Volcanism is a lecture about remnants of volcanic activity that occur in, on, around and between volcanic rocks. It is a volcanoes lecture offered by the radiation astronomy department and the school of geology.

This view of the topography over Campi Flegrei shows the relative relief caused by volcanic remnants. Credit: MeteoWeb.

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Quiz Edit


1 Yes or No, Bentonite is a porous clay formed by the decomposition of volcanic ash that swells 5 to 6 times its original volume in the presence of water.


2 Which chemical phenomenon are associated with the Earth?

quartz is the second most abundant mineral
an atmosphere containing CO2
green, red, blue, and yellow airglow
the production and escape of hot H+ ions
oxygen emissions
helium ions

3 Yes or No, Any of several impure clay minerals consisting mostly of montmorillonite is called a bentonite.


4 With respect to protoplanetary disks what green mineral has been found?

5 True or False, Bentonites are volcanism, or remnants of volcanic activity, even though they are metamorphic sediments or rocks.


6 Observations of Io have benefited greatly from what phenomenon?

a dense, opaque atmosphere
extensive meteorite cratering
a flattening out
liquid hydrocarbon lakes
the reflected light of allotropes and compounds of sulfur

7 Moldavite is a mineral that may be associated with what green astronomy phenomenon?

predicting the end of the Earth
determine the accuracy of local computers
meteorite impacts
demonstrating that Venus was once a comet
predict when currently dormant volcanoes will erupt
green fireballs

8 Which of the following are associated with greenstone belts?

metamorphosed mafic sequences
ultramafic volcanic sequences
Archaean and Proterozoic cratons
Humphreys series
Rydberg series
green hue of metamorphic minerals

9 True or False, A clay of the illite group that contains potassium and is formed by alteration of volcanic ash is called potassium bentonite.


10 A terrestrial planet is composed primarily of?

11 True or False, The XRS aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft maps mineral composition.


12 Complete the text:

At its effective temperature of 1250 K, the atmosphere of the extrasolar planet 51 Pegasus B has clouds composed of



13 Yes or No, Bentonites are clay rocks consisting predominantly of smectite.


14 Soil samples from the mare of the Moon reflect primarily cyan due to the presence in the soils of what?

15 Yes or No, Extensive bentonite deposits, linked to large eruptions, have formed repeatedly in the past.


16 Phenomena associated with some meteorites?

have a gaseous surface
long nickel-iron crystals

17 Yes or No, Bentonite layers are useful for stratigraphic correlation and for interpreting the geodynamic evolution of our planet.


18 Purpurite is a natural mineral pigment composed of what likely source of violet or purple?

19 Yes or No, Bentonites generally form by diagenetic or hydrothermal alteration, favoured by fluids that leach alkali elements and by high Mg content.


20 True or False, Smectite composition is partly controlled by parent rock chemistry.


21 Any remnants of the natural phenomena and processes associated with the action of volcanoes, geysers and fumaroles, especially any remnants of past volcanic activity, are called?

22 Yes or No, Greenstone belts are zones of variably metamorphosed mafic to ultramafic volcanic sequences.


23 Which of the following is involved in planetary astronomy more so than planetary science?

the occurrence of cyan rock types on the surface of rocky objects
the Earth and other rocky objects have a cyan mineral containing mantle
checking equations about complex systems
the advantages of a 490 nm band pass
digging holes in the surface of the Moon
surface temperatures low enough to produce methane lakes

24 Yes or No, In contrast to the Proterozoic, Archean rocks are often heavily metamorphized deep-water sediments, such as graywackes, mudstones, volcanic sediments and banded iron formations.


25 Silicates occur as part of the rocky surface beneath a visually opaque cloud layer on what planet?

26 Early Archean serpentine mud volcanoes occur in Isua?

27 True or False, Optical reflectance studies of Mercury provide evidence for Mg silicates.


28 Which of the following are radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the apparent liquid-object Earth?

neutron emission
polar coronal holes
meteor emission

29 Yes or No, Isua's volcanic rocks carry boron-rich tourmalines.


30 Which of the following is not a radiation phenomenon associated with a crater?

elongated dust particles
high albedo

31 Yes or No, Fort Portal is a tuff cone that is volcano number 223001, with a last known eruption dated to 4120 b2k.


32 Yes or No, The Hopi Buttes volcanic field consists of ~300 late Miocene volcanic centers within ~ 1800 km2 of the field, located in northeastern Arizona.


Hypotheses Edit

  1. Most of the volcanism found on Earth does occur elsewhere.

See also Edit

External links Edit

{{Radiation astronomy resources}}