Overview edit

What is your perspective of time?

Time perspective theory is the idea that our perceptions of time influence our emotions, perceptions, and actions.

Most time perspective models break down our time perspectives into chronological categories such as:

  1. Past
  2. Present
  3. Future

Zimbardo's approach further breaks these time perspectives down into five perspectives:

  1. Past
    1. Past-Positive
    2. Past-Negative
  2. Present
    1. Present-Hedonistic
    2. Present-Fatalistic
  3. Future

Carelli et al. (2011) argued for a 6-factor model which splits Future into:

  1. Future-Positive
  2. Future-Negative

In addition, Zimbardo proposes a separate Transcendental time perspective which relates to looking beyond one's individual lifetime.

Figure 1. 6-factor model of the ZTPI

Future time perspective edit

The original Zimbardo TP model suggested five factors, including a single future time perspective factor.

Carelli et al (2011) argued that the future time perspective be split into:

  1. Future-Positive
  2. Future-Negative

The results appear to be mixed for Carelli's TP model.

An alternative, three-factor future TP model is described and tested by Rohr et al. (2017):

  1. Opportunity - Perception about positive opportunities available in future time remaining
  2. Extension - Perception about amount of time in life remaining
  3. Constraint - Perception about barriers and constraints during time remaining

These three components are correlated, and future TP can also be treated a single, overall factor, or as separate components.

Other models and measures edit

  • Balanced Time Perspectives Scale (Webster, 2011) aims to identify whether individuals have a time perspective bias:
    • Past
    • Future
  • Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (Strathman et al., 1994) operationalises time perspective as consideration of the consequences of actions.
  • Future Time Perspective Scale for Adolescents and Young Adults (Lyu & Huang, 2016)
  • Temporal Focus Scale (Shipp et al., 2009) conceptualises time perspective as an attentional bias.
  • Two Factor Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (Arnocky et al., 2014):
    • Immediate future (i.e., present)
    • Distant future

See also edit

References edit

Some peer-reviewed literature and books about the psychology of time perspective:

Arnocky, S., Milfont, T. L., & Nicol, J. R. (2014). Time perspective and sustainable behavior: Evidence for the distinction between consideration of immediate and future consequences. Environment and Behavior, 46(5), 556-582. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916512474987

Košťál, J., Klicperová-Baker, M., Lukavská, K., & Lukavský, J. (2015). Short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI–short) with and without the Future-Negative scale, verified on nationally representative samples. Time & Society, 25, 169-192.

Lyu, H., & Huang, X. (2016). Development and validation of Future Time Perspective Scale for Adolescents and Young Adults. Time & Society, 25(3), 533-551. https://doi.org/doi:10.1177/0961463x16662669

Orosz, G., Dombi, E., Tóth-Király, I., & Roland-Lévy. The less is more: The 17-Item Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Current Psychology, 36, 39–47. doi:10.1007/s12144-015-9382-2

Rohr, M., John, D., Fung, H., & Lang, F. (2017). A three-component model of future time perspective across adulthood. Psychology and Aging, 32(7), 597–607. https://doi.org/10.1037/pag0000191

Shipp, A. J., Edwards, J. R., & Lambert, L. S. (2009). Conceptualization and measurement of temporal focus: The subjective experience of the past, present, and future. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 110(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2009.05.001

Strathman, A., Gleicher, F., Boninger, D. S., & Edwards, C. S. (1994). The consideration of future consequences: Weighing immediate and distant outcomes of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(4), 742–752. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.66.4.742

Zhang, J. W., Howell, R. T., & Bowerman, T. (2013). Validating a brief measure of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Time & Society, 22, 391-409.

Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1271-1288.

Zimbardo, P. G. & Boyd, J. N. (2009). The time paradox: Using the new psychology of time to your advantage. New York, NY: Free Press.

Zimbardo, P. G., Sword, R., Sword, S. (2012). The time cure: Overcoming PTSD with the new psychology of Time Perspective Therapy. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.

External links edit