In the fourth quarter of the 20th century, scientific and technical advances allowed for the first time the use of organ transplantation in the treatment of terminal and incurable diseases.

These scientific advances include:

  • the development of immunosuppressive drugs
  • knowledge of the immune response to transplanted organs and tissues
  • knowledge of the function, molecular structure and gene structure of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC, in humans called HLA)
  • knowledge of the genetics of the MHC (particularly the HLA in humans)

Here we provide background, scientific and technical resources used in the practice of clinical transplantation.
These resources include: