Open main menu

Information Systems/Databases

Databases are organized collections of data typically collected by schemas, tables, queries, reports and views. Databases are typically organized to process data to provide quick information retrieval.[1]

Objectives and SkillsEdit

Objectives and skills for the databases portion of CLEP Information Systems include:[2]

  • Database management systems (data warehousing, data mining, networking, security, validation, migration, storage, obsolescence)
  • Database management systems (relational, hierarchical, network, management strategies)
  • Difference between multidimensional, object-oriented, hierarchical, and relational databases.

ReadingsEdit

MultimediaEdit

ActivitiesEdit

  1. Complete one or more of the following database tutorials:
  2. Complete A Quick-Start Tutorial on Relational Database Design.
  3. Review QCI: Database vs. Spreadsheet and PC Magazine: Spreadsheet Does Not = Database. Identify spreadsheets you use at work, school, or home that should be implemented as databases instead. If you are responsible for the data, try creating a database as a replacement. If someone else is responsible for the data, discuss with them the advantages of using a database.

Research and DiscussionEdit

  1. Identify different database management systems that you frequently use. Identify potential benefits and limitations of information stored in those systems.
  2. Research the various levels of security used to protect database management systems.

Lesson SummaryEdit

  • A database is an organized collection of data, including schemas, tables, queries, reports, views and other objects.[3]
  • A database management system (DBMS) is a computer software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. It allows you to keep accurate records and retrieve records quickly.[4]
  • A general-purpose DBMS is designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases.[5]
  • Because of the close relationship between them, the term "database" is often used casually to refer to both a database and the DBMS used to manipulate it.[6]
  • A data warehouse is a central repository of integrated data from one or more disparate sources used for reporting and data analysis.[7]
  • Data mining is the computational process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics, and database systems.[8]
  • A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model.[9] The relational model represents data terms of ordered sets of elements (tuples), grouped into relations (tables).[10][11]
  • A hierarchical database model is a data model in which the data is organized into a tree-like structure. The data is stored as records which are connected to one another through links. A record is a collection of fields, with each field containing only one value. The entity type of a record defines which fields the record contains.[12]
  • An object database is a database management system in which information is represented in the form of objects as used in object-oriented programming.[13]
  • The network model is a database model conceived as a flexible way of representing objects and their relationships. Its distinguishing feature is that the schema, viewed as a graph in which object types are nodes and relationship types are arcs, is not restricted to being a hierarchy or lattice.[14]
  • Network databases create multiple linkages between sets by placing links, or pointers, to one set of records in another; the speed and versatility of network databases have led to their wide use within businesses and in e-commerce.[15]
  • Data migration is the process of transferring data between computer storage types or file formats. It occurs for a variety of reasons, including server or storage equipment replacements, maintenance or upgrades, application migration, website consolidation and data center relocation.[16]
  • Data warehouses (known as DW, DWH, and EDW) are systems used for reporting and data analysis. Current and historical data uploaded from the operational systems in stored in one single place and is used for creating analytical reports.[17].

Key TermsEdit

centralized database
A database that is located, stored, and maintained in a single location.[18]
client / server
A distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service and service requesters.[19]
data cleansing
The process of detecting and correcting or removing corrupt or inaccurate records from a record set, table, or database.[20]
data mining
The computational process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics, and database systems.[21]
data security
protecting data, such as those in a database, from destructive forces and from the unwanted actions of unauthorized users.[22]
data validation
The process of ensuring that a program operates on clean, correct and useful data.[23]
data warehouse
A central repository of integrated data from one or more disparate sources used for reporting and data analysis.[24]
database administrator (DBA)
The role responsible for installation, configuration, design, migration, capacity planning, performance monitoring, security, troubleshooting, as well as backup and recovery of a database or databases.[25]
database management system(DBMS)
software for creating and managing databases[source?]
database model
Determines the logical structure of a database and fundamentally determines in which manner data can be stored, organized, and manipulated.[26]
database storage
The container of the physical materialization of a database. It comprises the internal (physical) level in the database architecture.[27]
database schema
The structure of a database described in a formal language supported by the database management system.[28]
digital obsolescence
A situation where a digital resource is no longer readable because of its archaic format.[29]
distributed database
A database in which portions of the database are stored on multiple computers within a network.[30]
export
The act or process of retrieving data out of data sources for further data processing or data storage (data migration).[31]
field
A column or attribute of a record in a relational database.[32]
geographical information system (GIS)
A system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of spatial or geographical data.[33]
hierarchical database
A data model in which the data is organized into a tree-like structure.[34]
import
The act or process of loading data into a data source.[35]
join (SQL)
combines columns from one or more tables in a relational database.[36]
migration
The process of transferring data between storage types, formats, or computer systems.[37]
multidimensional database
A database which uses aggregated, inter-related arrays to organize data and express the relationships between data and is used for online analytical processing.[38]
network model
A database model conceived as a flexible way of representing objects and their relationships.[39]
object oriented database
A database management system in which information is represented in the form of combinations of variables, functions, and data structures.[40][41]
NoSQL
(Originally referring to "non SQL" or "non relational") database provides a mechanism for storage and retrieval of data that is modeled in means other than the tabular relations used in relational databases. [42]
query
A precise request for information retrieval with database and information systems.[43]
record
A row or collection of attributes in a relational database.[44]
relation (database)
A set of tuples (d1, d2, ..., dn), where each element dj is a member of Dj, a data domain.[45]
structured query language (SQL)
A special-purpose programming language designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS).[46]
table
A collection of related data held in a structured format within a database.[47]
tuple
A finite ordered list (sequence) of elements.[48]
XML (Extensible Markup Language)
A markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding data in a format which is both human-readable and machine-readable.[49]

Review QuestionsEdit

Enable JavaScript to hide answers.
Click on a question to see the answer.
  1. A database is an organized collection of _____.
    A database is an organized collection of data, including schemas, tables, queries, reports, views and other objects.
  2. A database management system (DBMS) is a computer software application that _____.
    A database management system (DBMS) is a computer software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data.
  3. A general-purpose DBMS is designed to allow _____.
    A general-purpose DBMS is designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases.
  4. Because of the close relationship between them, the term "database" is often used casually to refer to _____.
    Because of the close relationship between them, the term "database" is often used casually to refer to both a database and the DBMS used to manipulate it.
  5. A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that ______. The ______ represents _____.
    A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model. The relational model represents data terms of ordered sets of elements (tuples), grouped into relations (tables).
  6. A hierarchical database model is a data model in which the data is organized into _____. The data is stored as ______.
    A hierarchical database model is a data model in which the data is organized into a tree-like structure. The data is stored as records which are connected to one another through links.
  7. A record is a collection of ______. The ______ type of a record defines which fields the record contains.
    A record is a collection of fields, with each field containing only one value. The entity type of a record defines which fields the record contains.
  8. The network model is a _____ model conceived as a ______. Its distinguishing feature is that the _____, viewed as a graph in which object types are nodes and relationship types are arcs, is not restricted to being a _____ or a _______.
    The network model is a database model conceived as a flexible way of representing objects and their relationships. Its distinguishing feature is that the schema, viewed as a graph in which object types are nodes and relationship types are arcs, is not restricted to being a hierarchy or lattice.
  9. Management strategies include _____ and _____ users, enforcing data _____, monitoring _____, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control, and _____ information that has been _____ by some event such as an unexpected system failure.
    Management strategies include registering and monitoring users, enforcing data security, monitoring performance, maintaining data integrity, dealing with concurrency control, and recovering information that has been corrupted by some event such as an unexpected system failure.
  10. A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database managment system (DMS) that is based on the _____. The _____ represents data terms of ordered sets of _____, grouped into _____.
    A relational database management system (RDBMS) is a database management system (DBMS) that is based on the relational model. The relational model represents data terms of ordered sets of elements (tuples), grouped into relations (tables).
  11. Protecting data, such as those in a database, from destructive forces and from the unwanted actions of unauthorized users is _____.
    Protecting data, such as those in a database, from destructive forces and from the unwanted actions of unauthorized users is Data security.
  12. Computing process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems is ____.
    Computing process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems is Data mining.
  13. Process that provides certain well-defined guarantees for fitness, accuracy, and consistency for any of various kinds of user input into an application or automated system is ____.
    Process that provides certain well-defined guarantees for fitness, accuracy, and consistency for any of various kinds of user input into an application or automated system is Data validation.
  14. The process of transferring data between computer storage types or file formats is ____.
    The process of transferring data between computer storage types or file formats is Data migration.

AssessmentsEdit

See AlsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  Type classification: this is a lesson resource.
  Completion status: this resource is considered to be complete.
  1. Wikipedia: Databases
  2. CLEP: Information Systems
  3. Wikipedia: Database
  4. Wikipedia: Database
  5. Wikipedia: Database
  6. Wikipedia: Database
  7. Wikipedia: Data warehouse
  8. Wikipedia: Data mining
  9. Wikipedia: Relational database management system
  10. Wikipedia: Relational model
  11. Wikipedia: Tuple
  12. Wikipedia: Hierarchical database model
  13. "Top 9 Object Databases - Compare Reviews, Features, Pricing in 2019". PAT RESEARCH: B2B Reviews, Buying Guides & Best Practices. 2018-05-10. Retrieved 2019-06-25.
  14. Wikipedia: Network model
  15. "database | Definition, Types, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-06-25.
  16. Wikipedia: Data migration
  17. Wikipedia: Data warehouse
  18. Wikipedia: Centralized database
  19. Wikipedia: Client-server model
  20. Wikipedia: Data Cleansing
  21. Wikipedia: Data mining
  22. Wikipedia: Data security
  23. Wikipedia: Data validation
  24. Wikipedia: Data warehouse
  25. Wikipedia: Database administrator
  26. Wikipedia: Database model
  27. Wikipedia: Database
  28. Wikipedia: Database schema
  29. Wikipedia: Digital obsolescence
  30. Wikipedia: Distributed database
  31. Wikipedia: Data extraction
  32. Wikipedia: Field (computer science)
  33. Wikipedia: Geographic information system
  34. Wikipedia: Hierarchical database model
  35. Wikipedia: Extract, transform, load
  36. Wikipedia: Join (SQL)
  37. Wikipedia: Data migration
  38. Wikipedia: Multidimensional database
  39. Wikipedia: Network Model
  40. Wikipedia: Object database
  41. Wikipedia: Object (computer science)
  42. Wikipedia: NoSQL
  43. Wikipedia: Query
  44. Wikipedia: Record (computer science)
  45. Wikipedia: Relation (database)
  46. Wikipedia: SQL
  47. Wikipedia: Table (database)
  48. Wikipedia: Tuple
  49. Wikipedia: XML