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Project Management/Change Management

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Change Management involves identifying, evaluating and managing changes throughout the project life-cycle.[1]

Contents

Objectives and SkillsEdit

Objectives and skills for the change management portion of Project+ PK0-003 certification include:[2]

  • Outline a process for managing changes to the project
    • Approvals required
    • Forms needed
    • Turnaround times
    • Document routing
    • Communication flow
  • Given a scenario, implement proper change management procedures
    • Identify change
    • Document using the appropriate change control forms
    • Perform impact analysis
    • Coordinate with the appropriate stakeholders to select the course of action
    • Update the appropriate project plan components based on the approved change request
  • Evaluate the impact of potential changes to triple constraint
    • Time / Schedule
    • Cost / resources
    • Quality
    • Scope

Objectives and skills for the change management portion of Project+ PK0-004 certification include:[3]

  • Given a scenario, use the following change control process within the context of a project.
    • Change control process
      • Identify and document
      • Evaluate impact and justification
        • Regression plan (Reverse changes)
      • Identify approval authority
      • Obtain approval
      • Implement change
      • Validate change/quality check
      • Update documents/audit documents/version control
      • Communicate throughout as needed
    • Types of common project changes
      • Timeline change
      • Funding change
      • Risk event
      • Requirements change
      • Quality change
      • Resource change
      • Scope change

ReadingsEdit

MultimediaEdit

ActivitiesEdit

  1. Read Wikipedia: Change management.
    • List John Kotters 8-step process for leading change.
    • Describe the factors of successful change management.
  2. Read Wikipedia: Change control board.
    • Mention the purpose of a change control board.
    • List examples of members of the change control board.
    • Define your CCB.
  3. Read Wikipedia: Change control.
    • Create a change control process.
  4. Watch the video How To Control Change Requests On a Project and read the article How to manage change requests.
    • Explain how change is fundamental to a project and the significant impact it can have on a project.
    • Elaborate how to control change requests.
    • Create a change request form.
  5. Read Wikipedia: Changelog and the article What is a change log?
    • Define and detail a change log.
    • Create a change log.

Lesson SummaryEdit

  • Change Management involves identifying, evaluating and managing changes throughout the project lifecycle.[4]
  • Change Management is used to ensure that standardized methods and procedures are used for efficient and prompt handling of all changes to control.[5]
  • The three main objectives are: influencing factors that create change to ensure that the change is beneficial, determining that a change has occurred and managing changes as they occur.[6]
  • Change management would typically be composed of: raising and recording of changes, assessing the impact, cost, benefit and risk of proposed changes, developing business justification and obtaining approval, managing and coordinating change implementation, monitoring and reporting on implementation, reviewing and closing change requests.[7]
  • Every change that enters the project must pass through this change control process.[8]
  • A CCB (change control board) is a formal group of people responsible for approving or rejecting changes to a project. The primary functions of a CCB are to provide guidelines for preparing change requests, evaluating change requests and managing the implementation of approved changes.[9]
  • When the change control board approves or declines the change request the change requestor is informed of the project decision. All decisions on change requests are documented for future reference. If an approved change request affects the project scope then configuration management is enforced. The authority of the change control board may vary from project to project, but decisions reached by the change control board are often accepted as final and binding.[10]
  • A change log is a record of requests for change (RFCs) submitted for all changes in a service.[11]
  • Change requests typically originate from one of five sources: problem reports that identify bugs that must be fixed, which forms the most common source, system enhancement requests from users, events in the development of other systems, changes in underlying structure and or standards (e.g. in software development this could be a new operating system), demands from senior management.[12]
  • Change management procedures are formally documented and controlled.[13]
  • Change impact analysis identifies the potential consequences of a change, or estimates what needs to be modified to accomplish a change.[14]
  • Risk event is an occurrence that has a negative impact on the project.[15]
  • Scope creep is a risk in most projects. It can be a result of poor change control, lack of proper initial identification of what is required to bring about the project objectives, weak project manager or executive sponsor, poor communication between parties and lack of initial product versatility.[16]
  • Cost Control is a factor that creates cost fluctuation and variance that can be influenced and controlled using various cost management tools. [17]
  • Successful change management is more likely to occur if the following are included:[18]
  • Define measurable Project stakeholder aims and create a business case for their achievement (which should be continuously updated)
  • Monitor assumptions, risks, dependencies, costs, return on investment, dis-benefits and cultural issues
  • Effective communication that informs various stakeholders of the reasons for the change (why?), the benefits of successful implementation (what is in it for us, and you) as well as the details of the change (when? where? who is involved? how much will it cost? etc.)
  • Devise an effective education, training and/or skills upgrading scheme for the organization
  • Counter resistance from the employees of companies and align them to overall strategic direction of the organization
  • Provide personal counseling (if required) to alleviate any change-related fears
  • Monitoring of the implementation and fine-tuning as required
  • In some cases, even after a change is evaluated and approved, it may be necessary to return to the project state prior to the incorporation of the change. For this reason, the project manager creates a Regression Plan.[19]
  • Turnaround time means the amount of time taken to fulfill a request.[20]

Key TermsEdit

CCB (Change Control Board)
A committee that makes decisions regarding whether or not proposed changes to a software project should be implemented.[21]
change impact analysis (IA)
Identifies the potential consequences of a change, or estimating what needs to be modified to accomplish a change.[22]
change log
Record of all notable changes made to a project.[23]
change management
Structured process and set of tools for managing the people side of change such that business results are achieved, on time and on budget.[24]
change request
Document containing a call for an adjustment of a system.[25]
cost control
A factor that creates cost fluctuation and variance that can be influenced and controlled using various cost management tools.[26]
organizational change management
Includes specific actions and steps that can be taken to implement a change management program. Prosci's 3-phase change management process (preparing for, managing and reinforcing change) is a methodology for implementing organizational change management.[27]
regression plan
A plan developed in case the change needs to be reversed.[28]
risk event
An occurrence that has a negative impact on the project[29]
schedule control
The actual process of maintaining control of the changes that may occur to a schedule.[30]
scope change
A change to the agreed scope and objectives of the project to accommodate a need not originally defined to be part of the project.[31]
triple constraint
A combination of the three most significant restrictions on any project- scope, schedule and cost. It is sometimes referred to as the project management triangle or the iron triangle.[32]
turnaround time (TAT)
The amount of time taken to fulfill a request.[33]

Review QuestionsEdit

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  1. _________________ is a structured process and set of tools for managing the people side of change such that business results are achieved, on time and on budget.
    Change management is a structured process and set of tools for managing the people side of change such that business results are achieved, on time and on budget.
  2. Decisions reached by the ____________________ are often accepted as final and binding.
    Decisions reached by the Change Control Board(CCB) are often accepted as final and binding.
  3. _________________ is the combination of the three most significant restrictions on any project- scope, schedule and cost. It is sometimes referred to as the project management triangle or the iron triangle.
    Triple constraint is the combination of the three most significant restrictions on any project- scope, schedule and cost. It is sometimes referred to as the project management triangle or the iron triangle.
  4. _________________ process is used to ensure that changes to a product or system are introduced in a controlled and coordinated manner.
    Change control process is used to ensure that changes to a product or system are introduced in a controlled and coordinated manner.
  5. Poor change control can allow scope _____________________.
    Poor change control can allow scope creep.
  6. Integrated change control is part of the __________________ process group.
    Integrated change control is part of the monitoring and controlling process group.
  7. _______________ change management employs a structured approach to ensure that changes are implemented smoothly and successfully to achieve lasting benefits.
    Organizational change management employs a structured approach to ensure that changes are implemented smoothly and successfully to achieve lasting benefits.
  8. All notable changes made to a project are recorded in a ________________.
    All notable changes made to a project are recorded in a Change Log.
  9. A _________________ is a document required for any changes needed in the underlying structure and/or standards of a project.
    A Change Request is a document required for any changes needed in the underlying structure and/or standards of a project.
  10. _______________ identifies the potential consequences of a change, or estimates what needs to be modified to accomplish a change.
    Change Impact Analysis (IA) identifies the potential consequences of a change, or estimates what needs to be modified to accomplish a change.
  11. The project manager develops a ____________________ in case the change needs to be reversed.
    The project manager develops a regression plan in case the change needs to be reversed.
  12. _____________ is an occurrence that has a negative impact on the project.
    Risk event is an occurrence that has a negative impact on the project.
  13. The amount of time taken to fulfill a request is called ________________.
    The amount of time taken to fulfill a request is called Turnaround time.
  14. _______________ is a factor that creates cost fluctuation and variance that can be influenced and controlled using various cost management tools.
    Cost Control is a factor that creates cost fluctuation and variance that can be influenced and controlled using various cost management tools.

AssessmentsEdit

See AlsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  Type classification: this is a lesson resource.
  1. Wikipedia: Change Management.
  2. CompTIA: Project+ Certification Exam Objectives: PK0-003
  3. CompTIA: Project+ Certification Exam Objectives: PK0-004
  4. Wikipedia: Change Management.
  5. Wikipedia: Change management (ITSM)
  6. Wikipedia: Change management (engineering)
  7. Wikipedia: Change management (ITSM).
  8. Wikipedia: Change Control
  9. Wikipedia: Change control board.
  10. Wikipedia: Change control board.
  11. Wikipedia: Changelog.
  12. Wikipedia: Change request
  13. Wikipedia: Change management auditing
  14. Wikipedia: Change impact analysis.
  15. https://pm4id.org/chapter/11-2-risk-management-process/
  16. Wikipedia: Scope creep
  17. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_management_triangle#Cost_Process_Areas
  18. Wikipedia: Change management#Factors of successful change management
  19. Robin Abernathy (2018). “CompTIA Project+ Cert Guide: Exam PK0-004 (Certification Guide) 1st Edition”. Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 0-7897-5883-0
  20. Wikipedia: Turnaround time
  21. Wikipedia: Change control board
  22. Wikipedia: Change impact analysis
  23. Wikipedia: Changelog
  24. Wikipedia: Change management
  25. Wikipedia: Change request
  26. Wikipedia: Project management triangle #Cost Process Areas
  27. Wikipedia: Change management
  28. Robin Abernathy (2018). “CompTIA Project+ Cert Guide: Exam PK0-004 (Certification Guide) 1st Edition”. Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 0-7897-5883-0
  29. https://pm4id.org/chapter/11-2-risk-management-process/
  30. Wikipedia: Project management triangle #Schedule control
  31. Wikipedia: Scope creep
  32. Wikipedia: Project_management#The traditional triple constraints
  33. Wikipedia: Turnaround time