WikiJournal of Science/Lead: properties, history, and applications/XML

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    <full_title>WikiJournal of Science/Lead: properties, history, and applications</full_title>
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     <year>2019</year>  
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     <title>Lead: properties, history, and applications</title>
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    <contributors>
    <person_name sequence='first' contributor_role='author'>
     <surname>Boldyrev</surname><given_name>Mikhail</given_name>
    </person_name><person_name sequence='additional' contributor_role='contributors'>
     <surname>et al.</surname><affiliation>Wikipedia editors of Lead</affiliation><link>https://xtools.wmflabs.org/articleinfo/en.wikipedia.org/Lead//2018-07-03</link>
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    <publication_date media_type='online'>     
     <year>2019</year>
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     <doi>10.15347/wjs/2018.007</doi>     
     <resource>https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/WikiJournal of Science/Lead: properties, history, and applications</resource>
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This is an open access article distributed under the&nbsp;[http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike License], which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction, provided the original author and source are credited.</license-p>
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Lead is a chemical element with the atomic number 82 and the symbol Pb (from the Latin ''plumbum''). It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, and has a relatively low melting point. When freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. Lead has the highest atomic number of any stable element and concludes three major decay chains of heavier elements.Lead is a relatively unreactive post-transition metal. Its weak metallic character is illustrated by its amphoteric nature; lead and its oxides react with acids and bases, and it tends to form covalent bonds. Compounds of lead are usually found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group. Exceptions are mostly limited to organolead compounds. Like the lighter members of the group, lead tends to bond with itself; it can form chains, rings and polyhedral structures.Lead is easily extracted from its ores; prehistoric people in Western Asia knew of it. Galena, a principal ore of lead, often bears silver, interest in which helped initiate widespread extraction and use of lead in ancient Rome. Lead production declined after the fall of Rome and did not reach comparable levels until the Industrial Revolution. In 2014, annual global production of lead was about ten million tonnes, over half of which was from recycling. Lead's high density, low melting point, ductility, and relative inertness to oxidation make it useful. These properties, combined with its relative abundance and low cost, resulted in its extensive use in construction, plumbing, batteries, bullets and shot, weights, solders, pewters, fusible alloys, white paints, leaded gasoline, and radiation shielding.In the late 19th century, lead's toxicity was recognized, and its use has since been phased out of many applications. Lead is a toxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones, it acts as a neurotoxin damaging the nervous system and interferences with the function of biological enzymes. It is particularly problematic in children: even if blood levels are promptly normalized with treatment, neurological disorders, such as brain damage and behavioral problems, may result.
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