Western Culture

School of Athens cropped
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OverviewEdit

LiteratureEdit

  1. HomerIliad; Odyssey
  2. The Old Testament
  3. Aeschylus – Tragedies
  4. Sophocles – Tragedies
  5. HerodotusHistories
  6. Euripides – Tragedies
  7. ThucydidesHistory of the Peloponnesian War
  8. Hippocrates – Medical Writings
  9. Aristophanes – Comedies
  10. Plato – Dialogues
  11. Aristotle – Works
  12. Epicurus – "Letter to Herodotus"; "Letter to Menoecus"
  13. EuclidElements
  14. Archimedes – Works
  15. ApolloniusConics
  16. Cicero – Works (esp. Orations; On Friendship; On Old Age; Republic; Laws; Tusculan Disputations; Offices)
  17. LucretiusOn the Nature of Things
  18. Virgil – Works (esp. Aeneid)
  19. Horace – Works (esp. Odes and Epodes; The Art of Poetry)
  20. LivyHistory of Rome
  21. Ovid – Works (esp. Metamorphoses)
  22. QuintilianInstitutes of Oratory
  23. PlutarchParallel Lives; Moralia
  24. TacitusHistories; Annals; Agricola; Germania; Dialogus de oratoribus (Dialogue on Oratory)
  25. Nicomachus of GerasaIntroduction to Arithmetic
  26. Epictetus – Discourses; Enchiridion
  27. PtolemyAlmagest
  28. Lucian – Works (esp. The Way to Write History; The True History; The Sale of Creeds; Alexander the Oracle Monger; Charon; The Sale of Lives; The Fisherman; Dialogue of the Gods; Dialogues of the Sea-Gods; Dialogues of the Dead)
  29. Marcus AureliusMeditations
  30. GalenOn the Natural Faculties
  31. The New Testament
  32. PlotinusThe Enneads
  33. St. Augustine – "On the Teacher"; Confessions; City of God; On Christian Doctrine
  34. The Volsungs Saga or Nibelungenlied
  35. The Song of Roland
  36. The Saga of Burnt Njál
  37. MaimonidesThe Guide for the Perplexed
  38. St. Thomas AquinasOf Being and Essence; Summa Contra Gentiles; Of the Governance of Rulers; Summa Theologica
  39. Dante AlighieriThe New Life (La Vita Nuova); "On Monarchy"; Divine Comedy
  40. Giovanni Boccaccio - The Decameron
  41. Geoffrey ChaucerTroilus and Criseyde; The Canterbury Tales
  42. Thomas à KempisThe Imitation of Christ
  43. Leonardo da VinciNotebooks
  44. Niccolò MachiavelliThe Prince; Discourses on the First Ten Books of Livy
  45. Desiderius ErasmusThe Praise of Folly; Colloquies
  46. Nicolaus CopernicusOn the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
  47. Thomas MoreUtopia
  48. Martin LutherTable Talk; Three Treatises
  49. François RabelaisGargantua and Pantagruel
  50. John CalvinInstitutes of the Christian Religion
  51. Michel de MontaigneEssays
  52. William GilbertOn the Lodestone and Magnetic Bodies
  53. Miguel de CervantesDon Quixote
  54. Edmund SpenserProthalamion; The Faerie Queene
  55. Francis BaconEssays; The Advancement of Learning; Novum Organum; New Atlantis
  56. William Shakespeare – Poetry and Plays
  57. Galileo GalileiStarry Messenger; Two New Sciences
  58. Johannes KeplerThe Epitome of Copernican Astronomy; Harmonices Mundi
  59. William HarveyOn the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals; On the Circulation of the Blood; Generation of Animals
  60. GrotiusThe Law of War and Peace
  61. Thomas HobbesLeviathan; Elements of Philosophy
  62. René DescartesRules for the Direction of the Mind; Discourse on the Method; Geometry; Meditations on First Philosophy; Principles of Philosophy; The Passions of the Soul
  63. Corneille – Tragedies (esp. The Cid, Cinna)
  64. John Milton – Works (esp. the minor poems; Areopagitica; Paradise Lost; Samson Agonistes)
  65. Molière – Comedies (esp. The Miser; The School for Wives; The Misanthrope; The Doctor in Spite of Himself; Tartuffe; The Tradesman Turned Gentleman; The Imaginary Invalid; The Affected Ladies)
  66. Blaise PascalThe Provincial Letters; Pensées; Scientific Treatises
  67. John Bunyan - The Pilgrim's Progress
  68. BoyleThe Sceptical Chymist
  69. Christiaan HuygensTreatise on Light
  70. Benedict de SpinozaPolitical Treatises; Ethics
  71. John LockeA Letter Concerning Toleration; Of Civil Government; An Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Some Thoughts Concerning Education
  72. Jean Baptiste Racine – Tragedies (esp. Andromache; Phaedra; Athalie (Athaliah))
  73. Isaac NewtonMathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy; Opticks
  74. Gottfried Wilhelm LeibnizDiscourse on Metaphysics; New Essays on Human Understanding; Monadology
  75. Daniel DefoeRobinson Crusoe; Moll Flanders
  76. Jonathan SwiftThe Battle of the Books; A Tale of a Tub; A Journal to Stella; Gulliver's Travels; A Modest Proposal
  77. William CongreveThe Way of the World
  78. George BerkeleyA New Theory of Vision; A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
  79. Alexander PopeAn Essay on Criticism; The Rape of the Lock; An Essay on Man
  80. Charles de Secondat, baron de MontesquieuPersian Letters; The Spirit of the Laws
  81. VoltaireLetters on the English; Candide; Philosophical Dictionary
  82. Henry FieldingJoseph Andrews; Tom Jones
  83. Samuel JohnsonThe Vanity of Human Wishes; Dictionary; Rasselas; Lives of the Poets
  84. David HumeA Treatise of Human Nature; Essays Moral and Political; An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding; History of England
  85. Jean-Jacques RousseauDiscourse on Inequality; On Political Economy; Emile: or, On Education; The Social Contract; Confessions
  86. Laurence SterneTristram Shandy; A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy
  87. Adam SmithThe Theory of Moral Sentiments; The Wealth of Nations
  88. William BlackstoneCommentaries on the Laws of England
  89. Immanuel KantCritique of Pure Reason; Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals; Critique of Practical Reason; Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics; The Science of Right; Critique of Judgment; Perpetual Peace
  90. Edward GibbonThe History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; Autobiography
  91. James BoswellJournal; The Life of Samuel Johnson
  92. Antoine Laurent LavoisierTraité Élémentaire de Chimie (Elements of Chemistry)
  93. Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James MadisonFederalist Papers (together with the Articles of Confederation; United States Constitution and United States Declaration of Independence)
  94. Jeremy BenthamComment on the Commentaries; Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation; Theory of Fictions
  95. Johann Wolfgang GoetheFaust; Poetry and Truth
  96. Thomas Robert MalthusAn Essay on the Principle of Population
  97. John DaltonA New System of Chemical Philosophy
  98. Jean Baptiste Joseph FourierAnalytical Theory of Heat
  99. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich HegelThe Phenomenology of Spirit; Science of Logic; Elements of the Philosophy of Right; Lectures on the Philosophy of History
  100. William Wordsworth – Poems (esp. Lyrical Ballads; Lucy poems; sonnets; The Prelude)
  101. Samuel Taylor Coleridge – Poems (esp. Kubla Khan; The Rime of the Ancient Mariner ); Biographia Literaria
  102. David RicardoOn the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation
  103. Jane AustenPride and Prejudice; Emma
  104. Carl von ClausewitzOn War
  105. StendhalThe Red and the Black; The Charterhouse of Parma; On Love
  106. François GuizotHistory of Civilization in France
  107. Lord ByronDon Juan
  108. Arthur SchopenhauerStudies in Pessimism
  109. Michael FaradayThe Chemical History of a Candle; Experimental Researches in Electricity
  110. Nikolai LobachevskyGeometrical Researches on the Theory of Parallels
  111. Charles LyellPrinciples of Geology
  112. Auguste ComteThe Positive Philosophy
  113. Honoré Balzac – Works (esp. Le Père Goriot; Le Cousin Pons; Eugénie Grandet; Cousin Bette; César Birotteau)
  114. Ralph Waldo EmersonRepresentative Men; Essays; Journal
  115. Victor Hugo - Les Misérables
  116. Nathaniel HawthorneThe Scarlet Letter
  117. Alexis de TocquevilleDemocracy in America
  118. John Stuart MillA System of Logic; Principles of Political Economy; On Liberty; Considerations on Representative Government; Utilitarianism; The Subjection of Women; Autobiography
  119. Charles DarwinOn the Origin of Species; The Descent of Man; Autobiography
  120. William Makepeace Thackeray – Works (esp. Vanity Fair; The History of Henry Esmond; The Virginians; Pendennis)
  121. Charles Dickens – Works (esp. Pickwick Papers; Our Mutual Friend; David Copperfield; Dombey and Son; Oliver Twist; A Tale of Two Cities; Hard Times)
  122. Claude BernardIntroduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine
  123. George BooleThe Laws of Thought
  124. Henry David ThoreauCivil Disobedience; Walden
  125. Karl Marx and Friedrich EngelsDas Kapital (Capital); The Communist Manifesto
  126. George EliotAdam Bede; Middlemarch
  127. Herman MelvilleTypee; Moby-Dick; Billy Budd
  128. Fyodor DostoyevskyCrime and Punishment; The Idiot; The Brothers Karamazov
  129. Gustave FlaubertMadame Bovary; Three Stories
  130. Henry Thomas BuckleA History of Civilization in England
  131. Francis GaltonInquiries into Human Faculties and Its Development
  132. Bernhard RiemannThe Hypotheses of Geometry
  133. Henrik Ibsen – Plays (esp. Peer Gynt; Brand; Hedda Gabler; Emperor and Galilean; A Doll's House; The Wild Duck; The Master Builder)
  134. Leo TolstoyWar and Peace; Anna Karenina; "What Is Art?"; Twenty-Three Tales
  135. Richard DedekindTheory of Numbers
  136. Wilhelm WundtPhysiological Psychology; Outline of Psychology
  137. Mark TwainThe Innocents Abroad; Adventures of Huckleberry Finn; A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court; The Mysterious Stranger
  138. Henry AdamsHistory of the United States; Mont-Saint-Michel and Chartres; The Education of Henry Adams; Degradation of Democratic Dogma
  139. Charles PeirceChance, Love, and Logic; Collected Papers
  140. William SumnerFolkways
  141. Oliver Wendell HolmesThe Common Law; Collected Legal Papers
  142. William JamesThe Principles of Psychology; The Varieties of Religious Experience; Pragmatism; A Pluralistic Universe; Essays in Radical Empiricism
  143. Henry JamesThe American; The Ambassadors
  144. Friedrich Wilhelm NietzscheThus Spoke Zarathustra; Beyond Good and Evil; On the Genealogy of Morality; The Will to Power; Twilight of the Idols; The Antichrist
  145. Georg CantorTransfinite Numbers
  146. Jules Henri PoincaréScience and Hypothesis; Science and Method; The Foundations of Science
  147. Sigmund FreudThe Interpretation of Dreams; Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality; Introduction to Psychoanalysis; Beyond the Pleasure Principle; Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego; The Ego and the Id; Civilization and Its Discontents; New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis
  148. George Bernard Shaw – Plays and Prefaces
  149. Max PlanckOrigin and Development of the Quantum Theory; Where Is Science Going?; Scientific Autobiography
  150. Henri BergsonTime and Free Will; Matter and Memory; Creative Evolution; The Two Sources of Morality and Religion
  151. John DeweyHow We Think; Democracy and Education; Experience and Nature; The Quest for Certainty; Logic – The Theory of Inquiry
  152. Alfred North WhiteheadA Treatise on Universal Algebra; An Introduction to Mathematics; Science and the Modern World; Process and Reality; The Aims of Education and Other Essays; Adventures of Ideas
  153. George SantayanaThe Life of Reason; Scepticism and Animal Faith; The Realms of Being (which discusses the Realms of Essence, Matter and Truth); Persons and Places
  154. Vladimir LeninImperialism; The State and Revolution
  155. Marcel ProustIn Search of Lost Time (formerly translated as Remembrance of Things Past)
  156. Bertrand RussellPrinciples of Mathematics; The Problems of Philosophy; Principia Mathematica; The Analysis of Mind; An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth; Human Knowledge, Its Scope and Limits
  157. Thomas MannThe Magic Mountain; Joseph and His Brothers
  158. Albert EinsteinThe Theory of Relativity; Sidelights on Relativity; The Meaning of Relativity; On the Method of Theoretical Physics; The Evolution of Physics
  159. James Joyce"The Dead" in Dubliners; A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man; Ulysses
  160. Jacques MaritainArt and Scholasticism; The Degrees of Knowledge; Freedom and the Modern World; A Preface to Metaphysics; The Rights of Man and Natural Law; True Humanism
  161. Franz KafkaThe Trial; The Castle
  162. Arnold J. ToynbeeA Study of History; Civilization on Trial
  163. Jean-Paul SartreNausea; No Exit; Being and Nothingness
  164. Ivan PavlovConditioned Reflexes
  165. Aleksandr SolzhenitsynThe First Circle; Cancer Ward