i. Cannon
ii. Caravels over Galleys
iii. Sails
iv. Compass
v. Astrolabe
c. European Sponsorship
i. In return for sponsorship

II. Exploration & Discovery:

a. Portugal & Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460)
i. Bartholomew Dias (1487)
ii. Vasco da Gama (1497-99)
iii. Pedro Cabral (1500-01)
b. Spain & Ferdinand and Isabella
i. Christopher Columbus (1492)
ii. Ferdinand Magellan (1519-1521)


iii. Hernando Cortes (1519-1522)
iv. Francisco Pizarro (1531-1536)
c. England & the British East/West India Company
i. John Cabot (1497)
ii. Sir Francis Drake (1577-1580)
iii. Joint Stock Companies


a. Virginia & London Companies
b. Cash Crops
d. France
i. Jacques Cartier (1534-1541)
e. Netherlands & the Dutch East/West India Company


f. Golden Century of Spain was a time when the Spanish controlled much of the New World and was a powerful force in Europe.


g. Price (Commercial) Revolution (16th Century)



III. Columbian Exchange:

a. Definition
b. From the New World
c. From the Old World
d. Triangle Trade & the Atlantic Economy
i. From EUR
ii. From AFR
a. Bartolommeo de las Casas (1515)


b. Atlantic Slave Trade


iii. From AME
iv. From EUR

IV. Roots of the Reformation (1400-1517):

a. Secularism
b. Simony
c. Pluralism
d. Indulgences
e. Immorality
i. Alexander VI (1492-1503)
ii. Julius II (1503-1513)
iii. Leo X (1513-1521)
iv. Clement VII (1523-1534)
f. Early Reformers
i. Heretics, Excommunication, & Execution


V. The Reformation:


VI. The Protestant Reformation:


a. Martin Luther (1483-1546)
b. Ninety-Five Theses (1517)
i. It Said
ii. His Intentions


c. Luther & his Doctrine


i. Faith Alone
ii. Interpret the Bible
iii. Two Sacraments
iv. Scripture Alone (sola scriptura)
v. Consubstantiation
a. Transubstantiation
d. Leo X & the Summons to Augsburg (1519)
i. Luther thinks
ii. The Cardinals think
iii. In the end
e. Prince Frederick III of Saxony (1520)


i. German Princes, Luther, & the Politics of the Reformation


f. Charles V, Luther, & the Pope


g. Diet of Worms (1521)


i. The problem

VII. Reaction to Luther’s Ideas in Germany:

a. Clergy
b. Nobles
i. Diet of Speyer (1526)


ii. Diet of Speyer & Protestatio (1529)


c. Peasants & “Christian Freedom”


i. On Christian Liberty (1520) & An Admonition to Peace (1525)
ii. German Peasant Revolt/Swabian Peasant Revolt (1524-1525)


iii. Their Demands in the Twelve Articles
iv. Luther’s Response in the Against the Murdering, Thieving Hordes of Peasants


a. Why did Luther side with the German Princes?
d. Believers, the Augsburg Confession, & the Lutheran Church (1530)



e. Charles V & his Lackluster Response
i. Habsburg-Valois Wars
ii. Ottomans Turks & the 1530’s
iii. Schmalkaldic League & War (1546-1547)


iv. Peace of Augsburg (1555)


v. Death of Charles V (1556)
a. His Son, Phillip II (1556-1598) & the Spanish Habsburgs
b. His Brother, Ferdinand I (1556-1564) & the Austrian Habsburgs

VIII. Reformation Throughout Europe:

a. Switzerland
i. Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) of Zurich
a. His Reforms
ii. Anabaptists (1525)
a. Their Reforms


iii. Jean Calvin (1509-1564)
a. Institutions of the Christian Religion (1536)
i. Predestination
ii. Good Works
iii. Protestant Work Ethnic


b. Theocracy at Geneva & his Ecclesiastical Ordinances


i. Presbyters
ii. Michael Servetus
c. French Calvinists (Huguenots)
b. Low Countries
c. Scotland, John Knox, & Presbyterianism
i. Book of Common Order (1564)
d. England & Henry VIII
i. Henry VIII (1509-1547), Catherine of Aragon, & Succession


a. Mary Tudor
ii. Anne Boleyn, Separation, & Elizabeth I


a. Elizabeth I
b. Act in Restraint of Appeals (1533)
c. Act of Succession (1534)
d. Act of Supremacy (1534)


e. Book of Common Prayer
iii. Religious Reform for the Anglican Church


a. Pilgrimage of Grace (1536)
iv. Edward VI (1547-1553)
v. Mary Tudor (1553-1558)
vi. Elizabeth I (1558-1603)

IX. Catholic Reformation (Counter-Reformation):

a. Reaction to Protestantism under Pope Paul III (1534-1549)
i. Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office (1542)
b. Reaction to Protestantism under Pope Paul IV (1555-1559)
i. Index of Forbidden Books
c. Council of Trent (1545-1563)
i. Rejected Protestant ideas
ii. Seminary Education
iii. No Indulgences/Simony/Pluralism
d. Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556)
i. Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order) & Spiritual Exercises (1548)
a. Basic Tenets
b. Results
e. Baroque
i. Basic Ideas
ii. Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) & The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa
iii. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) & The Horrors of War, Massacre of the Innocents
f. Results

X. Culture during the Two Reformations:

a. Role of Women in the Protestant Reformation



b. Role of Women in Catholic Reformation
i. Witch Hunts



I.Unit 2 I.D. Terms:

1)Age of Exploration:

2)Bartholomew Dias:

3)Vasco de Gama:

4)Christopher Columbus:

5)Ferdinand Magellan:

6)Hernando Cortez:

7)Francisco Pizarro:

8)Joint-Stock Companies:

9)Golden Century of Spain:

10)Price (Commercial) Revolution:

11)Columbian Exchange:

12)Triangle Trade:

13)Atlantic Economy:

14)Protestant Reformation:

15)Pluralism:

16)Simony:

17)Indulgences:

18)Martin Luther:

19)Charles V:

20)Diet of Worms:

21)German Peasant Revolt:

22)Schmalkaldic War:

23)Peace of Augsburg:

24)John Calvin:

25)Predestination:

26)Theocracy:

27)John Knox:

28)Henry VIII:

29)Act of Supremacy:

30)Catholic Reformation:

31)Baroque:

32)Council of Trent:

33)Ignatius Loyola:

2BEdit

I. Wars of Religion (1572-1648):


a. Medieval Idea of Christendom
b. Protestant Realities
c. Catholic Realities
d. Major Conflicts in Europe

II. France III. Low Countries

IV. Holy Roman Empire

V. France, King Francis I (1515-1547), & the Huguenots:

a. Problems w/ Taxation(taille [land] tax)


b. Problems w/ the Nobility
a. Huguenot Minority in France


c. Problems w/ the People
d. The Solution: the Concordat of Bologna (1516)
a. It Said
b. Significance on the Nobility
c. Significance on Revenue
d. Significance on the Clergy
e. Significance on the Huguenots
e. Henry II (1547-1559) [son of Francis I], Calvinism, & Persecution


f. Catherine de’ Medici (1519-1589) [wife of Henry II] & Her Regency
a. The Problem w/ Catherine
b. The Problem w/ Regencies
c. House of Guise [C], the House of Montmorency [C], & the House of Bourbon [P]
g. Charles IX (1560-1574) [1st son of Henry II] & Marriage to Navarre (1572)
a. Henry of Navarre (1553-1610) [Leader of House Bourbon] & His Sister
b. Problems w/ the House of Guise
c. Henry Guise [Leader of House Guise] & the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572)
i. Results
h. Henry III (1574-1589) [2nd son of Henry II] & Financial Crisis
a. Problems w/ the Nobles


i. Catholic League (1576) & Henry Guise
b. Henry of Navarre & Heir to the Throne (1584)
i. Henry & Politiques
i. War of the Three Henry’s (1584-1589)


a. Henry of Guise’s Execution (1588)
b. Henry III’s Assassination (1589)
c. Henry of Navarre’s Win (1589)
j. Henry of Navarre, Unity, & “Paris is worth a Mass” (1593)


k. Henry IV of the Bourbon Dynasty & the Edict of Nantes (1598)
a. Edict of Nantes
i. La Rochelle
l. Rebuilding France in the Aftermath
a. Maximilien Bethune & the Duke of Sully
b. Taxation & the Paulette (Office Inheritance)
c. Colonization
d. Infrastructure
e. Bureaucracy
f. Ignored Provincial Complaints, Parlements (royal law courts), & Estates General (Legislature)
i. Charles Loyseau & Treatise on Orders and Plain Dignities


g. Henry’s Life, marriage to Marie de’ Medici, & Death (1610)


m. Louis XIII (1610-1643) [son of Henry VI]


a. Called Estates General (1616)
b. Ignored the Edict of Nantes (1627)
c. Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) & Reasons of the State


i. Intendant System & Generalities


a. Political Purpose
ii. Religious Views & Foreign Policy

VI. Low Countries & the Dutch Revolt:


a. Charles V & Dutch Happiness
b. Phillip II & Dutch Unhappiness


c. Dutch Revolt (1556-1587)
d. Duke of Alva & the Council of Blood
e. William of Orange [the Silent] (1576) & Protestant Revival
f. Alexander Farnese (Phillip’s nephew)
a. Ten Southern Counties (Spanish Netherlands) [Belgium]
b. Seven Northern Counties (Dutch United Provinces) [the Netherlands]
i. Union of Utrecht (1579)
ii. Dutch United Provinces (1581)
a. Phillip II’s Reality
g. Elizabeth I (1558-1603), Dutch Support, War w/ Spain
a. English Textiles
b. Fear of Dutch Conquest
c. Assassination Attempt by Phillip & Mary
h. Phillip’s Invasion & the Spanish Armada (1588)
a. Why Spain Lost
b. Why England Won
c. Significance
i. Phillip III (1598-1621) [son of Phillip II] & Peace (1609)
j. Spain’s Decline
a. Wars w/ England & the Dutch
b. Gold Trade Slowed
c. Population Increase & Lack of a Middle Class


d. Rise of Northern European States
i. Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) & Don Quixote


e. Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659)
i. Spanish/French Border
ii. French Italian Possessions
iii. Austrian Italian Possessions

VII. Holy Roman Empire & the Thirty Years’ War:


a. Peace of Augsburg to 1618
b. Prelude to War: Ferdinand II (1578-1637) [Habsburg King of Austria] & Holy Roman Emperorship
a. Bohemian Diet (1618)
b. Problem w/ Bohemia
c. Defenestration of Prague (1618)


a. Catholic League
b. Protestant Union
d. The Bohemian Phase of the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1625)
a. Protestant Union led by Prince Frederick V of the Palatinate
b. Catholic League led by Ferdinand II, Phillip III (Spain), & Johannes von Tilly
c. Results of the Bohemian Phase
e. The Danish Phase of the Thirty Years’ War (1625-1629)
a. Protestant Union led by Christian IV (1588-1648)
b. Catholic League led by Ferdinand II, Phillip III (Spain), Johannes von Tilly, & Albrecht Wallenstein
c. Results of the Danish Phase
i. Edict of Restitution (1629)
f. The Swedish Phase of the Thirty Years’ War (1629-1635)
a. Protestant Union led by Gustavus Adolphus (1594-1632)
b. Catholic League led by Ferdinand II, Phillip III (Spain), Johannes von Tilly, & Albrecht Wallenstein
c. Results of the Swedish Phase
g. The French Phase of the Thirty Years’ War (1635-1648)
a. Protestant Union led by Louis XIII
b. Catholic League led by Ferdinand III (1637-1657) & Phillip IV (1621-1665)
c. Results of the French Phase
h. Peace of Westphalia (1648)
a. Spain & the Dutch
b. Switzerland
c. France & Alsace & Lorraine
d. Papal Limitations
e. Bohemia & Austria
f. Brandenburg-Prussia
g. Peace of Augsburg
h. German Princes
i. Results of the Thirty Years’ War


a. Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) & Essays

V. Unit 2 I.D. Terms:

1) Huguenots:

2) Concordat of Bologna:

3) Henry III:

4) Henry of Navarre:

5) War of the Three Henry’s:

6) Edict of Nantes:

7) Louis XIII:

8) Cardinal Richelieu:

9) Intendant System:

10) Dutch Revolt:

11) Phillip II:

12) Spanish Armada:

13) Elizabeth I:

14) Treaty of the Pyrenees:

15) Thirty Years’ War:

16) Ferdinand II:

17) Defenestration of Prague:

18) Bohemian Phase:

19) Danish Phase:

20) Swedish Phase:

21) French Phase:

22) Pease of Westphalia:


Unit 3Edit

3AEdit

I. Absolutism:

a. Absolutism is
A political philosophy, system of govenrment that says the King should be powerful.
a. Examples of Absolutist States
France, Russia, Austria, Prussia
b. Philosophical Support of Absolutism
i. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) & Leviathan
ii. Jacques Bossuet (1627-1704)
Devine Right of Kings- God said they should have a powerful King
b. Absolutism was a reaction to
c. Absolutism in Reality
a. Law & Tradition
b. Nobles’ Role in GOV
c. Economy of the State
d. Breaking Point of the People
d. Characteristics of an Absolutist State
a. Centralized Monarchy
b. Royal Dynasty
c. Role of the Nobility
The King reduced their power but increased their status.
d. Ignoring of Legislatures
King ignores town councils and other courts, they can only meet if they are called by the King.
e. Oppression of the Peasants
Take away their rights.
f. Strengthening of the Bureaucracy


i. Problems
g. Expansion of the Citizen Military
Wants a standing army.
i. War as a “Reason of the State”
Everything you do should improve the state; War should increase territory.
h. State Religion
State should control, King appoints state religious leaders.
i. Architecture & Construction
Symbols of Power; victories
i. Baroque
ii. Neoclassicism
Artistic painting (classical themes)

II. Absolutism in France: “One Law, One King, One Faith”:

Louis XIV goal to a Absolute Monarchy; centralized government
a. Louis XIV (1638-1715) [reigns 1643-1715], the Sun King
The King who put absolutism in place in France, only 5 years old when he took reign
a. Anne of Austria (1601-1666) & Cardinal Jules Mazarin (1602-1661)
b. Mazarin’s Rule of France


i. Fronde (1648-1653)
ii. Mazarin’s Response
iii. Louis XIV’s Response (1653)
a. Results
b. Louis XIV, the Absolute & his Reign
a. Louis as God’s Representative on Earth


b. Louis, his Nobles, & Taxation (capitation [head tax] & vingtieme [5% tax on land])
i. Status as a Control
a. Everything Has A Place & Every Place Has A Thing


ii. Levels of Status & Appointments


a. Nobility of the Robe & Merchants
b. Nobility of the Sword & Court Life


c. Louis XIV, the Palace at Versailles, & the Supreme Symbol of Royal Power


i. Palace at Versailles (construction 1669-1686)
ii. Baroque Architecture at Versailles


iii. Political Purposes
a. Foreign Diplomats
b. Peasants
c. Nobility of the Sword
i. Those Not Participating
iv. Court Life


a. Ceremonies
i. Conduct
ii. The French Playwright, Moliere


a. The Bourgeois Gentlemen & Tartuffe
v. Impact of Versailles on Europe


a. St. Petersburg under Peter I & the Potsdam Palace under Frederick II
d. Louis XIV & Mercantilism
i. Mercantilism
a. Mercantilist Principles
i. Wealth in Finite (Limited)
ii. Wealth as Power
iii. Wealth & Competition
iv. Wealth, Power, & Influence
b. Mercantilist Economic Policies


ii. Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683), Louis XIV’s Finance Minister (1661)


a. His Domestic Policies


e. Louis XIV’s Persecution of Minorities
i. The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685)
a. Results
b. Economic Significance


f. Limits to French Absolutism
i. No Nation-State
ii. Provincial Estates
iii. Parlements
a. Parlement of Paris & the Jansenists


iv. Uncontrollable Factors by Jean Bodin
v. Reality for France

III. The Habsburg Monarchy & the Holy Roman Empire:


a. The Limits of the Holy Roman Emperor


b. The Rise of Austria


a. Possessions
b. The Metropolitan Monarchy


c. Problems with the Nobles


d. Problems with Hungary (Magyars)
i. Hungarian Rebellion (1679)
ii. The Siege of Vienna (1683) & Leopold I (1658-1705) [King of Austria & Holy Roman Emperor]
iii. Poland, the Great Vanquisher of the Turks
iv. Lifting of the Siege of Vienna
v. Pope Innocent XI & Formation of the Holy League (1684)
vi. War of the Holy League (1686-1687)
vii. Peace of Karlowitz (1699)
a. It Said
e. Reality for Austria

IV. The Rise of Prussia & the Hohenzollern Dynasty:


a. Brandenburg-Prussia
b. Benefits from the Thirty Years’ War


a. Junkers & the Peasants
c. Problems from the Thirty Years’ War


d. Frederick William, the Great Elector (1640-1688) & the Path to Centralization


a. Agreement with the Junkers (1653)


b. With the Money from Taxation


c. His Goal


i. Results
d. Creation of State Officials


e. General Directory over Finance, War, and Royal Domains


f. Results Under Frederick William


e. King Frederick I of Prussia (1688-1713) [son of Frederick William]
f. Frederick William I (1713-1740) [son of Frederick I], the Sergeant King


a. Creation of Fiscals


b. Appointment of Commoners


c. “Prussia is not an country with an army, it is an army with a country”


i. Size of the Army
d. Reality for Prussia


V. The Expansion of Muscovy & the Creation of Russia:


a. Russia & the Mongols (13th Century to 15th Century)


b. Rise of the Muscovy & Ivan III (1462-1505)
a. Poland to the West, Mongols to the East, Crimean Tartars to the South
c. Ivan IV (1533-1584), the Terrible, & Expansion of the Muscovite State


a. His Goals
b. Territorial Expansion
c. Control of the Boyars
d. The Terrible Years (1570’s)
i. War with Poland
ii. Oprinchnina
iii. Murder of his Daughter-in-Law, unborn-Grandson, & Son (Ivan)
a. Fyodor (Ivan IV’s other son)
d. Time of Troubles (1584-1613)


a. Rise of the Cossacks
b. Multiple Czars
e. Michael Romanov (1613-164), the Assembly of Nobles, & Stability
a. Why Him?
f. Romanov Russia
a. Russian Orthodox Church & the Romanovs


i. The Old Believers
b. Peasant Life


c. Foreign Enemies
d. Westward Expansion & War with Poland (1640’s)
i. Treaty of Andrussovo (1667)
g. Sweden, Muscovite Russia’s Great Enemy


a. Charles XII (1697-1718)
h. Peter I [the Great] (1682-1725), Tsar of Russia, Vanquisher of the Swedes


a. His Problems with Russian Culture


b. Peter’s European Tour & Modernization (Westernization)


c. Peter & His Reforms in Russia
i. Bureaucracy
a. Creation of a Senate
ii. Table of Ranks (1722) & the Service State
a. Use of Commoners
iii. Cultural Shift


a. St. Petersburg


iv. Old Believers & Other Objectors
v. Economy & Taxation
vi. Military
vii. Territorial Expansion & the Port of Azoz (1696)
d. Great Northern War (1700-1721)
i. Battle of Narva (1700)
ii. Battle of Poltava (1709)
iii. Treaty of Nystadt (1721)
a. Territorial Gains
i. Limitations to Russian Absolutism
j. Reality for Russia


VI. European Balance of Power Politics:

a. Renaissance Idea of Balance of Power


b. International Law
a. Samuel von Pufendorf (1632 – 1694) & Of the Law of Nature and Nations (1672)


c. Wars to Maintain Balance of Power
a. Louis XIV & France’s “Natural Borders”


b. War of the League of Augsburg (1688-1697)
i. England/Dutch United Provinces/Austria/Spain vs. France
ii. Treaty of Ryswick (1692)


c. War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714)
i. Spain, Charles II, & Succession (1700)
ii. Philip of Anjou (Louis XIV’s grandson)
iii. Philip V, King of Spain (1700)
iv. Philip V, Heir to the French Throne (1701)
v. England/Dutch United Provinces/Austria/Prussia vs. Spain/France
vi. Peace of Utrecht (1713)
a. It Said
b. Territorial Exchanges for Austria
c. Territorial Exchanges for England
vii. Louis XV (1715-1774)
d. Creation of the Modern State



I. Unit 3 I.D. Terms:

1) Absolutism:

2) Reasons of the State:

3) Baroque:

4) “One Law, One King, One Faith”:

5) Louis XIV:

6) Fronde:

7) Parlement:

8) Palace at Versailles:

9) Mercantilism:

10) Jean-Baptiste Colbert:

11) Metropolitan Monarchy:

12) Siege of Vienna:

13) Leopold I:

14) War of the Holy League:

15) Junkers:

16) Frederick William, the Great Elector:

17) Frederick William I:

18) Ivan IV:

19) Time of Troubles:

20) Michael Romanov:

21) Peter I:

22) Modernization:

23) Great Northern War:

24) Treaty of Nystadt:

25) European Balance of Power:

26) War of the League of Augsburg:

27) Treaty of Ryswick:

28) War of Spanish Succession:

29) Philip of Anjou:

30) Peace of Utrecht:


3BEdit

I. ’’’Absolutism: ’’’

a. Absolutism is
a. Examples of Absolutist States
b. Philosophical Support of Absolutism
i. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) & Leviathan
ii. Jacques Bossuet (1627-1704)
b. Absolutism was a reaction to
c. Absolutism in Reality
a. Law & Tradition
b. Nobles’ Role in GOV
c. Economy of the State
d. Breaking Point of the People
d. Characteristics of an Absolutist State
a. Centralized Monarchy
b. Royal Dynasty
c. Role of the Nobility
d. Ignoring of Legislatures
e. Oppression of the Peasants
f. Strengthening of the Bureaucracy
i. Problems
g. Expansion of the Citizen Military
i. War as a “Reason of the State”
h. State Religion
i. Architecture & Construction
i. Baroque
ii. Neoclassicism

II. ’’’Absolutism in France: “One Law, One King, One Faith”:’’’

a. Louis XIV (1638-1715) [reigns 1643-1715], the Sun King
a. Anne of Austria (1601-1666) & Cardinal Jules Mazarin (1602-1661)
b. Mazarin’s Rule of France
i. Fronde (1648-1653)
ii. Mazarin’s Response
iii. Louis XIV’s Response (1653)
a. Results
b. Louis XIV, the Absolute & his Reign
a. Louis as God’s Representative on Earth
b. Louis, his Nobles, & Taxation (capitation [head tax] & vingtieme [5% tax on land])
i. Status as a Control
a. Everything Has A Place & Every Place Has A Thing
ii. Levels of Status & Appointments
a. Nobility of the Robe & Merchants
b. Nobility of the Sword & Court Life
c. Louis XIV, the Palace at Versailles, & the Supreme Symbol of Royal Power
i. Palace at Versailles (construction 1669-1686)
ii. Baroque Architecture at Versailles
iii. Political Purposes
a. Foreign Diplomats
b. Peasants
c. Nobility of the Sword
i. Those Not Participating
iv. Court Life
a. Ceremonies
i. Conduct
ii. The French Playwright, Moliere
a. The Bourgeois Gentlemen & Tartuffe
v. Impact of Versailles on Europe
a. St. Petersburg under Peter I & the Potsdam Palace under Frederick II
d. Louis XIV & Mercantilism
i. Mercantilism
a. Mercantilist Principles
i. Wealth in Finite (Limited)
ii. Wealth as Power
iii. Wealth & Competition
iv. Wealth, Power, & Influence
b. Mercantilist Economic Policies
ii. Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683), Louis XIV’s Finance Minister (1661)
a. His Domestic Policies
e. Louis XIV’s Persecution of Minorities
i. The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685)
a. Results
b. Economic Significance
f. Limits to French Absolutism
i. No Nation-State
ii. Provincial Estates
iii. Parlements
a. Parlement of Paris & the Jansenists
iv. Uncontrollable Factors by Jean Bodin
v. Reality for France

III. ’’’The Habsburg Monarchy & the Holy Roman Empire: ’’’

a. The Limits of the Holy Roman Emperor
b. The Rise of Austria
a. Possessions
b. The Metropolitan Monarchy
c. Problems with the Nobles
d. Problems with Hungary (Magyars)
i. Hungarian Rebellion (1679)
ii. The Siege of Vienna (1683) & Leopold I (1658-1705) [King of Austria & Holy Roman Emperor]
iii. Poland, the Great Vanquisher of the Turks
iv. Lifting of the Siege of Vienna
v. Pope Innocent XI & Formation of the Holy League (1684)
vi. War of the Holy League (1686-1687)
vii. Peace of Karlowitz (1699)
a. It Said
e. Reality for Austria

IV. ’’’The Rise of Prussia & the Hohenzollern Dynasty: ’’’

a. Brandenburg-Prussia
b. Benefits from the Thirty Years’ War
a. Junkers & the Peasants
c. Problems from the Thirty Years’ War
d. Frederick William, the Great Elector (1640-1688), & the Path to Centralization
a. Agreement with the Junkers (1653)
b. With the Money from Taxation
c. His Goal
i. Results
d. Creation of State Officials
e. General Directory over Finance, War, and Royal Domains
f. Results Under Frederick William
e. King Frederick I of Prussia (1688-1713) [son of Frederick William]
f. Frederick William I (1713-1740) [son of Frederick I], the Sergeant King
a. Creation of Fiscals
b. Appointment of Commoners
c. “Prussia is not an country with an army, it is an army with a country”
i. Size of the Army
d. Reality for Prussia

V. ’’’The Expansion of Muscovy & the Creation of Russia: ’’’

a. Russia & the Mongols (13th Century to 15th Century)
b. Rise of the Muscovy & Ivan III (1462-1505)
a. Poland to the West, Mongols to the East, Crimean Tartars to the South
c. Ivan IV (1533-1584), the Terrible, & Expansion of the Muscovite State
a. His Goals
b. Territorial Expansion
c. Control of the Boyars
d. The Terrible Years (1570’s)
i. War with Poland
ii. Oprinchnina
iii. Murder of his Daughter-in-Law, unborn-Grandson, & Son (Ivan)
a. Fyodor (Ivan IV’s other son)
d. Time of Troubles (1584-1613)
a. Rise of the Cossacks
b. Multiple Czars
e. Michael Romanov (1613-1645), the Assembly of Nobles, & Stability
a. Why Him?
f. Romanov Russia
a. Russian Orthodox Church & the Romanovs
i. The Old Believers
b. Peasant Life
c. Foreign Enemies
d. Westward Expansion & War with Poland (1640’s)
i. Treaty of Andrussovo (1667)
g. Sweden, Muscovite Russia’s Great Enemy
a. Charles XII (1697-1718)
h. Peter I [the Great] (1682-1725), Tsar of Russia, Vanquisher of the Swedes
a. His Problems with Russian Culture
b. Peter’s European Tour & Modernization (Westernization)
c. Peter & His Reforms in Russia
i. Bureaucracy
a. Creation of a Senate
ii. Table of Ranks (1722) & the Service State
a. Use of Commoners
iii. Cultural Shift
a. St. Petersburg
iv. Old Believers & Other Objectors
v. Economy & Taxation
vi. Military
vii. Territorial Expansion & the Port of Azoz (1696)
d. Great Northern War (1700-1721)
i. Battle of Narva (1700)
ii. Battle of Poltava (1709)
iii. Treaty of Nystadt (1721)
a. Territorial Gains
i. Limitations to Russian Absolutism
j. Reality for Russia

VI. ’’’European Balance of Power Politics: ’’’

a. Renaissance Idea of Balance of Power
b. International Law
a. Samuel von Pufendorf (1632 – 1694) & Of the Law of Nature and Nations (1672)
c. Wars to Maintain Balance of Power
a. Louis XIV & France’s “Natural Borders”
b. War of the League of Augsburg (1688-1697)
i. Also Called King William’s War (North America), Nine Years War, War of the Grand Alliance, & War of Palatine Succession
ii. England/Dutch United Provinces/Austria/Spain vs. France
iii. Treaty of Ryswick (1697)
c. War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714)
i. Spain, Charles II, & Succession (1700)
ii. Philip of Anjou (Louis XIV’s grandson)
iii. Philip V, King of Spain (1700)
iv. Philip V, Heir to the French Throne (1701)
v. England/Dutch United Provinces/Austria/Prussia vs. Spain/France
vi. Peace of Utrecht (1713)
a. It Said
b. Territorial Exchanges for Austria
c. Territorial Exchanges for England
vii. Louis XV (1715-1774)
d. Creation of the Modern State

VII. Unit 3 I.D. Terms:

1) Absolutism:

2) Reasons of the State:

3) Baroque:

4) “One Law, One King, One Faith”:

5) Louis XIV:

6) Fronde:

7) Parlement:

8) Palace at Versailles:

9) Mercantilism:

10) Jean-Baptiste Colbert:

11) Metropolitan Monarchy:

12) Siege of Vienna:

13) Leopold I:

14) War of the Holy League:

15) Junkers:

16) Frederick William, the Great Elector:

17) Frederick William I:

18) Ivan IV:

19) Time of Troubles:

20) Michael Romanov:

21) Peter I:

22) Modernization:

23) Great Northern War:

24) Treaty of Nystadt:

25) European Balance of Power:

26) War of the League of Augsburg:

27) Treaty of Ryswick:

28) War of Spanish Succession:

29) Philip of Anjou:

30) Peace of Utrecht: