Gene transcriptions/Elements/Downstream promoters
The figure on the right is an overview of four core promoter elements: the B recognition element (BRE), TATA box, initiator element (Inr), and downstream promoter element (DPE), showing their respective consensus sequences and their distance from the transcription start site.
"Like all core promoters, the DPE plays an important role in the initiation of gene transcription by RNA polymerase II."
"Transcription by RNA polymerase II is directed by cis-acting [close-acting] DNA sequences that typically consist of a core promoter along with regulatory elements, such as enhancers [trans-acting, or distant-acting, protein factors], that contain binding sites for sequence-specific transcriptional activator and/or repressor proteins."
"There is a strict requirement for spacing between the [Initiator element] Inr and DPE motifs, as an increase or decrease of 3 nucleotides in the distance between the Inr and DPE causes a seven- to eightfold reduction in transcription as well as a significant reduction in the binding of purified TFIID."
"The DPE consensus sequence was originally thought to be RGWCGTG, however more recent studies have suggested it to be the similar but more general sequence RGWYV(T). In nucleic acid notation for DNA, R (puRine) stands for A/G (adenine or guanine, which are both purines); W (Weak) stands for A/T (adenine or thymine, which both form only two hydrogen bonds); Y (pYrimidine) stands for C/T (cytosine or thymine, which are both pyrimidines); and V stands for A/C/G."
"The ... Drosophila Antennapedia P2 (Antp P2) [promoter contains] a 7-nucleotide sequence that conforms to the DPE consensus". GeneID: 40835 Antp Antennapedia [Drosophila melanogaster] is also known as Antp P2. GeneID: 3204 HOXA7 homeobox A7 [ Homo sapiens ] is also known as ANTP and "[t]his gene is highly similar to the antennapedia (Antp) gene of Drosophila." As GeneID: 3204 is " highly similar to the antennapedia (Antp) gene of Drosophila", it may have a DPE like the Drosophila gene core promoter does.
"[T]he TATA-less Drosophila Abdominal-B (Abd-B) promoter [has a] partial DPE sequence". GeneID: 3205 HOXA9 homeobox A9 [ Homo sapiens] is also known as ABD-B and "[t]his gene is highly similar to the abdominal-B (Abd-B) gene of Drosophila." GeneID: 3205 may also be TATA-less and have a DPE.
General transcription factor II DsEdit
"Photo-cross-linking analysis of purified TFIID with a TATA-less DPE-containing promoter revealed specific cross-linking of dTAFII60 [TAF6 GeneID: 6878] and dTAFII40 [TAF11 GeneID: 6882] to the DPE, with a higher efficiency of cross-linking to dTAFII60 than to dTAFII40. These data, combined with the previously well-characterized interactions between the two TAFs and their homology to histones H4 and H3, suggest that a dTAFII60–dTAFII40 heterotetramer binds to the DPE."
- The DPE is not used to transcribe A1BG.
- Jennifer E.F. Butler, James T. Kadonaga (2002). "The RNA polymerase II core promoter: a key component in the regulation of gene expression". Genes & Development. 16 (20): 2583–92. doi:10.1101/gad.1026202. PMID 12381658. Unknown parameter
- Tamar Juven-Gershon, James T. Kadonaga (2010). "Regulation of Gene Expression via the Core Promoter and the Basal Transcriptional Machinery". Developmental Biology. 339 (2): 225–9. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2009.08.009. PMC 2830304. PMID 19682982. Unknown parameter
- "Downstream promoter element". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. May 6, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-20.
- Thomas W. Burke and James T. Kadonaga (1997). "The downstream core promoter element, DPE, is conserved from Drosophila to humans and is recognized by TAFII60 of Drosophila". Genes & Development. 11 (22): 3020–31. doi:10.1101/gad.11.22.3020. PMC 316699. PMID 9367984. Unknown parameter
- Stephen T. Smale and James T. Kadonaga (2003). "The RNA Polymerase II Core Promoter" (PDF). Annual Review of Biochemistry. 72 (1): 449–79. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.72.121801.161520. PMID 12651739. Retrieved 2012-05-07. Unknown parameter
- T.W. Burke and James T. Kadonaga (1996). "Drosophila TFIID binds to a conserved downstream basal promoter element that is present in many TATA-box-deficient promoters" (PDF). Genes & Development. 10 (6): 711–724. doi:10.1101/gad.10.6.711. PMID 8598298. Unknown parameter
- Kutach, Alan K.; Kadonaga, James T. (2000). "The Downstream Promoter Element DPE Appears To Be as Widely Used as the TATA Box in Drosophila Core Promoters". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 20 (13): 4754–4764. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.13.4754-4764.2000. PMC 85905. PMID 10848601. Unknown parameter
- "Downstream promoter element, In: Wikipedia". San Francisco, California: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. November 8, 2012. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
- James T. Kadonaga (2002). "The DPE, a core promoter element for transcription by RNA polymerase II" (PDF). Experimental & Molecular Medicine. 34 (4): 259–264. PMID 12515390. Unknown parameter
- FlyBase (February 3, 2013). "Antp Antennapedia [ Drosophila melanogaster ]". 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda MD, 20894 USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2013-02-07.CS1 maint: location (link)
- HGNC (February 5, 2013). "HOXA7 homeobox A7 [ Homo sapiens ]". 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda MD, 20894 USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2013-02-07.CS1 maint: location (link)
- HGNC (February 5, 2013). "HOXA9 homeobox A9 [ Homo sapiens ]". 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda MD, 20894 USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2013-02-07.CS1 maint: location (link)
- African Journals Online
- Bing Advanced search
- GenomeNet KEGG database
- Google Books
- Google scholar Advanced Scholar Search
- Home - Gene - NCBI
- Lycos search
- NCBI All Databases Search
- Office of Scientific & Technical Information
- PubChem Public Chemical Database
- Questia - The Online Library of Books and Journals
- SAGE journals online
- Scirus for scientific information only advanced search
- Taylor & Francis Online
- WikiDoc The Living Textbook of Medicine
- Wiley Online Library Advanced Search
- Yahoo Advanced Web Search