Interactive or non-interactiveEdit
|Conversation (interactions between two or more people)||one person (newscaster talks)|
|Agreeing and disagreeing||Expressing opinions|
|Making requests and persuading||Stating preferences|
|Expressing displeasure||Complaining about circumstances|
|Congratulations||Things you are glad about or regret|
|Asking about people||Describing people|
|Asking about objects||Describing objects|
|Giving advice or recommendations, accepting them||Resolutions|
|Coordinating plans, such as meeting at a certain place||Hopes and goals, individual plans|
|Refusing or asking for help||Expressing trust|
|Reactions||Talking about emotions|
|Talking to a medical professional||Describing physical condition|
|Giving instructions||Narratives, describing processes|
|Apology||Guilt and shame|
|Meetings and introductions||Self-introductions|
|Discussing possibilities||Speculating about the future|
|Demanding an explanation||Expressing disbelief|
|Asking where and giving locations||Giving locations|
Accepting, denying, and assigning blame
|Changing the subject and returning to a topic|
politeness and familiarityEdit
|level of politeness||language|
Using "ma'am" or "sir" at the beginning or end of a sentence makes the sentence very formal and polite. Do not use it with friends because it is too polite. It would sound cold.
Strength of languageEdit
In meaning, the difference between "freezing" and "cold" is that "freezing" is colder than "cold," but there is a grammatical difference as well. "Freezing" is a non-gradable word which behaves differently grammatically than a gradable word like "cold." For many adjectives there is a non-gradable word or expression which is stronger. Adjusting the strength of your message requires knowing these stronger words and expressions and knowing how to use them.
Encouraging or discouraging conversationEdit
To continue a conversation, use the method short answer + extra information. If you want to stop the conversation, give only a short answer.
Another usual way is the use of question tags.