Geochronology/Dye 3/Quiz

Dye 3 geochronology is a lecture from the school of geology.

δ and dust concentration in the Dye 3 ice deposited during some of the great climatic shifts that characterized the coldest part of the glaciation. Credit: Willi Dansgaard.

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1 The two million year Quaternary period is the time of recognizable?

2 Yes or No, Dye 3 is an ice core site and previously part of the Distant Early Warning (DEW) line, located at 65° 11' N 43° 49 W, 2480 masl in Greenland.


3 Geochronology is the science of applying dates in the past to?

4 Yes or No, An ice core is a core sample from the accumulation of snow and ice that has re-crystallized and trapped air bubbles over many years.


5 The Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic are eras of the?


6 Yes or No, The ice in the current Greenland ice sheet is as old as 110,000 years.


7 Complete the text:

Match up the geological time unit with the title:
Holocene - A
Gelasian - B
Paleogene - C
Triassic - D
Devonian - E
Archean - F
Precambrian - G
period of the Mesozoic





period of the Paleozoic



8 Yes or No, The unconfined ice sheet does not reach the sea along a broad front anywhere in Greenland, so that no large ice shelves occur.


9 Orbitally forced cyclicity includes?

Jupiter-Venus conjunctions
chemical and physical proxies from sedimentary rock sequences
palaeoclimatic studies
marine Cenozoic sequences
meteorite impacts from the asteroid belt
spectral analysis of the magnetic susceptibility (MS) record

10 Yes or No, Dye-2 and 3 were among 58 Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar stations built by the United States of America (USA) between 1955 and 1960 across Alaska, Canada, Greenland and Iceland.


11 The GSSP section near El Kef contains?

one main feature that allows for a direct correlation of this marine section with continental sections
the base of the Danian Stage
the base GSSP for the Paleogene
the base GSSP for the Tertiary
the base GSSP for the Paleocene
the Ir anomaly at the base of the Boundary Clay
the base GSSP for the Cenozoic

12 Yes or No, Although available GISP data gathered over the earlier seven years, pointed to north-central Greenland as the optimum site location for the first deep drilling, financial restrictions forced the selection of the logistically convenient Dye-3 location.


13 Which of the following is out of reverse geochronological order?


14 Yes or No, In 1981 at a depth of 1785 m dust and conductivity measurements indicated the beginning of ice from the last glaciation at Dye 3.


15 What phenomena may be associated with K/Pg boundary?

clay in the Geulhemmergroeve tunnels near Geulhem, The Netherlands
the Badlands near Drumheller, Alberta
the cliffs at Stevns
an extensive osmium layer
traces of Fe-Ni alloys
Trinidad Lake State Park, Colorado, USA

16 True or False, In the Greenland ice cores, the Pleistocene–Holocene transition is chronologically constrained between two clearly defined tephra horizons.


17 The Holocene starts at ~11,700 b2k and extends to the?

18 Yes or No, Coring continued and on August 10, 1981, bedrock was reached at a depth of 2038 m at Dye 3.


19 Which geological phenomena are associated with the Subboreal?

period around 850-760 BC
characterized by an increase in solar activity
a sharp increase of Δ 14C
characterized by a decrease in solar activity
preceded by the Subatlantic
solar forcing of climate change

20 Yes or No, The borehole to 2038 m is 41.5 km east of the local ice divide of the south Greenland ice sheet at Dye 3.


21 The ancient history period dates from around 8,000 to 3,000?

22 Yes or No, The Dye 3 cores were part of the GISP and, at 2037 meters, the final Dye 3 1979 core was the deepest of the 20 ice cores recovered from the Greenland ice sheet.


23 Complete the text:

The Pre-boreal period marks the transition from the

climate of the Late-glacial to the

climate of the


24 Yes or No, At 500 m above bedrock, the ice velocity is ~10 ma−1, 61.2° true at Dye 3.


25 The Chalcolithic is often referred to as the Copper?

26 Yes or No, The ice upstream and downstream from Dye 3 is flowing downhill (-) on ~0.48 % mean slope.


27 Which geochemical phenomena are associated with the Younger Dryas?

during the Last Glacial Termination
an abrupt return to interglacial conditions
an abrupt return to glacial-like conditions
summer (1.May to 30.September) temperature dropped 5-6°C during less than two centuries
transition to a warmer, interglacial climate
indicated by changes in Neogloboquadrina pachyderma


  1. Tephra layers may be the best geochronometer.

See also


{{Archaeology resources}}