Student Projects/Microscopic fungi
Microscopic fungi edit
fungi are the group of eukaryotic organisms which includes both microscopic (yeast) and macroscopic (mushroom) forms. even though they are microscopic in nature, that is not visible to the naked eyes they play a very important role. Aspergillus niger
- This fungal form is cultured on a larger scale in the industries for the production of citric acid and gluconic acid.
- Industrial fermentation of Aspergillus niger results in the production of many enzymes like glucoamylase, pectinases and galactosidase.
- It also plays a very important role in the solubilization of heavy metal sulfides.
- It is a saprotrophic fungi which mostly infects the cereal grains and legumes.
- This fungal form is well known for the production of large amounts of toxic compounds called as the mycotoxins in the cereal grains and legumes, which when consumed by the human beings are toxic in nature.
- Most of the fungal species of this genus penicillium play a major role in the production of different kinds of cheese.
- It is also used in the production of many enzymes such as pectinases, lipases, amylases, cellulases and proteases.
- The famous wonder drug penicillin was isolated from P. notatum a species of this genus.
- It is a soil fungal form. the colonies of this fungal form are green in colour.
- Many strains of Trichoderma are used as biocontrol agents against most of the fungal diseases in plants
- This fungal form is useful in the medical field as well, as it produces Cyclosporine A(T. polysporum) which is used as an immunosuppressant in organ transplantations in order to prevent organ rejections.
- Is a saprophytic fungi which is most widely found distributed on mature fruits, jellies, bread, syrup and peanuts.
- The species of Rhizopus are used in the production of cortisone and fumaric acid and are also used in the production of various alcoholic beverages.
- Is a soil borne fungi, most of the species of this genus are harmless saprobes.
- Some of the species produce toxic substances called fumonisins in cereal crops which affects the human health.
- aAhuman food named Quorn which is a very rich source of protein is produced by this group (F. venenatum)