Evidence-based assessment/Instruments/Positive and Negative Affect Schedule

The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a self-report questionnaire that consists of two 10-item scales to measure both positive and negative affect. Each item is rated on a Likert scale of 1 (not at all) to 5 (very much). The measure has been used mainly as a research tool in group studies, but can be utilized within clinical and non-clinical populations as well.[1] Shortened, elongated, and children's versions of the PANAS have been developed, taking approximately 5–10 minutes to complete.[2] Clinical and non-clinical studies have found the PANAS to be a reliable and valid instrument in the assessment of positive and negative affect.[3]

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Scoring informationEdit

The PANAS is divided into two subscales: positive and negative affect. Each subscale is calculated by adding the individual scores for the ten items of that subscale. Positive and affect subscales are calculated separately, both with possible scores of 10-50, and are not summed for a total affect score. Higher subscale scores indicate higher levels of that affect.[4] The question breakdown is as follows:

Positive affect: items 1, 3, 5, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 17, 19

Negative affect: items 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13, 15, 18, 20

External LinksEdit


  1. Crawford, John R.; Henry, Julie D.. "The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): Construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non-clinical sample". British Journal of Clinical Psychology 43 (3): 245–265. doi:10.1348/0144665031752934. http://doi.crossref.org/10.1348/0144665031752934. 
  2. Kercher, Kyle (1992-06-01). "Assessing Subjective Well-Being in the Old-Old The PANAS as a Measure of Orthogonal Dimensions of Positive and Negative Affect". Research on Aging 14 (2): 131–168. doi:10.1177/0164027592142001. ISSN 0164-0275. http://roa.sagepub.com/content/14/2/131. 
  3. Watson, David; Clark, Lee A.; Tellegen, Auke. "Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales.". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54 (6): 1063–1070. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063. http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063. 
  4. Magyar-Moe, Jeana L. (2009). Therapist's guide to positive psychological interventions (1st ed.). Amsterdam: Academic. ISBN 9780123745170.