Windows Server Administration/Reliability

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This lesson covers server reliability through maintenance and business continuity practices. Activities include using Windows Server Backup, Active Directory Restore Mode, and Windows Server Update Services.

Objectives and SkillsEdit

Objectives and skills for the Understanding Server Maintenance portion of Windows Server Administration Fundamentals certification include:[1]

  • Understand business continuity: backup and restore; disaster recovery; clustering; AD restore; folder redirection; data redundancy; uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
  • Understand updates: software; driver; operating systems; applications; Windows Update; Windows Server Update Service (WSUS)

ReadingsEdit

  1. Wikipedia: Backup
  2. Wikipedia: Backup rotation scheme
  3. Wikipedia: Shadow Copy
  4. Wikipedia: Disaster recovery
  5. Wikipedia: High-availability cluster
  6. Wikipedia: Directory Services Restore Mode
  7. Wikipedia: Windows Server Update Services

MultimediaEdit

  1. YouTube: Windows Server 2016 - Full Backups, Active Directory System State Backups And Restore
  2. YouTube: Shadow Copies
  3. Youtube: Server 2016 And 2012 R2 - Volume Shadow Copies Setup
  4. YouTube: Windows Server Update Services (WSUS)

ActivitiesEdit

  1. Review Install and Configure Windows Server Backup 2016. Use Windows Server Backup to create a backup. Delete one or more user files and then restore the files.
  2. Review Volume Shadow Copy Service Overview. Configure shadow copies and access previous versions of files.
  3. Review Directory Services Restore Mode What is DSRM?. Create one or more user accounts in Active Directory. Perform a System State backup. Delete the user accounts. Restart the server in Directory Services Restore Mode and restore Active Directory to restore the deleted user accounts.
  4. Review Deploy Windows Server Update Services in Your Organization. Add the Windows Server Update Service role. Configure the server to download updates for Windows clients. Use Group Policy to configure clients to retrieve updates from WSUS.

Lesson SummaryEdit

  • Backing up refers to the copying and archiving of computer data so it may be used to restore the original after a data loss event.[2]
  • Backups are used to either recover data after loss or recover data from an earlier time.[3]
  • To protect against a disaster or other site-specific problem, an off-site backup should be maintained.[4]
  • Though backups represent a part of a disaster recovery plan, by themselves, backups should not alone be considered disaster recovery.[5]
  • A full backup contains a complete system image from a specific point in time. Restoring from a full backup requires access to the full backup.[6]
  • An incremental backup contains changes between points in time. An incremental backup strategy starts with a full backup. Restoring from an incremental backup requires access to the full backup and each incremental backup taken since the full backup.[7]
  • A differential backup contains changes made since the last full backup. A differential backup strategy starts with a full backup. Restoring from a differential backup requires access to the full backup and the last differential backup taken since the full backup.[8]
  • A backup rotation scheme is used to maintain multiple backup copies while minimizing the amount of removable storage media required. Backup rotation schemes include First In-First Out and Grandfather-Father-Son.[9]
  • A shadow copy, implemented through the Volume Snapshot Service (VSS), allows taking manual or automatic backup copies or snapshots of data on a specific volume at a specific point in time even with a usage lock on the data file. It is used both for Windows Server Backup and for providing previous versions of files in the Windows Explorer.[10]
  • The Volume Snapshot Service is managed using the vssadmin command to create, list or delete volume shadow copies and list installed shadow copy writers and providers.[11]
  • Disaster recovery is the process, policies and procedures that are related to preparing for recovery or continuation of technology infrastructure which are vital to an organization after a natural or human-induced disaster.[12]
  • A good disaster recover plan includes preventive measures, detective measures, and corrective measures that are documented and tested regularly.[13]
  • Preventive measures include data redundancy, surge protection, use of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) and perhaps backup generator, fire prevention and surpression systems, and anti-virus software and other security measures.[14]
  • While most businesses would prefer zero data loss and zero time loss, the cost associated with that level of protection may make the desired high availability solutions impractical. A cost-benefit analysis often dictates which disaster recovery measures are implemented.[15]
  • High-availability clusters are groups of computers that support server applications with a minimum of down-time by detecting hardware/software faults, and immediately restarting the application on another system without requiring administrative intervention through a process known as failover.[16]
  • Cluster notes may be configured as Active-Active or Active-Passive. Active nodes provide load balancing. Passive nodes provide redundancy only.[17]
  • Directory Services Restore Mode is used to restart a domain controller and restore Active Directory from a domain controller System State backup.[18]
  • Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) is a server service developed by Microsoft that enables administrators to manage the distribution of updates and hotfixes released for Microsoft products to computers in a corporate environment. WSUS downloads these updates from the Microsoft Update website and then distributes them to computers on a network.[19]

Key TermsEdit

business continuity
The activities performed by an organization to ensure that critical business functions will be available, and performed daily to maintain service, consistency, and recoverability.[20]
computer cluster
A set of connected computers that work together so that in many respects they can be viewed as a single system, deployed to improve performance and availability over that of a single computer.[21]
data corruption
Errors in computer data that occur during writing, reading, storage, transmission, or processing, which introduce unintended changes to the original data.[22]
data retention
The policies of persistent data and records management for meeting legal and business data archival requirements.[23]
disaster recovery plan
A documented process or set of procedures to recover and protect a business IT infrastructure in the event of a disaster.[24]
file locking
A mechanism that restricts access to a computer file by allowing only one user or process access at any specific time.[25]
high availability
A system design approach and associated service implementation that ensures a prearranged level of operational performance will be met during a contractual measurement period.[26]
hot site
A duplicate of the original site of the organization, with full computer systems as well as near-complete and near-current backups of user data.[27]
hot patch
A patch that can be applied without shutting down and restarting the system or program concerned to reduce unavailability of service.[28]
link aggregation
The combining of multiple network connections in parallel to increase throughput beyond what a single connection could sustain, and to provide redundancy in case one of the links fails.[29]
load balancing
A method for distributing workloads across multiple computers or a computer cluster, network links, central processing units, disk drives, or other resources.[30]
NIC teaming
Another name for link aggregation.[31]
patch
A patch is a piece of software designed to fix problems with, or update a computer program or its supporting data.[32]

Review QuestionsEdit

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  1. Backing up refers to _____ so it may be _____.
    Backing up refers to the copying and archiving of computer data so it may be used to restore the original after a data loss event.
  2. Backups are used to either _____ or _____.
    Backups are used to either recover data after loss or recover data from an earlier time.
  3. To protect against a disaster or other site-specific problem, _____.
    To protect against a disaster or other site-specific problem, an off-site backup should be maintained.
  4. Though backups represent a part of a disaster recovery plan, by themselves, backups _____.
    Though backups represent a part of a disaster recovery plan, by themselves, backups should not alone be considered disaster recovery.
  5. A full backup contains _____. Restoring from a full backup requires _____.
    A full backup contains a complete system image from a specific point in time. Restoring from a full backup requires access to the full backup.
  6. An incremental backup contains _____. An incremental backup strategy starts with _____. Restoring from an incremental backup requires _____.
    An incremental backup contains changes between points in time. An incremental backup strategy starts with a full backup. Restoring from an incremental backup requires access to the full backup and each incremental backup taken since the full backup.
  7. A differential backup contains _____. A differential backup strategy starts with _____. Restoring from a differential backup requires _____.
    A differential backup contains changes made since the last full backup. A differential backup strategy starts with a full backup. Restoring from a differential backup requires access to the full backup and the last differential backup taken since the full backup.
  8. A backup rotation scheme is used to _____ while _____. Backup rotation schemes include _____ and _____.
    A backup rotation scheme is used to maintain multiple backup copies while minimizing the amount of removable storage media required. Backup rotation schemes include First In-First Out and Grandfather-Father-Son.
  9. A shadow copy, implemented through _____, allows _____ on a specific volume at a specific point in time even with _____. It is used both for _____ and for providing _____.
    A shadow copy, implemented through the Volume Snapshot Service (VSS), allows taking manual or automatic backup copies or snapshots of data on a specific volume at a specific point in time even with a usage lock on the data file. It is used both for Windows Server Backup and for providing previous versions of files in the Windows Explorer.
  10. The Volume Snapshot Service is managed using the _____ command to _____, _____ or _____ volume shadow copies and list _____.
    The Volume Snapshot Service is managed using the vssadmin command to create, list or delete volume shadow copies and list installed shadow copy writers and providers.
  11. Disaster recovery is the _____ that are related to preparing for recovery or continuation of technology infrastructure which are vital to an organization after a natural or human-induced disaster.
    Disaster recovery is the process, policies and procedures that are related to preparing for recovery or continuation of technology infrastructure which are vital to an organization after a natural or human-induced disaster.
  12. A good disaster recover plan includes _____ measures, _____ measures, and _____ measures that are documented and tested regularly.
    A good disaster recover plan includes preventive measures, detective measures, and corrective measures that are documented and tested regularly.
  13. Preventive measures include _____, _____, use of _____, _____, and _____.
    Preventive measures include data redundancy, surge protection, use of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) and perhaps backup generator, fire prevention and surpression systems, and anti-virus software and other security measures.
  14. While most businesses would prefer zero data loss and zero time loss, the _____ associated with that level of protection may make the desired high availability solutions impractical. A _____ often dictates which disaster recovery measures are implemented.
    While most businesses would prefer zero data loss and zero time loss, the cost associated with that level of protection may make the desired high availability solutions impractical. A cost-benefit analysis often dictates which disaster recovery measures are implemented.
  15. High-availability clusters are _____ that _____ with _____ by _____ without requiring _____ through a process known as _____.
    High-availability clusters are groups of computers that support server applications with a minimum of down-time by detecting hardware/software faults, and immediately restarting the application on another system without requiring administrative intervention through a process known as failover.
  16. Cluster notes may be configured as _____ or _____. Active nodes provide _____. Passive nodes provide _____.
    Cluster notes may be configured as Active-Active or Active-Passive. Active nodes provide load balancing. Passive nodes provide redundancy only.
  17. Directory Services Restore Mode is used to _____.
    Directory Services Restore Mode is used to restart a domain controller and restore Active Directory from a domain controller System State backup.
  18. Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) is _____. WSUS downloads these updates from _____ and then _____.
    Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) is a server service developed by Microsoft that enables administrators to manage the distribution of updates and hotfixes released for Microsoft products to computers in a corporate environment. WSUS downloads these updates from the Microsoft Update website and then distributes them to computers on a network.

FlashcardsEdit

See AlsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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