Overview of Musculoskeletal Anatomy/Lesson 1

Overview of Musculoskeletal Anatomy - Lesson 1
Bone and muscles of the head and neck
Overview of Musculoskeletal Anatomy
Lesson: Lesson 1
Level: Undergraduate
Suggested Prerequisites: Introduction to Regional Anatomy
Time Investment: 30mins
Assessment Methods: Quiz
Portal: Science
School: Biology/Medicine
Division: Anatomy
Department: Regional Anatomy
Lesson Coordinator: Doctorbee (talk)


The skull, also known as the cranium, contains 22 bones. There are two sets of bones in the skull: eight cranial and fourteen facial bones.

Cranial BonesEdit

There are eight cranial bones. They form the cranial cavity, which functions to hold and protect the brain.

  1. Frontal (1)
  2. Parietal (2)
  3. Temporal (2)
  4. Occipetal (2)
  5. Sphenoid (1)
  6. Ethmoid (1)
  7. Inferior nasal conchae (2)
  8. Vomer (1)

Frontal BoneEdit

There are two portions to the frontal bone: horizontal portion and vertical portion.

  • Horizontal portion is also known as pars orbitalis and consists of two thin triangular plates, the orbital plates and ethmoidal notch, which form the vaults of the orbital and nasal cavities respectively. There are two surfaces to the pars orbitalis.
    • The inferior surface is smooth and has a depression called lacrimal fossa on the lateral part. The lacrimal fossa houses the lacrimal gland, which secrete tears. There is a depression near the nasal part, and it is called the fovea trochelearis, where the obliquus oculi superior muscle attaches. This muscle is one of the muscles involved in the rolling of the eyes.
    • The superior surface has depressions and contain the convolutions of the frontal lobes of the brain and the anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries. The superior surface also contains ethmoidal notch, which separates two orbital plates.
  • Vertical portion is also known as squama frontalis. It corresponds with the forehead region. There are two surfaces to the squama frontalis as well: external surface and internal surface.
    • External surface of the squama frontalis
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