Motivation and emotion/Book/2022/Time management

Time management:
How can one's time be managed effectively?


Have you ever been so engrossed in something that you forgot about the exam revision you needed to revise for your test tomorrow? Or perhaps you had work in the next 30 minutes? Alternatively, you have experienced a lack of time or cannot achieve your days' work due to your limited time[grammar?]. Luckily, this chapter is here to help you manage your time and inform you about the history and workings of time management.

There has been a growing recognition of the importance of time organisation. Orlikoqsky and Yate (2002),[grammar?] discovered that the dimension of work has increasingly become important due to the expanding global need and increases for immediate products and services. Additionally, Garhammer (2002) pointed out that there is an increase in the pace of life. Things were being done faster (accelerating), therefore contracting time expenditure (e.g. sleeping less) and compressing actions (e.g. multi-tasking)[Rewrite to improve clarity]. Many authors also discuss the need for better incorporation of time in theoretical models and research designs (e.g. Ancona et al., 2001; George and Jones., 200). Other authors have also focused their attention on researching how people in organisations manage their time and ways to make it effective (e.g. Macan, 1994).

Time management is not new, it has been discussed since the 1950s-1960s. However,the term time management is somewhat ambiguous; time cannot be managed, but individuals can manage time. Specifically their time[grammar?]. Therefore time management is the strategy that supports and successfully executes behaviours required to achieve a set goal effectively[Rewrite to improve clarity]. These strategies may include planning, prioritising important works, allocating time, goal settings, monitoring and self-organisation. Time management can positively bring about a good perception of control of time, job satisfaction and better health and additionally reducing stress.

Previous authors propose a method to handle time issues (Drucker,1967; Lakein, 1973). These authors suggest that individuals write down on paper the lists of things to do, thus a "to-do" list[Provide an in-text link to the chapter about to-do lists]. However, Drucker (1967) suggests that this method is not always practical as there are failures to complete tasks due to time being precious. In 1959, Mccay and his team developed time-management training programs that are still used today. The programs focuses on:

  • Gaining insight into the consumption of time and activities
  • Changing time expenditures
  • Using daily planning
  • Learning how to prioritise tasks
  • Learning how to handle unexpected tasks and events

Though there is much research on time management, little research has been conducted on how to use and manage time effectively.

Focus questions:
  • How is time managed?
  • Why is time management important?
  • Why is time management difficult?

Perhaps you are a detailed person with detailed day-to-day to-do lists, or you are flexible and find regimented schedules suffocating. Managing your time right down to the minute with sticky notes and timetables is as valid as diving into big projects and prioritising other things[grammar?]. Perhaps you have a time of day that works best for you. Some people work better during daylight and others at night. As long as the work is done, there is nothing wrong with either style. It would be best if you work with what works best for you and your projects.


Are you an early bird or a night owl?

Early Bird
A dog
Nigh[spelling?] Owl
A cat

Want to know which one you are? Check out this quiz Are you a nigh owl or an early bird?

How is time managed?Edit

[Provide more detail]

Pickle jar theory – the cost of small time consuming tasksEdit

Figure 1. Gherkins and Onions

The pickle jar theory illustrate how unimportant tasks can quickly take up an individual’s time. By filling our days with small trivial tasks, our time becomes limited and prevents us from doing things that matter and requires time. The pickle jar theory uses a pickle jar and its content to represent how time is managed. Whatever is contained in the jar represents the different tasks and the time commitment. These tasks can be represented by:

  • Rocks-important tasks requiring immediate, significant attention. This task produces huge benefits when achieved.
  • Pebbles-are not such vital tasks but still produce benefits when accomplished.
  • Grains-are small, time-consuming tasks that are easy to do but are of little importance. Grains fill the leftover space from all the other functions. *grain-like duties can include sending texts and checking emails.
  • Water-is the remaining task[grammar?] that fills the rest of the space.

The main point of the pickle jar theory is to be aware of the “rocks” and understand that tasks that require much attention and time are most important.

Hard to do in this theory is to determine which tasks are the rock and which are not.


The 80/20 ruleEdit

Figure 2. 2017-11-20 (126) Clock at 08-36 at Bahnhof Pottenbrunn, Austria

Pareo's 80/20 rule is similar to the pickle jar theory; it suggests that individuals can work smarter and faster by focusing on essential things that provide the most benefits. Activities that create great benefits are 20% of the activities that should consume 80% of your time. In time management, 20% of the tasks often generate 80% of the results, or 20% of tasks absorb 80% of your available time. Therefore, we can avoid wasting time by identifying the 20% (i.e. a big project) and spending 80% doing it.

The 80/20 rule has also been used in dieting and other well-being related topics.


Parkinson’s lawEdit

Parkinson's law suggests that the time required to complete specific tasks will expand to the amount of time it is given. Giving yourself less time to do a certain task will lead to the task being done faster. This theory illustrates that less time can lead to better and more effective work.

For example, by limiting email checking time, you can actually get other tasks done or by limiting your time to clean the house, you end working faster so you can complete it in that time.


The ABC modelEdit

The ABC model of time management is somewhat similar to the pickle jar theory. This model involved categorising tasks into labels 'A','B' and 'C'; 'A' being the highest priority and 'C' the lowest.

Example of ABC model
Tasks Definition
A Any work that is of the most importance and needs utmost urgency.
B Any work that is not necessarily important but needs to be completed when possible.
C The least important task in the schedule. It is usually any task that is of little importance and should be done when time is available.


Time management models are similar; they require us to prioritise important tasks and activities and worry less about unimportant tasks.

Extrinsic motivation vs intrinsic motivationEdit

  • Why do we do what we do?
  • What drives our behaviour?

Researched[grammar?] have developed an understanding on what is it that motivates people to behave or act a certain way. Individuals are either extrinsically motivated or intrinsically motivated.

Extrinsic motivationEdit

Extrinsic motivation is behaviour that is driven by external rewards; money, grades or fame. Extrinsically motivated individuals will continue to perform tasks that are not rewarding to gain benefits—for instance, working hard and long shifts for money. Extrinsic motivations involve operant conditioning; rewards and punishments for not acting a certain way.

     S (Situational cue) = R (Response) → C (Consequences)


From the diagram above, rewards and punishments create different behaviour. If an individual wants a reward, they would act the way they are required, similar to not wanting to be punished. As a result both reward and punishment can result in similar behaviour.

Extrinsic motivation is not wrong; by using rewards and punishment, individuals may feel the need to do tasks to avoid penalties or gain a bonus.However, while offering rewards, failure of extrinsic motivation may increase motivation in some cases; it can also lead to excessive rewards, which decreases motivation.

Overjustification is the result of excessive reward and decreased motivation. This occurs because extrinsic motivation is infers intrinsic motivation.

Case study

Case Study

A classic experiment by Lepper, Greene and Nisbett found that children who were given a reward on a task, later showed less interest in tasks. The researches conducted their experimentat[spelling?] a nursery school. They observed the childrem's[grammar?] intrinsic iinterest in various activities. The researchers then divided the children into 3 conditions;

  • 1. The expected award condition; children were promised to recieve[spelling?] a "Good Player" ribbon for their participation in the activitires[spelling?] of drawing with a felt-tipped pen.
  • 2. Unexpected award condition; children were not told about any given reward but would get one when they finished their activities.
  • 3. No-reward condition; children were not told about any given reqard[spelling?] and did not get one for completing their activities.
  Note that children have already been doing this activity since before and had intrinsic interest.

Later on children participating in the same activity, this time, without any promise of a reward.


Children who were promised to get a reward during the first part of the experiment played little with the pens. According the researchers, this behaviour was due to "overjustification"; the children were less motivated as they already know that their is a reward for their effort[factual?]. In the second conditioned[grammar?], the children who received the rewards unexpectly[spelling?] showed no changed in interest. Is is coherent to those who did not receive any reward at all. Both groups showed no decline with their perfomance[spelling?].

Children in Classroom in Keene New Hampshire (5446395340)


Define overjustification

When an intrinsically enjoyable behaviour is rewarded, the behaviour decreases when the reward is taken away
When the introduction of an extrinsic reward decreases your intrinsic motivation to do something.
When the introduction of a reward causes you to change your attitudes.
All of the above

If you'd like to know more about operant conditioning, check out this video Skinner’s Operant Conditioning: Rewards & Punishments

Intrinsic motivationEdit

Intrinsic motivation underlies behaviours performed purely for interests and enjoyment. Intrinsically motivated individuals seek proactivity and interaction with the world. They want to feel a sense of accomplishment. When individuals are at their healthiest, they are curious and seek challenges, novelty therefore engaging with interesting tasks.

There are two different characterisation of Intrinsic motivation;

   1. Not all behaviours are driven by basic drives; thirst, hunger or sex. 
   2. Just as people have drives that must be satisfied for survival, people also have psychological needs that must be satisfied which allows them to thrive. 

From this, Deci and Ryan suggests that there are three fundamental psychological needs that are essential for striving. These needs include

   *Autonomy; The need to make informed and conscious decisions. The need to have control over self. 
   *Mastery; The need to accomplish tasks and gain a sense of growth.
   *Purpose; The need for purpose and reasons for actions and behaviour. 

We can easily get caught up in extrinsic motivation. Our society is run by rewards and punishment thus encouraging extrinsic motivation. However, it is important that we balance between extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. Why?

  • 1. Not every outcome and be controled[spelling?]; no matter how prepared or talented you are, there are always things we cannot control. Relying purely on extrinsic motivation can lead to dissapointment[spelling?] and failure when encountering setbacks or unexpected factors. However if you rely on intrinsic motivation, unexpected failures or factors allow for upside of situation. That is, we learn from our failure.
  • 2. You cannot always be dependent on other's opinions; extrinsically motivated inviduals[spelling?] become insecure and depend on external validations. This can lead to thinking about status or fame too often which can lead to decreased self-esteem and confidence. Intrinsically motivated individuals already have inner confidence and measure their status based on their worth and not what others think about them.
  • 3. Long-term views; being extrinsically motivated, you evaluate your goals on short-term changes which can lead to setbacks and failure. Being intrinsically motivated you are able to see the setbacks as just one factor in the way of your goals, therefore you are able to remain optimisitics[spelling?] and look at the bigger picture.

Time management strategiesEdit

Figure 4. Close-up of calendar in Spanish - Calendario en español

Time management, a deliberate action aiming to use the time to accomplish specific, goal-directed activities effectively, is a necessary skill for maintaining scholarly productivity (Claessens, van Eerde and Rutte 2007). The benefit of effective time management can allow for improvement in job satisfaction and rest-related outcomes. Strategies for good time management fall into three broad categories; Time assessment behaviour, planning behaviours, and monitoring behaviours.

Robert Topp (Marquette University)Edit

Figure 5. Marquette University Law School, Milwaukee Courthouse

Researchers' productivity within an academic environment is often measured as deliverables. They refer to the outcomes of a researcher's activity and are often either quantifiable or qualitatively. Such deliverables may include publications, presentations, proposals submissions, funded research, Etc. However, it is a common misinterpretation that productivity results from time spent completing such deliverables. Time spent on deliverables produce a curvilinear relationship; excessive wondering and time spent dilute both the quality and quantity of the deliverables. For example, Two researchers complete the exact deliverables; however, one completes it in 3 months and is thus considered productive, while another finished theirs in 6 months, thus less productive. Therefore time is critical in an academic environment;ime[spelling?] management directly contributes to an individual's productivity.


Implementing time management strategiesEdit
 *Set realistic and attainable goals; identify the goal, develop the long-term goal and review said goal. 
 *Optimise realistic planning; creating daily to-do lists, track the goals, create detailed schedule.
 *Prioritisation; acknowledge the primacy of the work, arrange goals according to its importance.
 *Effective scheduling; schedule blocks or calendars.


Sleeping cat on her back

A standard trinity of phenomena can divert one's ability to manage time effectively. Phenomena include procrastination, attending to interpretations, and lack of discipline. Interruption and lack of discipline allow one's attention to be drawn to distractions and, therefore, more procrastination.

"Life is difficult and includes pleasant and unpleasant activities. We can either moan about these unpleasant activities or work to complete them"- Peck (2003)

Marlene Cohen (University of Nebraska)Edit

Figure 6. The University of Nebraska Coliseum, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA

Existentialists have noted that a common similarity is that we have a body in space and in time. Time and time management are universal and central to our lives. In order to manage out time we need to:

 *1.Prioritising and setting goals  

"There is nothing so useless as doing efficiently that which should not be done at all" _Peter F. Drunker.

Setting goals allow for focus and prioritising activities the entire time. it also important to note that learning when to say no is essential. Sometimes we cannot do everything that is asked and therefore prioritising tasks and saying no is important to getting things done.

 *2.Plan realistically 

"I recommended that you take care of the minutes; for hours will take care of themselves," Lord Chesterfield.

Part of goal setting is to plan for smaller tasks that can be easily accomplished. We sometimes put off big tasks because they seem impossible to do; however, all that needs to be done is to break the more significant tasks into smaller tasks.

 *3.Staying organised 

"Do not confuse motion and progress. A rocking horse keeps moving but does not make any progress" Alfred A. Montapert.

Finding the best strategy for productivity is essential. What works for you-you should do.

 *4. Find balance (vacation, rest, exercise)

It is taking time to enjoy other activities that are not stressful to maintain creativity and positivity. Affective time management is associated with more excellent academic and lower anxiety in students (Richler V). However, it is hard to find a balance between studies and day-to-day lives.

Why is time management important?Edit

Figure 7. 05092012 - Oyster class visit Teacher Appreciation 237

Many studies have identified the positive impact of time management on academic performance (Karen and Gardiuner, 2007; Kelly, 2002; McKenzie and Gow, 2004). Krause and Coates (2008) report a correlation between the capacity to manage time and students developing good study habits and strategies. Time management offers sturdier control of activities (Claessens, Van Here Rutte 2004). Wang, Kai, Huan and Wu (2011) found that having the capacity to manage time has a significant impact on individuals’ quality of life. Time management can assist with motivation, self-control and the need for attention which influences persistent in times of perceived difficulty (Brixton et al.2004). Students who can develop time management strategies increase their self-regulatory framework (Miller, Greene, Montalvo, Ravindran 1996). Burt (2000) suggests that having the ability to stay on task for long periods is correlated with higher academic standing. Many studies found that a high level of motivation helps maintain focus (Dupeyrat and Marine, 2005), thus leading to success in general (Delia Dan Ryan 2000).

Case study

Case study: Nurses Working at General Surgery Wards of Hospitals in Sari Affiliated.

It is necessary to have good time management among nurses for the success and promotion of clinical competency. Effective time management is beneficial for balance between work and life aspects. Khoshgoyan et al., (2016) research focused on determining the effect of time management training on the lifestyle of nurses working at general surgery wards in hospitals of Sari affiliated with the Mazandaran University of Medical Science 2016. Participants were 70 working nurses at the general surgery wards of hospitals in Sari[where?]. Participants were divided into controlled and experimental groups; both completed a lifestyle questionnaire. The experimental group were given time management skills for 3 hours in two sessions. At the end of the experiment, both groups were again given the questionnaire. Results show a significant difference between the two groups one month after the intervention[direction? size?]; time management influences lifestyle of all aspects.

So why is time management critical?Edit

 * Time is limited; Everybody gets the same amount of time every day; however, if time is wasted and not used wisely and profitably, there is a risk of losing all the hours of the day. There are only 24 hours in a day, after all. 
 * Time is scarce; lack of time is often blamed for everything; not getting enough exercise, sleep, stress, and goals. 
 * Time helps obtain goals; time management helps to make conscious choices. Therefore more time is spent on doing what is essential. 
 * Time helps to accomplish more work with less effort; time management reduces wasted time and effort; thus, more time can be spent on the work. 
 * Keeping us focused; to-do lists and plan-time management keep us focused on our goals. We spend less time thinking about what to do and what is needed to be done. 
 * Relaxation; allows for some free time due to balanced time management. 


Significance of effective time managementEdit

 * Improves quality of life; by managing time, common problems such as stress, lack of time for personal interest or family time can be solved effectively. 
 * Reduced stress; balancing work and personal life reduces tiresome routines. 
 * Increase energy level; proper time management makes the mind less cluttered and more organised. This makes it easier to focus and get work done


 * Quality of time; effective time management allows for life enjoyment and living to the fullest. 


Case study

Case study; University Life and Time management A study by Dalli (2014) examined the relationship between university students' time management skills and their academic life satisfaction and achievement levels. Participants were 308 females and 242 males from the Mugla Kocman University School of Physical Education and Sports and the Faculty of Education in Turkey. For this research, the "time management scale" by Britton and Tesser (1991) and "The Satisfaction of Life Scale (SWLS) by Diener et al.,(1985) were used to collect data. According to the results of this study, there is a positive correlation (0.01) level between university students' time management skills, academic life satisfaction and achievement levels[This is an incredibly small correlation - explain].

Why is time management difficult?Edit

Time management can be challenging to create and get used to. Many problems and barriers may be challenging when it comes to managing time. These challenges can include;


Perfectionism is characterised by striving for flawlessness and having excessively high standards for performance accompanied by overly critical evaluation (Flett & Hewitt, 2002; Frost, Martern, Lahart & Rosenbalate, 1990). Perfectionism can impact all aspects of life; school, work and personal appearance (Stoeber & Stoeber, 2009). There are two dimensions of perfectionism;

 * Perfectionist striving 

Perfectionist striving relates to perfectionist personal standards and self-oriented striving for perfection. This dimension is associated with positive characteristics, processes and outcomes, adaptive coping, positive well-being and psychological adjustment.

 * Perfectionistic concerns

Perfectionistic concerns relate to perfectionism associated with mistakes, doubts about actions and others' evaluation of one's performance. This dimension is correlated to negative characteristics, processes and outcomes; neuroticism, maladaptive coping and adverse effects. (Stoeber & Otto, 2006).


Procrastination delays essential tasks instead of focusing on less important, more enjoyable and accessible activities. Procrastination has been identified as a common correlate precursor of procrastination (Fleet, Hewitt, Davis & Sherry, 2004). "One common belief about the nature of procrastinatory behaviour is that it stems from excessively high standards." Many studies have stressed that procrastination results from perfectionistic characteristics, goal evaluation, fear of failure and maladaptive characteristics.

Scheduling tasks ineffectivelyEdit

Time can not be managed and focused on if prioritisation is on the wrong tasks and not related to a goal[Rewrite to improve clarity].

Not tracking timeEdit

Analysing the hours and minutes, it takes to do a task. Doing this reveals the time required to do tasks and unexpected trends or insights on how you spend your time.

Lack of goalEdit

Without a goal, there is no way to create practical time management skills. It would help if you determined what you want to achieve; a big project, sending out emails etc.

Stress copingEdit

Figure 8. Man Stressed At Work Illustration

You must cope with stress as stress and time management often go hand in hand. Leaving tasks to the last minute can cause feelings of stress. However, not all stress is harmful, but persistent exposure can put your health at risk.

There are other reasons as to way time management can be difficult, however it all depends on you. What you do with your time is diferent[spelling?] to everyone else. If you want to effectively manage your time, you need to take notes of your day to day habits and change what is needed. It is also important to take not of what distracts you and how often you procrastinate.

Implementation of time management strategiesEdit

Finding a time management strategy that works for you depends on your personality, ability to self-motivate, self-discipline and self-evaluation. Here are some strategies that you can implement in your life to help you manage your time better

   1. Knowing how your time is spent

Having a time log or record of how you spend your time can be helpful. It helps you evaluate how you get things done, how long tasks take, when you are most productive and where your time is most devoted. It is important to identify your most-time consuming tasks and determine where your time is spent doing productive activities that are beneficial to you.

   2. Setting priorities 

Managing your time effectively requires a distinction between important and urgent tasks (MacKenzie, 1990). There are four categories of time management according to Covey, Merrill and Merrill (1994). These four included; urgent, not urgent, important, and not important. Focussing on important activities allows you to gain greater control over your life and reduces the number of important tasks that become urgent.

Caption text
Urgent Not Urgent
Important Do it as soon as possible Defer these tasks until all urgent and importance tasks have been complete
Not Important Delegating these tasks to people who can manage them Delete tasks that are wasting your time
Figure 9. Christmas To Do List (4206456664)

Creating “to-do” lists is an easy way to prioritisation.

  3. Planning tools 

These can include calendars, planners, phone apps, wall charts and so on. Writing down tasks or having tasks visibly seen can reduce stress and allow your mind to focus.

  4. Get organised 

Research has found that clutter has a strong negative association with perceived well-being (Roster, 2016). Disorganisation can lead to poor time management.

  5. Delegation 

Assigning responsibility for a task to someone else, therefore frees space and time for you. Of course, this only works if you are in a work environment or have support and those willing to assist your work.

  6. Procrastinating 

Stopping distractions and procrastination or work can be done. Easy said than done, procrastination is a result of wanting to be perfect and a lack of motivation. Here are some ways to avoid procrastination; having smaller to-do tasks, getting rid of distractions, building a reward system

  7. Avoid multitasking 

Time is lost when switching from one task to another (Rubinsteim, Meyer and Evans, 2001). Multi-tasking can lead to a loss of concentration and focus.

Relating to "Time management strategies, " we will discuss how we can implement them in our lives.

Academic environmentEdit

Strategy Implementing Time Management Strategy
Setting realistic and attainable goals - Developing a long-term goal

- Develop activities to achieve long-term goals

- Set a time limit for goal

- Review goal frequently

Optimising realistic planning - Creating daily "to-do" lists

- Breaking complex tasks into smaller do-able tasks

- Creating detailed timeline of activities

- Keep work organised

Prioritise - Knowledge the important of goal or work

- Arrange work into order of priority

- Work on the most impotant work first before doing smaller tasks

- Learning to say "no" to uncessary or disruptive activities or tempations

Effective scheduling - Make blocks of detailed time for work

- Scheduling in advanced

- Use electronic calenders

Maintaining focus - Deep engagement with work or project

- Remove disruptive activities

Finding support - Seek assistance from others

- Finding groups with same goals

Rewarding self - Plan rewards for achieving "to-do's"
Manage distractions - Create a work space free from external distractions

- Turn of any visual and auditory interruptions (emails, phone calls, notification alerts)

- Avoid multitaskings as it can lead to distractions

Figure 10. Abandoned Art School 24 (6342359807)

School principlesEdit

The way that peoples' time is spend is a major factor in determining their productivities and organisational sucess; especially for school principles. To keep up with the pace of the world now, professionals and organisations needto emphasise being productive. School principles face the same problems as everyone else, how to manage their time productively. Study in 1980 suggests four categories for time management skills

Leadership-style time management skills; planning, prioritising, setting goals, making decisions, deciding between efficiency and effectiveness.

Organisational time management skills; delegating and processing information.

Time-consumer time management; controlling interruptions and eliminating unnecessary activities.

Meeting time management skills; pre-planning and conducting meetings.

Robertson (1999) however, put time management skills into six categories

 1. Establishing priorities
 2. Managing paperwork 
 3. Scheduling contacts 
 4. Handling interruptions
 5. Delegating
 6. Managing meeting 

Mooney (1983) focuses on a system approach that enables principles to find time for effective time management

 1. Conducting an achievement assessment 
 2. Setting goals 
 3. Setting objectives 
 4. Monitor objectives 

Patterson (1985) identified six common effective time management techniques

 1. Changing habits 
 2. Analysis of time and Time logs 
 3. Planning
 4. Scheduling 
 5. “To-do” lists
 6. Delegations 

Wells (1993) purpose four distinct principles of time management

Work environment; Proper equipment of items needed for the tasks.

Self-management; self-direct, time-saving behaviour, acknowledgement.

Planning and goals; establishing goals, setting prioritise.

Communication; Communication with others within the school


Whatever time management strategies you use or want to use, you need to take time an evaluate what works for you. How balanced is your work and home life? Are you achieving you goals and tasks that is important in your life? Are you investing enough time to yourself and well-being? Asks yourself these types of questions and determine which strategies best works for you. Sometime is helps if you talk to someone about it.

Want to know if you manage you time effectively, check out this quiz; How good is your time management?


Time management is important to us as it allows us to enjoy our time freely and productively. Time management is the process of panning and exercising conscious control over time spent on specific activities effectively and productively.

How is time managed ?Edit

Time can be managed differently according to different people. There are frameworks and books that discusses way to manage time. Spoken about on this page was the Pickle jar theory; where the jar represents the projects and the items in the tasks represents the tasks required to be done to achieve goal. Bigger items are most important and smaller items are less important and not urgent. The 80/20 rule is managing time according to the its important and how long it takes up your time. Identify the 20% of the project ( most important tasks) and spend 80% of your time doing it. Parkinson’s law suggests that we manage time by giving tasks set limits. We tend to do better when time is limited. We can limit time for emails or certain small tasks so our time can be spent on bigger tasks. Lastly we spoke about the ABC model, where from A-C (A= most important, C= less important. This model has similar framework to the Pickle Jar theory; identify tasks that are "A" and do them before doing tasks that are "C"

Why is time management important?Edit

Time management is important in many ways. Studies have found a positive correlation between good time management and good study habits and strategies (Krause and Coates, 2008; Claessens, Van Here Rutte 2004). Time management is also beneficial for quality of life (Wang, Kai, Huan and Wu, 2011). Additionally time management can assist with motivation, self-control and resilience (Brixton et al.2004). By managing you time for balance and healthy lifestyle, stress can be reduced and you can have more time for personal activities.

Why is time management difficult?Edit

Time management can be difficult to create and develop effectively. Many things can influence our time and how we managed them. These can include; procrastination, lack of focus, lack of motivation, perfectionism and lack of time monitoring. If we can identify the barriers that stopping us from managing our time, time management can be easier to develop.


We look in to many ways that we can manage our time. It is best that we find which one works best for us; everyone has different ways of managing their time. Some strategies spoken about were

 1. Setting goals; having a goal of what it is that we want to achieve allows us to focus more and be motivated to get tasks done
 2. Prioritisation; Once goals are set, we can identify smaller goals to reach said goals. These smaller goals need to be prioritise from most important and beneficial to least important and beneficial. This reduces waste of time and productivities. 
 3. Planning; have "to-do" lists of your days or weeks or even months. It is a good idea to have something that is visible to your eyes that notifies you of your tasks and schedule. It can reduce stress and increase focus since you spend less time thinking about what to do. 
 4. Focus; keeping focus on one task and not multi-tasking. Multi-tasking can can loss of concentration, focus and productivity. 
 5. Delegation; sometimes, assigning tasks to others is a good thing. You cannot always do everything yourself therefore giving tasks to others can help you with your goals. Delegating tasks to others can also reduce stress and work. 
 6. Distractions; removing distraction and activities that can cause interruptions of concentration and focus. Learning to say "no" to certain activities that is not beneficial to your goal is important and necessary to achieving goal. By removing distractions, you can stay focus and be more productive. 

See alsoEdit


  1. Afuah, A. (1996). Reducing uncertaainty in innovation. University of Michigan.
  2. Adams, R., & Blair, E. (2019). Impact of Time Management Behaviors on Undergraduate Engineering Students’ Performance. SAGE Open, 9(1), 215824401882450.
  3. Blandford, A., & Green, T. (2001). Group and Individual Time Management Tools: What You Get is Not What You Need. Personal And Ubiquitous Computing, 5(4), 213-230.
  4. Cemal, A. (2014). Knowledge inertia and organizational learning as the explanation of organizational performance. Educational Research And Reviews, 9(21), 1143-1155.
  5. Chapman, S. (2022). Time Management: 10 Strategies for Better Time Management. Retrieved 20 September 2022, from
  6. Chase, J., Topp, R., Smith, C., Cohen, M., Fahrenwald, N., & Zerwic, J. et al. (2012). Time Management Strategies for Research Productivity. Western Journal Of Nursing Research, 35(2), 155-176.
  7. Cherry, K. (2022). Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic Motivation: What's the Difference?. Verywell Mind. Retrieved 20 September 2022, from
  8. Choi, J. (2022). How to Boost Productivity: Autonomy, Mastery, and Purpose. Retrieved 20 September 2022, from
  9. Claessens, B., van Eerde, W., Rutte, C., & Roe, R. (2007). A review of the time management literature. Personnel Review, 36(2), 255-276.
  10. Hamzah, A., Lucky, E., & Joarder, M. (2014). Time Management, External Motivation, and Students’ Academic Performance: Evidence from a Malaysian Public University. Asian Social Science, 10(13).
  11. How to Manage Time. (2022). Retrieved 20 September 2022, from
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