# Student Projects/Matter in our surroundings

What is matter?

Matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.

Physical nature of matter

1. Matter is made up of particles

2. Particles of matter are very small in size

Characteristics of particles of matter

1. Particles of matter have space between them

Particles of sugar, salt or potassium permanganate get evenly distributed in water. Similarly while making coffee or lemonade, particles of one type of matter get into the spaces between particles of the other. This shows that there is enough space between particles of matter.

2. Particles of matter are continuously moving

Particles of matter intermix on their own with each other. They do so by getting into the spaces between the particles. This intermixing of particles of two different types of matter on their own is called diffusion. On heating, diffusion becomes faster.

3. Particles of matter attract each other

Particles of matter have force acting between them. This force keeps the particles together. The strength of this force of attraction varies from one kind of matter to another.

States of matter

There are three different states of matter:

-        Solid state – In this state, the constituent particles are very closely packed. The force of attraction between the particles is very strong.

-        Liquid state – In this state the constituent particles are less closely packed when compared with solid. The force of attraction between particles is less strong.

-        Gaseous state – In gaseous state the constituent particles are far apart from each other. The force of attraction between the particles is negligible.

Ref : CBSE Class 9 ncert textbook