Fundamental Mathematics/Arithmetic


Natural number A non-negative integer. Also referred to as counting numbers.  ,
Even number A number which can be divided by 2 without remainder.  
Odd number A number which cannot be divided by 2 without remainder.  
Prime number A number above 1 which can only be divided by 1 and itself without remainder.  
Integer A signed whole number.  
Fraction A quantity that is not a natural number or a decimal  
Complex Number A number made up of real and imaginary numbers.  
Imaginary Number    


Mathematical Operations on arithmetic numbers

Mathematical Operation Symbol Example
Natural Logarithm    


An expression is a mathematical construct which evaluates to something.  ,  , and   are all expressions.

Further readingEdit

Order of operationsEdit

Order of performing mathematical operation on expressions are as follows

  1. Evaluate expressions within parenthesis {}, [] , ()
  2. Exponentiation.
  3. Multiply and divide, from left to right.
  4. Add and subtract, from left to right.


  1.   (parenthesis)
  2.   (exponentiation)
  3.   (addition)
  1.   (exponentiation)
  2.   (addition)

Further readingEdit

Coordinate systemEdit

Cartesian coordinatesEdit


Polar coordinatesEdit


Real number coordinationEdit

A point in XY co ordinate can be presented as ( ) and ( ) in R θ co ordinate

A , ( ) , ( )
Scalar maths Vector Maths

Complex number coordinationEdit







Functions are an arithmetical expression which relates 2 variables. Functions are usually denoted as


meaning for any value of   there is a corresponding value   where

  - independent variable.
  - dependent variable.
  - function of  .

Graphs of functionsEdit


x -2 -1 0 1 2
f(x) -2 -1 0 1 2
Straight line passing through origin point (0,0) with slope equals 1


x -2 -1 0 1 2
f(x) -4 -2 0 2 4
Straight line passing through origin point (0,0) with slope equals 2


x -2 -1 0 1 2
f(x) -1 1 3 5 7
Straight line with slope equals 2 has x intercept (-3/2,0) and y intercept (0,3)

Types of functionsEdit

Operations on functionEdit

Further readingEdit


An equation is an expression of a function of a variable that has a value equal to zero


Equations can be solved to find the value of a variable that satisfies the equation. The process of finding this value is called root finding. All values of a variable that make its function equal to zero are called roots of the equation.


Equation .  
Root .  
  is the root of the equation   since substitution the value of x in the equation we have  

Types of equationsEdit

Further readingEdit

Further readingEdit

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