Motivation and emotion/Book/2021/Approach motivation

Approach motivation:
What is approach motivation and how does it lead to behaviour?

Overview Edit

Figure 1 . Motivation Arrows

Have you ever think [grammar?] about the reason of why people working hard in order to get higher pay or higher achievement? Why can't we just lay down in the home and doing nothing but video games? Approach motivation is how people are motivated towards specific rewards or achievements. Approach motivation can be evoked from intrinsic or extrinsic goals or stimulus. Personality, trait, environment or genetic are all contribute to approach motivation. Relevant theories discussed in this chapter are expectancy theory and self efficiency. Approach refers to a propensity to move toward (or maintain contact with) a desired stimulus and motivation refers to the intention towards the purpose. Valence of a motivation is at the core of the distinction between approach and avoidance motivation. Positively valenced stimuli often lead to approach, while negatively valenced stimuli are usually avoided.

Case study 1

Luna is a psychology students who;s in the second year study and she's taking her course in motivation and social psychology. one of the topic is about motivation and how people aroused their motivation in both conscious and uncousiou way. She was intereseted in this topic and trying to learn some more knowledge about this topic so she watched some vediosabout this topic. At this mean time, her friend Sarah rings up her phone and telling Luna about her feeling in her design unit which she feels unmotivated and stressed to the final exam and struggled in her graphic design course.

What is approach motivation? Edit

Approach motivation can be seen as a behaviour towards to specific rewards or expectation which stimulus would be a external goal and purpose (Harmon et al., 2013)[grammar?]. Motivation is defined as a impulsive direction and no specific valence and with this condition, it acutually do not arousal any stimulation[grammar?].

However common defination defined motivation as in the purpose of evoking stimulation yet there are evidence showing approach motivation could from an internal proccess. in this perspective, both uman and non human animals having the impulsive towards a specific direction were due to the evoking of a stimulation which means stimulation is the main reason that evoked the motivation.[spelling?][grammar?]

E.g "By keeping on the right path, I shall be able to gain 20 pounds of muscle strength, learn how to talk more effectively in social settings, or obtain high grades in college."

Theoretical view of approach motivation Edit

There are plenty of theory expained the phenomenon of approach motivation, the following theries are including Maslow's hierachy of needs , self effecacy and Expectancy theory of motivation which focused on what motivates people and indicated some specific facgtors like needs an d goals.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs Edit

Maslow's hierachy of needs has indicated stages of people needs from basic safety and physiological needs. People's desire of reaching higher achievements and goals pushes to each step to become truly self actualisation. Lack of needs are a result of deprivation, and when people can fulfill their needs it will motivate them towards gaining it. Generally, the longer a motivation is needed to fulfill a need, the longer a deprevation is going to last until the need has been met (McLeod, 2007).[spelling?] 

E.g : If one person has been without a drink for a longer period of time, they will be more thirsty; therefore, they will have stronger approach motivation to get a drink.

Figure 3. Maslow's inherency if[spelling?] needs.

Maslow has point it out that human are motivated based on self growth fullfillment and change and individuals who are self actualized are the one who tried their best to become fullfillment. The growth of self actualization means that people's needs of getting self promotion and dicoveing and this proccess is never going to stay in one states, individuals could figure out the manning of what's important to life. Individuals are distinct and individulistic, the motivation to approach self actualization would lead people into different directions (McLeod, 2007).[spelling?][grammar?]

(critical thinking para) Hofstede point it out that it hasn't sufficient racism [say what?] consideration with in this level and sequence system and this pattern may only apply and based on a western cognitive pattern. Also, this needs pattern has insuffcient consideration of cross cultural influence and has described more on a individualistic perspective ( self worth, self actulisation etc) which lack of consideration in group environment and group membership honor. Whatsmore is that hierachy of needs and the conclude is that the evidence that the sequence of the needs level that proposed by Maslow was insufficient while admited that human needs to be fullfilled yet there is a unsure of there a sequence exsit in everyone's needs level (McLeod, 2007).[spelling?][grammar?]

Self effecacy Edit

- The study of believe in people's capability and this capability's adaption and adjusting has a long time history (Maddux, 1995). Self efficacy could be one important one. It is a believe of someone has some ability to do or learn something, it could help us to boost self esteem and motivate ourselves.

或 Behavioral approach system (BAS) - 定义

Expectancy theory of motivation (缩小篇幅) Edit

Expectancy theory of motivation are developed by Vroom as a theory to support motivation process theory. It emphasis that if there's an expectancy for people to act a desirable behaviour they are more likely to have a desirable outcome.

  • Massive amount of research has view expectancy theory of motivation as the most acceptable theory of motivation and studies use expectancy theory as a strong evidence to support motivation study (Gilbert, 2008). There're plenty research to tested predicted the employee's engagement and performance and it almost supported for all the statement accurately. This theory could help emplyer to invetegate their motivation to approch to a single or multiple goals since it could tell the psychological proccess which caused a motivation.
  • Expectancy theory of motivation has been decided into four different part: individual effort, individual performance, organizational rewards/work outcome and personal goals.
Figure 2. Emotion cognition in approach and avoid motivations

Expectancy theory of motivation says that effort or motivation =E * I * V

In this formation, the accociation between effor and outcome are labled as E

  • E = Expectancy are the subjective probability of a outcome which resulted by an effort.
  • I = Intrumentality ---The accociation between outcome /rewards and perfoemance, it represented the individual's perception for the probability of a outcome. For example, individual would put an effort on something due to their perception of this rewards such as a bonus in order to gain the bonus.
  • V = Valence --- the attractive value or the preference and it represented the valence of the rewards, whether it is a positive valence or a negative valence.
  • Critical: Expectancy of theory has considered more influences than Hirachy of needs, however, it was still limited in a perspective and view which is not comoprehensive as well. This theory was focused more on motivatio than Maslow's theory, even though people or employer can not use expectancy theory as one single determanition yet it was one of the most significant motivation theory. This theory was limited on the applicability on the emplyee, we can't promise that all the emplyee would spent time or willingness on this theory. On the other hand, there might be elements that would influences the outcome like we can not know exactly what has inspired the employee to become hardworking. The researchers should put more attention on the valence of this theory, stimuli or intrumentality and future study (Parijat, 2014).

How does the approach motivation related to our behaviour Edit

  • 马斯洛的理论证明 am通过影响我们的需求来影响我们的行为
  • 影响self effecacy 来影响行为
  • am通过expectancy增加我们的期待来促进我们行为。
  • * Behavioral approach system (BAS) - 讨论一下
  • biological pespective - Machanisms and apllication of approch motivation

Why is approach motivation important?

Approach & avoidance motivations are basic motivation in our daily life. Approach social motivations and goals are associated with the result positive social outcomes such as less lonelyness yet avoidance  social motivation and goals are accociated as a negatuve social outsome such as negative social attitudes, deeling of lonely or insecurity as results (Gable, 2006).

It can be used to predicting human behaviours in school and society environment. As in the expectancy theory said, The behaviour correlated with achievement is defined by the expecatancy level and the valence endue on the work. Students in school who wish to get a higher achievement would try harder on their school work. The accociationbetween achievement motivation and success outcome normally is weak to medium also approach motivation is needed for self achievements through particular goal or self expectation (Spinath, 2009)

Trigger approach state

The motivation to approach particular behaviour or goal in condition (Harmon et al., 2013). There're evdence showing that state od approach not always triggered by a goal, it could be aroused by a internal psychophysiological process which means approach motivation might appeaars inside an organism and individual needs to helps it seeking the stimulus where it needs to form a approach motivation. The dopaminergic system could activated in humans by drugs such as amphetamines which could  trigger the SEEKING. The SEEKING system may also be triggered by nongoal stimuli, such as fluctuations in light.

Even though there're plenty evidence shwing that long term manipulation of personality or body organism could influence approach motivation (Harmon et al., 2012) yet these are insufficient evidence indicate emphasis the final direction and states of the motivation.

E.g In one study, interaction of time from a day or a year contributed to the influence asymmetric frontal cortex which included correlation of approach motivation .There is a decrease in relative left frontal cortical activity in the fall morning from other seasons. (Peterson & Harmon, 2009).

(缩减内容)Stimulation contributed to evoking approach motivation

Approach motivation could be a evoke from internal or external expectation or stimulus (Peterson, 2008)). In order to evoke apprach motivation, therer'e three points:

  • Internal state or requirements that active generating and directing behavior in the body
  • There is a feeling of achievement or a desire for success that drives goal-orientated behavior;
  • In order for a person to behave the way they do, they must realize what they want and what their needs are.

In a general view, the explaination of the origin for motivatipn can be devided into extrinsic which is outside of the body or the intrisic which comes from inner side of the body. Intrinsic can be catogrized from body; mental; spirits; cognition; emotion etc where extrinsic can be catogrized from needs; goals; expectations and condition etc (Huitt, 2001), see figure 4.

Figure 4
Figure 1. Example image of Expectancy-value of Motivation.

What stumulus could evokes motivation?

Negative stimulus could evoke approach motivation associated with emotion of anger which means negative or unpleaseant stimulation could evoke approach motivation(Harmon et al., 2009). In this situation, it normally comes with anger from results of the disruption to a approach and this contributed to a anger-frustration that promote the the approach motivation from frustrated(Harmon et al., 2009). Anger not norammly accociated with a desired outcome, and the motive of angery is the origin angery which means it leads individual temporarily give up the original goal and turn this motive to the an attaction to stimulation that evoked the anger (Harmon et al., 2009).

Facial emotion of anger could evoke both approach motivation and avoidance motivation depending one the purpose for these behaviour

Stimulus could be unnecessary to evoking a approach motivation, however, longterm trait and bodily manipulation influences approach motivation (Harmon, 2011)

Effecacy of approch motivation on engagment and achievement Edit

[Provide more detail]

What's Avoidance motivation Edit

Avoidance motivation is the motivation that we avoid to any reaction or behaviours due to negative stimulus from mental and physiological. Avoidance to tasks are partial results of our human revolution nature, it can be benefit if harmful or thereat been perceived and harm for avoiding necessary tasks. See figure 2 for approach and avoidance motivation compare.

In the evolutionary perspective, there're multiple ways in function and nueron level contributed to the avoidance system in order to dealing with unique problem were met by acient people. Some specific methods to solve problem were aroused by functions in the environment or it might due to the chronic elements that asscociated by the correlation of individual differences or other physical elements (Gable, 2006).

Case study


option 2 直接开一个大标题写一段 可带两个小标题

Quiz Edit

Here are some simple quiz questions can be test fo this topic. Choose the correct answers and click "Submit":

1 People who with lower approach motivation would be less likely to try things new:


2 Avoidance motivation can only be evoked by extrinsic stimulus:


Conclusion Edit

This chapter has indicated that approach motivation is a motivation that motivates people toward some desired behaviour and achievements and it could help people to predict some future behaviours in school and society environments. Also people who have higher approach motivation are more likely to do new things and modify behaviour under some expectation. As indicated in the expectancy theory, people who received expectations from others or self requirements of particular behaviour or outcome could more likely to have a desirable outcome from their expectations. Behaviours are influenced by intrinsic or extrinsic goals that we need approach motivation to push us to a desirable goal to achieve real self-actualisation it is the driving force for people to motivated towards specific behaviour. People are motivated from their own self-actualisation goal and then it becomes to a believe of they can do something then it turns out into a expectation or a willingness to take risk which can bee seen as the whole process of how approach motivation helps to boost people's self-esteem.

See also Edit

References Edit

Harmon-Jones, E., Harmon-Jones, C., & Price, T. F. (2013). What is Approach Motivation? Emotion Review, 5(3), 291–295.

Steinmayr, R., & Spinath, B. (2009). The importance of motivation as a predictor of school achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 19(1), 80–90.

Harmon-Jones, E., & Peterson, C. K. (2008). Effect of trait and state approach motivation on aggressive inclinations. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(5), 1381–1385.

Harmon-Jones, E., Harmon-Jones, C., Abramson, L., & Peterson, C. K. (2009). PANAS positive activation is associated with anger. Emotion, 9(2), 183–196.

Harmon-Jones, E., Gable, P. A., & Price, T. F. (2011). Leaning embodies desire: Evidence that leaning forward increases relative left frontal cortical activation to appetitive stimuli. Biological Psychology, 87(2), 311–313.

Krieglmeyer, R., & Deutsch, R. (2013). Approach Does Not Equal Approach. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4(5), 607–614.

Neto, M. (2015). Educational motivation meets Maslow: Self-actualisation as contextual driver. Journal of Student Engagement: Education Matters, 5(1), 18–27.

Ivancevich, J. M., Konopaske, R., & Gilbert, J. A. (2008). Formally shaming white-collar criminals. Business Horizons, 51(5), 401–410.

Maddux, J. E. (1995). Self-Efficacy Theory. Self-Efficacy, Adaptation, and Adjustment, 3–33.

McLeod, S. (2020, December 29). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Simply Psychology.

Educational Psychology Interactive: Motivation. (2011).

Carver, C. S., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2009). Anger is an approach-related affect: Evidence and implications. Psychological Bulletin, 135(2), 183–204.

Gable, S. L. (2006). Approach and Avoidance Social Motives and Goals. Journal of Personality, 74(1), 175–222.

Cofer, C. N., & Petri, H. L. (2018). Motivation behaviour. In Encyclopædia Britannica.

Saeed, S., & Zyngier, D. (2012). How Motivation Influences Student Engagement: A Qualitative Case Study. Journal of Education and Learning, 1(2).

Parijat, P., & Bagga, S. (2014). Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory of motivation–An evaluation. International Research Journal of Business and Management, 7(9), 1-8.

Gable, P. A., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2008). Approach-Motivated Positive Affect Reduces Breadth of Attention. Psychological Science, 19(5), 476–482.

External links Edit

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