Fundamental Mathematics/Arithmetic

NumbersEdit

Natural number A non-negative integer. Also referred to as counting numbers.  ,
Even number A number which can be divided by 2 without remainder.  
Odd number A number which cannot be divided by 2 without remainder.  
Prime number A number which can be divided by 1 and itself without remainder.  
Integer A signed whole number.  
Fraction  
Complex Number A number made up of real and imaginary numbers.  
Imaginary Number    

OperationsEdit

Mathematical Operations on arithmetic numbers

Mathematical Operation Symbol Example
Addition    
Subtraction    
Multiplication    
Division    
Exponentiation    
Root    
Logarithm    
Natural Logarithm    

ExpressionsEdit

An expression is a mathematical construct which evaluates to something.  ,  , and   are all expressions.

Further readingEdit

Order of operationsEdit

Order of performing mathematical operation on expressions are as follows

  1. Evaluate expressions within parenthesis {}, [] , ()
  2. Exponentiation.
  3. Multiply and divide, from left to right.
  4. Add and subtract, from left to right.

Example

 
  1.   (parenthesis)
  2.   (exponentiation)
  3.   (addition)
 
  1.   (exponentiation)
  2.   (addition)

Further readingEdit

Coordinate systemEdit

Cartesian coordinatesEdit

 

Polar coordinatesEdit

 


Real number coordinationEdit

A point in XY co ordinate can be presented as ( ) and ( ) in R θ co ordinate

A , ( ) , ( )
Scalar maths Vector Maths
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Complex number coordinationEdit


 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 


 
 
 


 
 
 


FunctionsEdit

DefinitionEdit

Functions are an arithmetical expression which relates 2 variables. Functions are usually denoted as

 

meaning for any value of   there is a corresponding value   where

  - independent variable.
  - dependent variable.
  - function of  .

Graphs of functionsEdit

 

x -2 -1 0 1 2
f(x) -2 -1 0 1 2
Straight line passing through origin point (0,0) with slope equals 1

 

x -2 -1 0 1 2
f(x) -4 -2 0 2 4
Straight line passing through origin point (0,0) with slope equals 2

 

x -2 -1 0 1 2
f(x) -1 1 3 5 7
Straight line with slope equals 2 has x intercept (-3/2,0) and y intercept (0,3)

Types of functionsEdit

Operations on functionEdit

Further readingEdit

EquationsEdit

An equation is an expression of a function of a variable that has a value equal to zero

 

Equations can be solved to find the value of a variable that satisfies the equation. The process of finding this value is called root finding. All values of a variable that make its function equal to zero are called roots of the equation.

ExamplesEdit

Equation .  
Root .  
  is the root of the equation   since substitution the value of x in the equation we have  

Types of equationsEdit

Further readingEdit

Further readingEdit


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