Volcanic minerals are the ones expected to be found in volcanic rocks.
Def. a "mineral that did not develop its otherwise typical external crystal form because of late crystallization between earlier formed crystals, typical of matrix minerals in rapidly crystallizing volcanic lavas and shallow igneous intrusions" is called an allotriomorph, or xenomorph.
Def. a mineral enriched "in the lighter elements such as silicon, oxygen, aluminium, sodium, and potassium" is called a felsic mineral.
These are muscovite, orthoclase, and the sodium-rich plagioclase feldspars and quartz.
Def. the "oxyanion of silicon SiO32- or any salt or mineral containing this ion" is called a metasilicate.
"This hydrated sodium-manganese silicate [raite] extends the already wide range of manganese crystal chemistry (3), which includes various complex oxides in ore deposits and nodules from the sea floor and certain farming areas, the pyroxmangite analog of the lunar volcanic metasilicate pyroxferroite, the Mn analog yofortierite of the clay mineral palygorskite, and the unnamed Mn analog of sepiolite."
The pyroxferroite crystals in the image on the right are 0.6 x 1.1 x 0.7 cm in dimensions.
- "any salt or ester of orthosilicic acid, (M+)4SiO44− or Si(OR)4" or
- "any silicate mineral, such as garnet or olivine, in which the SiO4 tetrahedra do not share oxygen atoms with each other"
is called an orthosilicate.
At right is a visual close up of green sand which is actually olivine crystals that have been eroded from lava rocks. Some olivine crystals are still inside the lava rock.
"Forsterite is associated with igneous and metamorphic rocks and has also been found in meteorites. In 2005 it was also found in cometary dust returned by the Stardust probe. In 2011 it was observed as tiny crystals in the dusty clouds of gas around a forming star."
"Abundances of rare earth elements, Hf, Sc, Co, Cr and Th in garnet megacrysts and their volcanic hosts or matrices are used to estimate garnet/liquid partition coefficients for these elements."
"The wide variation in garnet/liquid partition coefficients from kimberlites to rhyolites cannot be explained as an effect of temperature and we conclude that a major factor is the composition of the melt from which the garnet crystallized."
"Garnet = Mineral Group of general formula: A3B2(SiO4)3, A = Ca, Mg, Fe2+, Mn2+; B = Al, Fe3+, Cr, V, Zr, Ti."
Def. a "hard transparent mineral that is often used as gemstones and abrasives" is called a garnet.
Def. "any simple silicate mineral in which the SiO4 tetrahedra are isolated and have metal ions as neighbours" is called a neosilicate.
Def. a "type of silicate crystal structure characterized by the linking of SiO4 tetrahedra through other cations rather than the sharing of oxygens among SiO4 tetrahedra" is called a nesosilicate.
"Almandine garnet-bearing andesites and dacites occur frequently in the Neogene calc-alkaline volcanic series of the northern Pannonian Basin (Hungary and Slovakia)."
"Coexisting phenocrysts of primary garnets include Ca-rich plagioclase, hornblende (magnesiohastingsite to tschermakite) and/or biotite. The primary garnets have high CaO (>4 wt %) and low MnO contents (<3 wt %). They have strongly light rare earth element depleted patterns and are enriched in heavy rare earth elements."
Almandine (or almandite) has the chemical formula Fe2+3Al2Si3O12.
Although andalusite is a metamorphic mineral, it also occurs as in the specimen on the right in volcanic rocks.
Def. an "aluminium nesosilicate mineral, Al2SiO5" is called an andalusite.
"Volcanoes of the Eifel district have sampled the total crust. [...] Types with chlorite + clinozoisite + oligoclase, with chlorite + garnet + biotite + clinozoisite + oligoclase lead to types with garnet + clinozoisite within garnet but none outside, kyanite + staurolite + almandite + oligoclase."
"Ash-flow tuffs of Neogene age exposed over 2,500 km2 in the Macusani region of southeastern Peru are the volcanic equivalent of S-type granites. The strongly peraluminous tuffs contain phenocrysts of andalusite, sillimanite, and muscovite and have high 87Sr/86Sri (0.7258 and 0.7226) and δ18O (+11‰)."
Sillimanite is a nesosilicate.
"Staurolite from the Dry River South volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit in northern Queensland, Australia is enriched in ZnO (2.5–6.8%) only within the massive sulfide lens or in highly pyritic biotite-chlorite schist just below the massive sulfide lens."
"Staurolite grains from the Dry River South and other massive sulfide lenses have low TiO2 concentrations (mainly <0.4%) relative to staurolite grains from metasediments and alteration zones (mainly >0.4%). The low concentration of TiO2 in staurolite from the massive sulfide lens results from the low initial Ti concentration in exhalative ores. High ZnO and low TiO2 values are indicative of staurolite associated with Zn-rich massive sulfide."
Def. any group of silicates that have structurally isolated double tetrahedra (the dimeric anion Si2O76-) is called a sorosilicate.
Epidote is another usually metamorphic mineral that can occur in volcanic rocks.
Def. any "of a class of mixed calcium iron aluminium sorosilicates found in metamorphic rocks" is called an epidote.
"Epidote and clinozoisite are widely distributed in the andesitic lavas and tufts of the Borrowdale Volcanic Series. Four main types of occurrence may be distinguished, namely quartz-epidote vein fillings; 'Shap type' veins, bordered by pink reaction zones rich in SiO2, Na2O, and K2O; autometasomatized lavas and tufts; and tufts subjected to alkali metasomatism. Epidote alone formed in the quartz-epidote veins; clinozoisite is found with epidote in the other types of occurrence."
Def. a sorosilicate, basic calcium aluminosilicate "mineral found in crystalline schists, a metamorphic product of calcium feldspar" is called a clinozoisite.
"Minerals such as harkerite, wilkeite, cuspidine, cancrinite, vesuvianite and phlogopite indicate the intrusive melt had a high volatile content which is in agreement with the very high explosivity index of this volcanic district."
Def. a "yellow, green or brown mineral, a mixed calcium, magnesium and aluminium silicate sometimes used as a gemstone" is called a vesuvianite.
Def. any group of silicates that have a ring of linked tetrahedra is called a cyclosilicate.
Def. "any silicate having interlocking chains of silicate tetrahedra" is called an inosilicate.
To form these chains, each silica tetrahedron shares two oxygens with neighboring tetrahedra.
Single chain tetrahedra are the pyroxenes. Double chains of tetrahedra are the amphiboles.
Def. a group of monoclinic or orthorhombic, single chain inosilicates with the general formula of X Y(Si,Al)2O6, where
- X is calcium, sodium, ferrous iron (Fe2+), magnesium, zinc, manganese and lithium;
- Y is chromium, aluminum, ferric iron (Fe3+), magnesium, manganese, scandium, titanium, vanadium, and ferrous iron (Fe2+)
is called a pyroxene.
"The pyroxenes are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks. They share a common structure consisting of single chains of silica tetrahedra and they crystallize in the monoclinic and orthorhombic systems. Pyroxenes have the general formula XY(Si,Al)2O6 (where X represents calcium, sodium, iron+2 and magnesium and more rarely zinc, manganese and lithium and Y represents ions of smaller size, such as chromium, aluminium, iron+3, magnesium, manganese, scandium, titanium, vanadium and even iron+2). Although aluminium substitutes extensively for silicon in silicates such as feldspars and amphiboles, the substitution occurs only to a limited extent in most pyroxenes."
At right is an image of a very rare, sharp, complete-all-around pyroxene is from Ducktown District, Polk County, Tennessee, USA, circa mid to late 1800s.
"Primary silicate–melt and carbonate–salt inclusions occur in the phenocrysts (nepheline, fluorapatite, wollastonite, clinopyroxene) in the 1917 eruption combeite–wollastonite nephelinite at Oldoinyo Lengai."
Def. a group of monoclinic or orthorhombic double chain inosilicates with the general formula of
- X2Y5Z8O22(OH)2 where
- X is magnesium, ferrous iron (Fe2+), calcium, lithium, sodium, and ferric iron (Fe3+)
- Y is Al, Mg, or Fe or less commonly Mn, Cr, Ti, Li, etc.
- Z is chiefly Si or Al
is called an amphibole.
Def. a "large group of structurally similar hydrated double silicate minerals, containing various combinations of sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and aluminium/aluminum" is called an amphibole.
"Hornblende phenocrysts in recent andesites of the Soufrière Hills Volcano display reaction rims of microcrystalline plagioclase, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and interstitial glass, formed by decompression during magma ascent."
A chemical formula for hornblendes is (Ca, Na, K)2-3(Mg, Fe2+, Fe3+, Al)5(Si, Al)8O22(OH)2.
Def. any "silicate mineral having a crystal structure of parallel sheets of silicate tetrahedra" is called a phyllosilicate.
Phyllosilicate tetrahedra share three oxygens with other silica tetrahedra to form two-dimensional sheets.
- in which X is K, Na, or Ca or less commonly Ba, Rb, or Cs;
- Y is Al, Mg, or Fe or less commonly Mn, Cr, Ti, Li, etc.;
- Z is chiefly Si or Al, but also may include Fe3+ or Ti;
- dioctahedral (Y = 4) and trioctahedral (Y = 6)
is called a mica.
"Kaliophilite [occurs in] blocks of biotite-pyroxenite volcanic ejecta from Mte. Somma, Vesuvius."
Biotite has the chemical formula "K(Mg, Fe)3(Al, Fe)Si3O10(OH, F)2".
Def. a "dark brown mica; it is a mixed aluminosilicate and fluoride of potassium, magnesium and iron" is called a biotite.
"The strongly peraluminous tuffs contain phenocrysts of andalusite, sillimanite, and muscovite and have high 87Sr/86Sri (0.7258 and 0.7226) and δ18O (+11‰). Elevated concentrations of Li, Cs, Be, Sn, B, and other minor elements compare with those in “tin granites.”"
Def. a type "of silicate crystal structure characterized by the sharing of all SiO4 tetrahedral oxygens resulting in three-dimensional framework structures" is called a tektosilicate.
Def. any "of various silicate minerals ... with a three-dimensional framework of silicate tetrahedra" is called a tectosilicate.
Def. "[a]ny of a large group of ... aluminum [tectosilicates] of the alkali metals sodium, potassium, calcium and barium" is called feldspar.
As the sample on the right shows two different cooling rates even in volcanic rocks can yield euhedral feldspar crystals (light yellow) in a rhyolite (tiny crystal) matrix.
"The apical parts of large volcanoes along the East Pacific Rise (islands and seamounts) are encrusted with rocks of the alkali volcanic suite (alkali basalt, andesine- and oligoclase-andesite, and trachyte)."
"The mineralogical composition of most feldspars can be expressed in terms of the ternary system Orthoclase (KAlSi3O8), Albite (NaAlSi3O8) and Anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8)."
"The minerals of which the composition is comprised between Albite and Anorthite are known as the plagioclase feldspars, while those comprised between Albite and Orthoclase are called the alkali feldspars due to the presence of alkali metals sodium and potassium."
"Volcanic rock fragments, feldspar (orthoclase, andesine, and rare sanidine), and small amounts of quartz, biotite, and hornblende make up the bulk of these rocks."
Volcanic sources that have a low silica concentration are more likely to produce feldspathoid-containing rocks than feldspar-containing rocks.
Feldspathoid volcanic rocks occur in "a suite of basanites, olivine nephelinites, and olivine melilite nephelinites from the Raton-Clayton volcanic field, New Mexico."
"Volcanism in the Raton-Clayton field commenced approximately 7.5 Ma ago with the eruption of alkali basalts and continued intermittently until at least 10,000 y.a. with the eruption of the Capulin Mountain silicic alkalic basalt (Stormer 1972a; Baldwin and Muehlberger 1959). The entire volcanic sequence was erupted onto the high plains east of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, and as such, represents the eastern limit of late Cenozoic volcanism in the western U.S. Volcanic activity in the Raton-Clayton field was contemporaneous with volcanism in the Rio Grande rift, and the Raton-Clayton volcanic field is interpreted as part of the Rio Grande rift system."
Def. any of a group of silicates "that did not contain enough silica to satisfy all the chemical bonds" of the framework is called a feldspathoid.
The image on the right contains analcime, or analcite, as colorless sharply formed undamaged crystals to 25 mm in diameter on a 78 mm x 65 mm x 53 mm matrix. They are associated with numerous black prismatic terminated crystals of aegirine, as well as smaller colorless prismatic terminated crystals of natrolite, these from 3 mm to 10 mm in length. Aegirine is a pyroxene.
Def. "a rare [feldspathoid] mineral, a form of KAlSiO4, found in volcanic rocks in parts of Uganda" is called a kalsilite.
Def. a feldspathoid "mineral of silica-poor igneous, plutonic and volcanic rocks" is called a leucite.
Natrolite is another feldspathoid like analcime of the zeolite group.
"Occurs chiefly in cavities in basalt".
Def. a (Na,K)AlSiO4 "feldspathoid mineral of silica-poor igneous, plutonic and volcanic rocks" is called a nepheline.
Def. a feldspathoid, tektosilicate "mineral found in volcanic ash", chemical formula Na6Ca2Si6Al6O24Cl4, is called a quadridavyne.
Quadridavyne is a tektosilicate (feldspathoid), chemical formula Na6Ca2Si6Al6O24Cl4, with a type locality of Ottaviano, Monte Somma, Somma-Vesuvius Complex, Naples Province, Campania, Italy.
Red "thermoluminescence (RTL) emission from quartz, as a dosimeter for baked sediments and volcanic deposits, [from] older (i.e., >1 Ma), quartz-bearing known age volcanic deposits [can use as standards] independently-dated silicic volcanic deposits from New Zealand, ranging in age from 300 ka through to 1.6 Ma."
Def. "a continuous framework [tectosilicate] of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall [chemical] formula [of] SiO2 ... [of] trigonal trapezohedral class 3 2", usually with some substitutional or interstitial impurities, is called α-quartz.
When the concentration of interstitial or substitutional impurities becomes sufficient to change the space group of a mineral such as α-quartz, the result is another mineral. When the physical conditions are sufficient to change the solid space group of α-quartz without changing the chemical composition or formula, another mineral results.
"Shocked quartz is associated with two high pressure polymorphs of silicon dioxide: coesite and stishovite. These polymorphs have a crystal structure different from standard quartz. Again, this structure can only be formed by intense pressure, but moderate temperatures. High temperatures would anneal the quartz back to its standard form."
"Short-rived bottle-green or blue luminescence colours with zones of non-luminescing bands are very common in authigenic quartz overgrowths, fracture fillings or idiomorphic vein crystals. Dark brown, short-lived yellow or pink colours are often found in quartz replacing sulphate minerals. Quartz from tectonically active regions commonly exhibits a brown luminescence colour. A red luminescence colour is typical for quartz crystallized close to a volcanic dyke or sill."
Referring to the image on the right: "Lake County experienced incredible volcanic activity. The heat melted the quartz but temperatures and pressures were just right so it was not destroyed. Rather, the melted quartz was carried along with the lava flows."
Beta quartz (β-Quartz) is stable "between 573° and 870°C".
Def. a polymorph of α-quartz formed at an estimated minimum pressure of 35 GPa up to pressures above 40 GPa with a orthorhombic space group Pmmm no. 47 is called seifertite.
Def. a polymorph of α-quartz formed at temperatures from 22-460°C with at least seven space groups for its forms with tabular crystals is called tridymite.
Def. a "rare [tektosilicate] mineral of volcanic rocks that solidified at a high temperature, [with the chemical composition of silicon dioxide, SiO22,] chemically identical to quartz, but has a different crystal structure" is called a tridymite.
α-tridymite is orthorhomic and β-tridymite is hexagonal.
|Name||Symmetry||Space group||T (°C)|
Alpha-quartz (space group P3121, no. 152, or P3221, no. 154) under a high pressure of 2-3 gigapascals and a moderately high temperature of 700°C changes space group to monoclinic C2/c, no. 15, and becomes the mineral coesite.
Def. a polymorph of α-quartz formed by pressures > 100 kbar or 10 GPa and temperatures > 1200 °C is called stishovite.
Stishovite may be formed by an instantaneous over pressure such as by an impact or nuclear explosion type event.
Def. a "mineral of volcanic rocks that solidified at a high temperature [...] chemically identical to quartz, with the chemical formula SiO2, but has a different crystal structure" is called cristobalite.
Def. "a rare mineral, a form of KAlSiO4, found in volcanic rocks in parts of Italy" is called a kaliophilite.
Stilbite (Desmine), a zeolite group, has the chemical formula NaCa2Al5Si13O36•16(H2O).
Def. a "tectosilicate zeolite mineral consisting of hydrated calcium aluminium silicate, common in volcanic rocks" is called a stilbite.
Stellerite has the chemical formula CaAl2Si7O18•7(H2O).
Def. a "hydrated calcium aluminosilicate zeolite, similar to stilbite" is called a stellerite.
Barrerite can have the chemical formula Na4Al4Si14O36•13(H2O).
Def. a "white to pinkish tectosilicate zeolite mineral" is called a barrerite.
Stilbite-Na can have the chemical formula Na3Ca3Al8Si28O72•30(H2O).
Stilbite-Ca can have the chemical formula NaCa4Al8Si28O72•30(H2O).
Def. a "volcanic mineral form of boric acid originally found in Sasso, [near Volterra in] Italy" is called sassolite.
Def. "a rare mineral composed of ammonium chloride found around volcanic fumaroles and guano deposits" is called a sal ammoniac, or salammoniac.
Def. an "orthorhombic-dipyramidal mineral containing hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur; [a native sulfate of ammonia, found in volcanic districts]" is called a mascagnite.
- Volcanic minerals can be formed at room temperature using electrochemistry.
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