Digital Media Concepts/Ceramic 3D Printers

Overview edit

3D Printers using clay is a form of additive manufacturing. These machines combine the principles of a regular 3D printer but instead of using plastics they use clay instead. Prior to the use of 3D printers in the creation of ceramic technologies it would be extremely difficult and tedious to get an accurate design or shape that's needed, due to the brittle and hard nature of ceramics. With ceramic 3d printers however it's much easier to get complex and precise shapes.[1]

Types of Additive Manufacturing Processes edit

Material Extrusion edit

Paste Extrusion is a form of material extrusion. Paste extrusion is when the ceramic material, sometimes clay, is pushed through an extruding head and is laid on the print bed in layers.[2] This is much like fused filament fabrication used in traditional 3d Printers.

Binder Jetting edit

Binder Jetting involves the distribution of binding droplets onto ceramic powder which in turn connects the powder together. This continues layer by layer until the product is complete, the powder is cleaned off and the piece is sintered.[2]

Vat Photo Synthesization edit

Vat Photo Synthesization uses Stereolithography and Digital Light Processing, these are common in resin 3D printers and work similarly for ceramics. The ceramic powder is mixed into UV curable resin, after printing the resin is debinded and sintered with the ceramic.[2]

Application edit

Since 3D printers are much more accurate than human hands, 3D printers that use ceramic material can get much more precise and intricate designs. This allows them to be much more versatile in industry settings or where their specifications require stricter parameters.

Aerospace edit

Technical ceramics excel in certain areas which are important to machines used in automotive and aerospace industries. Ceramics are able to withstand extremely high temperatures which make it more desirable than alternatives like metals or polymers.[3] Ceramics is also extremely tough and wear resistant allowing it to keep its shape and design much longer than other materials, even being resistant to chemicals and corrosion.[3] There are some downsides though such as its poor tensile strength and its brittle nature, technical ceramics is hard to design[3], but this is where 3D printers can change the industry with their ability to create complex and precise designs and avoid excessive machining. Machining can be time consuming and tedious due to the hardness of ceramics and it can be dangerous as well since ceramics are brittle especially when thin, damage to the tool is also expected.[4] 3D printed ceramics will also reduce the need for EDM machines to cut pieces or alter them after their first or second firing.

Biomedical edit

Another use of ceramics is in the biomedical field, with advancements in the dental and orthopedic fields. With ceramic 3D printers it's possible to get accurate shapes and sizes to what is needed. Porosity is adjustable as well with this method and is less messy as well.[5] One company has developed a technology for creating implants for the skull or jaw called BioCranium, combining this with 3D printing allows them to make implants in a much shorter time frame.[5] Using 3D printed ceramic parts allows surgeons to add bone-like substances instead of using bone grafting, such as Biphasic calcium phosphate which can also induce bone growth into tissues.[6] The accuracy of a 3D printer is still prevalent in creating implants and is much more efficient than using molds or other processes. Although using 3D printed ceramics in dentistry isn’t well known or used much it can be helpful in creating precise replacements and being customizable for missing or damaged teeth.[7] Due to the properties of ceramics, such as its low solubility and resistance to wear, they make a useful material for teeth but its brittle nature still poses a challenge.[7]

Future edit

Ceramic 3D printing is growing as an industry and is becoming more available to the public along with advancements in different types of models and new technologies. There are also more machines being made for the public and personal use. Compared to the early stages of ceramic 3D printers the technology has since grown and expanded the possibilities of what is possible in this field.[2] The market for these printers is growing and companies will continue to innovate technologies and expand the market.[2]

References edit

  1. Chen, Zhangwei; Li, Ziyong; Li, Junjie; Liu, Chengbo; Lao, Changshi; Fu, Yuelong; Liu, Changyong; Li, Yang et al. (2019-04-01). "3D printing of ceramics: A review". Journal of the European Ceramic Society 39 (4): 661–687. doi:10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2018.11.013. ISSN 0955-2219. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 "10 Years of Ceramic 3D Printing: Where Is It Going Next?". IDTechEx. 2021-10-12. Retrieved 2022-03-08.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Technical Ceramics". Precision Ceramics USA. Retrieved 2022-03-08.
  4. Bharathi, V.; Anilchandra, A. R.; Sangam, Shantanu Sanjay; Shreyas, S.; Shankar, Siddesh B. (2021-01-01). "A review on the challenges in machining of ceramics". Materials Today: Proceedings. 28th International Conference on Processing and Fabrication of Advanced Materials (PFAM28) 46: 1451–1458. doi:10.1016/j.matpr.2021.03.019. ISSN 2214-7853. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "medical 3d printer for ceramic parts l 3dceram". Retrieved 2022-03-08.
  6. Kim, Ju-Won; Yang, Byoung-Eun; Hong, Seok-Jin; Choi, Hyo-Geun; Byeon, Sun-Ju; Lim, Ho-Kyung; Chung, Sung-Min; Lee, Jong-Ho et al. (2020-01). "Bone Regeneration Capability of 3D Printed Ceramic Scaffolds". International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21 (14): 4837. doi:10.3390/ijms21144837. ISSN 1422-0067. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Galante, Raquel; Figueiredo-Pina, Celio G.; Serro, Ana Paula (2019-06-01). "Additive manufacturing of ceramics for dental applications: A review". Dental Materials 35 (6): 825–846. doi:10.1016/ ISSN 0109-5641.