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- ... language said not merely to reflect social structure. For instance, he writes:
- ... if we say that linguistic structure "reflects" social structure, we are really assigning to language a role that is too passive ... Rather we should say that linguistic structure is the realization of social structure, actively symbolizing it in a process of mutual creativity. Because it stands as a metaphor for society, language has the property of not only transmitting the social order but also maintaining and potentially modifying it. (This is undoubtedly the explanation of the violent attitudes that under certain social conditions come to be held by one group towards the speech of others.) 
- Bernstein, Basil (1975). Class, Codes and Control: Towards a Theory of Educational Transmissions. Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1975 [^]
- Halliday, M.A.K. (1975). Learning How to Mean, London: Edward Arnold. [^]
- Ogden, C. K. & I. A. Richards (1923). The Meaning of Meaning: A Study of the Influence of Language upon Thought and of the Science of Symbolism. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. [^]
- Halliday, M.A.K. 1978. "An interpretation of the functional relationship between language and social structure," in: Uta Quastoff, ed., Sprachstruktur – Sozialstruktur: Zure Linguistichen Theorienbildung, 3-42. Reprinted in Volume 10 of Halliday's Collected Works. Edited by Jonathan Webster. London and New York: Continuum. 2007.