Digital Media Concepts/5G Technologies

5g is the next-generation technology of mobile communication. This generation will set to higher data speeds, higher bandwidth and lower response time. This will facilitate the network to manage about a thousand times more traffic than the current 4g network. Data transfer speed is foreseen to be over 10 times faster than 4G LTE. Technologies like virtual reality and autonomous driving as wells as industries like the Internet of things will use 5g as a foundation to develop. There isn't a singular technology that will be used for 5g but rather a combination of five. The current technologies being considered are Massive MIMO, Full-Duplex, Millimeter Waves, Small Cells, and Beam-forming.

Millimeter WavesEdit

The Radio Spectrum

Most consumer electronic devices have a specific radio frequency spectrum that they use for mobile communication, which is under 6 GHz. With higher traffic, these lower frequencies are getting congested. Every frequency has a limit to the bytes of data being transmitted on it and connections lead to a lower speed and unstable connections. Millimeter waves which are a higher frequency around 28 GHz and 38 GHz combat this by opening up more frequencies that can physically transmit more data. However, due to the high frequencies millimeter-wave cant travel well through obstacles which are known as path loss[1]. Therefore millimeter wave technology is only viable when supported with other 5g technology as path lost will effect range negatively. For residential and commercial buildings repeaters, data showers, and access points would have to be adapted in line of sight for minimal path loss[2].

Small CellEdit

Small Cell on top of a building

The small cell technology is a network of low power smaller cell towers that are scattered in a city landscape with relative proximity with one another. As millimeter-wave have low range and ineffective with obstacles small cell allows for multiple options for devices when a connecting to a cell. Range varies between 10 meters and two kilometers[3]. Each small cell acts as a relay to transmit signals around obstacles and in high density. These relative low-cost and modular small cells create a more manageable and scalable deployment.[4]

Massive MIMOEdit

Massive MIMO

MIMO in massive MIMO stands for multiple-input multiple-output[5]. When it comes to 4G base stations, about a dozen antennas that handle cellular traffic. Massive MIMO involves multiple antennas a factor of around 20. This numerous addition antenna allows for a higher capacity to combat the increase in the number of devices connected to a cell tower.[6]


Broadcasting Singles allows for more precise broadcasting of beams toward the specific user. There are two types of Beam-forming “Explicit Beamforming” and “Implicit Beamforming.”[7] Explicit Beamforming is where the transmitter and receiver exchange information. Whereas Implicit Beamforming only requires either the transmitter or the receiver to be compliant. By focusing the stream of data towards a specific user prevents interference and improves efficiency. Efficient stations translate to an increase in incoming and outgoing data streams capacity.


A basic antenna can either transmit or receive on a frequency at a time[8]. According to the principle of reciprocity, a wave can travel both forward and backward but this introduces possible interference two singles attempt to transmit at the same time. Full-duplex uses each frequency more efficiently by using silicon transistors to create a switch that handles singles on a single frequency. All of these technologies are still in development. To make 5g possible technologies like millimeter waves small cell networks massive MIMO beamforming and full-duplex would have to be used in a combina tion.

External LinksEdit


  1. Rappaport, T. S.; Sun, S.; Mayzus, R.; Zhao, H.; Azar, Y.; Wang, K.; Wong, G. N.; Schulz, J. K. et al. (2013). "Millimeter Wave Mobile Communications for 5G Cellular: It Will Work!". IEEE Access 1: 335–349. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2013.2260813. 
  2. "dynamic resource allocation". SpringerReference (Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag). 
  3. "Small cells: Backhaul difficulties and a 5G future". RCR Wireless News. 2016-07-11. Retrieved 2019-09-28.
  4. "Small Cell Technology | Small Cell Networks". Qualcomm. 2016-08-04. Retrieved 2019-09-28.
  5. "What Is WiFi Beamforming & How It Can Improve Your WiFi Signal?". Retrieved 2019-09-29.
  6. Hamad Ameen, Jalal Jamal (2017). "5G Next Generation Mobile Wireless Technology with Massive MIMO Continue 4G Revolution, Key Technologies and Challenges". IEC2017 Proceedings Book (Ishik University). doi:10.23918/iec2017.05. 
  7. "What Is WiFi Beamforming & How It Can Improve Your WiFi Signal?". Retrieved 2019-09-29.
  8. "What is full-duplex? - Definition from". SearchNetworking. Retrieved 2019-09-29.