A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is a minerals. Minerals are not evenly distributed over space. They are concentrated in a particular area or rock formations. Some minerals are found in areas which are not easily accessible such as the Arctic ocean bed and Antarctica.
Minerals are formed in different types of geological environments, under varying conditions. They are created by natural processes without any human interference. They can be identified on the basis of their physical properties such as colour, density, hardness and chemical property such as solubility.
A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic element or compound having an orderly internal structure and characteristic chemical composition, crystal form, and physical properties. Common minerals include quartz, feldspar, mica, amphibole, olivine, and calcite.
On the basis of composition, minerals are classified mainly as metallic and non-metallic minerals.
metallic minerals edit
The metallic minerals contain metal in raw form. Metals are hard substances that conduct heat and electricity and have a characteristic lustre or shine. Iron ore, bauxite, manganese ore are some examples.
Metallic minerals may be ferrous or non-ferrous.
Ferrous minerals like iron ore, manganese and chromites contain iron.
A non-ferrous mineral does not contain iron but may contain some other metal such as gold, silver, copper or lead.
The non-metallic minerals do not contain metals. Limestone, mica and gypsum are examples of such minerals. The mineral fuels like coal and petroleum are also non-metallic minerals.