< Stars‎ | Greens

Green stars is a lecture from the radiation astronomy department for possible inclusion in the course on the principles of radiation astronomy and is already in the star courses.

Gases above Io's surface produced a ghostly glow that could be seen at visible wavelengths (red, green, and violet). Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona.

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Quiz edit


1 Which of the following are green radiation astronomy phenomena associated with the Sun?

the color of the upper rim as seen from Earth
an excess brightness at or near the edge of the Sun
the iron XIV green line
neutron emission
polar coronal holes
meteor emission
changes in the line-blanketing

2 True or False, The Hubble Space Telescope currently uses the Wide Field Planetary Camera (PC-2) with its F492M filter among others for green astronomy.


3 Which of the following is not a characteristic of green astronomy?

wavelength range of 495-570 nm

4 Before the current era and perhaps before 6,000 b2k which classical planet may have been green?

5 True or False, The Hβ emission line does not appear when the F492M filter is used on the Hubble Space Telescope because its wavelength is 486.1 nm.


6 Alpha Centauri A as a star has what green astronomy property?

it's a primordial population III star
it passes once a year across the Lockman Hole
silicates have been discovered in its interior structure
it has a surface temperature of 5790 K
optical reflectance studies have found evidence of magnesium
it has a surface temperature of ~700 K

7 Complete the text:

Capella B has a surface temperature of approximately

, is spectral type

, has an orbital period with Capella A of about

, and is a


8 True or False, Any small luminous green dot appearing in the cloudless portion of the night sky, especially with a fixed location relative to other such dots is most likely to be an active galactic nucleus.


9 When ionization cones are present, what green characteristics are usually readily observed?

O III green emission line
green continua
biconical structure
a common cone axis and apex
ionized gas
neon clouds

10 For web colors the RGB decimal code (0 255 0) is what color?

11 True or False, In hexadecimal code, a hex triplet, #008000 or 00 80 00 is green.


12 Which of the following is not a prominent feature associated with the greenness response?

M cone cells
a green light source
L cones
"bluish green" 493-498 nm
"yellowish green" 530-559 nm
"yellow green" 559-570 nm

13 Which of the following is not a phenomenon usually associated with solar wanderers?

green aurora
production of 7Be
carbon or C2

14 Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with a comet?

elongated dust particles
high albedo
coronal mass ejection

15 True or False, A green light coming from a nebula may be due to oxygen illuminated by a stellar wind.


16 Which of the following emission/absorption phenomena are associated with green astronomy?

Helium lines at 501 and 505 nm
the strong C2 (1,2) band
nitrogen emission in plasmas at 566.934 nm from N VIII
Helium emission line at 5876 Å
neutral iron line at 526.96 nm
Calcium yellow line at 569.4 nm

17 Green astronomy observation is performed all around the surface of the Earth by?

18 True or False, Bremsstrahlung radiation may be a source of the green continuum.


19 Which of the following are phenomena usually associated with fluorine emission?

fluorine emission lines in the green are relatively weak
fluorine lines in the near infrared are usually much stronger than the green lines
F I has lines in the green
F II has lines in the green
F III has at least one line in the green
the Fraunhofer E line

20 The chromium +1 ion has an emission line often observed in solar what?

21 True or False, Ground-based observations around the solar limb of the Fe 530.3 line vary greatly among themselves.


22 Which of the following are likely associated with a green emission line control group?

rocky objects
high peak to background
plasma objects
a G2V photosphere
watery surface

23 An emission line occurring in the solar corona at 511.603 nm is likely to be from what?

24 True or False, The striking absence of green emission above both polar regions at activity minimum is likely due to iron deficiency.


25 Which of the following are characteristic of solar green astronomy?

limb faculae
polar coronal holes
black body temperature of the photosphere
the electron neutrino
iron (Fe XIV) green line

26 True or False, Airglow is the emission of light by atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere after they are excited by X-ray radiation.


27 Phenomena associated with the green vapor above Io are?

collisions with energetic charged particles
Jupiter's magnetic field
aurora-like behavior
dense plumes of volcanic vapor
Galileo spacecraft
Io is in eclipse

28 The Na I green lines at 568.2 and 568.8 nm arise in the what?

29 True or False, Stars of spectral classes F and G, such as our sun, have color temperatures that make them look "greenish".


30 Which of the following are green observatories in orbit around the Earth?

Chandra X-ray Observatory
Big Bear
the Hubble
Lomnický štít

31 True or False, Some observed properties of the Sun still defy explanation, such as the degree of Li depletion: the solar Li abundance is roughly a factor of 200 below the meteoritic abundance. This has been confirmed using the lithium 555.2 nm line.


32 Which of the following are associated with the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope?

a launch location
Fabry-Perot interferometer
a heliostat
a distinctive diagonal shaft that continues underground
a theoretical resolution of 0.07"
NOAA designations

33 "Carroll et al. (1976) detected a number of coincidences between laboratory lines of FeH and weak unidentified what?

34 The auroral green line at 557.7 nm has been suggested as originating from which of the following elemental emission lines?

solid nitrogen
mixtures of oxygen and helium
pure helium
pure oxygen
neon and oxygen mixtures

35 True or False, The Mauna Kea Observatories are used for scientific research across the electromagnetic spectrum from visible light to radio, and comprise the largest such facility in the world.


36 True or False, The O I 557.7 nm line occurs in some meteor wake spectra generally confined to the height interval of 80 - 90 km.


37 Which of the following phenomena are associated with earthshine?

reflected earthlight
the Moon's night side
the tachocline
a test of vegetation
the Pacific Ocean
ashen light

38 True or False, The zodiacal light has components in the green that are linearly polarized.


39 True or False, There are clear trends in the significant day-to-day and month-to-month changes in the zodiacal light.


40 Which of the following is not a characteristic of radiation?

throwing a beam
a stream of charged or neutral particles
the process of calculating the energy of a beam
sending out a traveling ray
a secondary hazard

41 Using the equation   what temperature corresponds approximately to a Planckian peak wavelength of 510 nm?

5700 K
5800 K
5900 K
6000 K
5870 K
5880 K

42 True or False, In the first derivative of Planck's equation to generate a wavelength, temperature pair like (495 nm, 6100 K), the constant c2 has units of nm K.


43 If Osiris in ancient Egyptian mythology/observational astronomy corresponds to Saturn, and Horus is the son of Osiris, what classical planet does Horus correspond to?

the green planet

44 True or False, Telluric mercury lines are light pollution lines occurring in the Martian atmosphere.


45 Which of the following are characteristic of the telluric mercury green line?

546.1 nm
light pollution at the Calar Alto observatory
a decay product of uranium
mercury vapour lamps
tropospheric scattering
y-band of the ubvy Strömgren photometric system

46 True or False, Green radiation bursts are the most luminous electromagnetic events known to occur in the universe.


47 Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with optical green astronomy?

actuators may be a part of active optics
the Spitzer satellite is the first device in space ever to detect optical green bursts
the Moon
an emission with a wavelength of 520 nm
adaptive optics
airglow emissions

48 Which of the following is not a phenomenon associated with green astronomy?

photographs of the planet Venus taken in 1999
Alpha Centauri A
ionization cones
a moderately intense aluminum line at 5593.302 Å
a xenon emission line at 541.915 nm
the lithium beta line

49 True or False, The dark green filter improves imaging of cloud patterns on Venus.


50 Observations of comets have benefited greatly from what phenomena of green astronomy?

elongated dust particles
the Rosetta spacecraft
O (1S) metastable line
methane possesses prominent absorption bands in the visible
the light of the neutral CN-radical

51 Which of the following is a phenomenon associated with nebulae?

green light
oxygen line emission
297.2 nm line
aboard HST the use of the PC-2 and F547M

52 True or False, The red shift cannot affect green stars.


53 True or False, The Earth's atmosphere does not transmit green radiation between 480 and 500 nm in wavelength because of water vapor.


54 Green astronomy may help to detect what type of astronomical object?

a stellar class G dwarf
the hydrogen Balmer alpha line
the photosphere of the Sun
extrasolar planets
the CMB

55 True or False, The position of the Sun can be determined directly with the use of green astronomy.


56 Various green radiation observatories occur at different altitudes and geographic locations due to what effect?

the presence of oceans on the Earth
locally available carving tools
light pollution
most astronomical objects are observed at night
currently dormant volcanoes seldom erupt
human habitation increases near an astronomical observatory

57 True or False, The emission of synchrotron light from the Sun may more accurately fit the spectral radiance of the Sun than black body radiation.


58 True or False, Green Bremsstrahlung radiation is not detected from the Sun because the photosphere isn't ionized enough to produce it.


59 What green astronomy phenomena are associated with Mars?

it may help with faster-than-light travel
O(1S) lines
polar caps
the Greenwich meridian
it demonstrates that a power law is better than an exponential law

60 True or False, The Mars Exploration Rover uses its green filter to take panoramic mosaics.


61 Which of the following is not a green characteristic of solar active regions?

green spectral lines are 1.4 % shallower at solar maximum
coronal clouds
spot central meridian passage
a surface coverage of at least 95%.

62 True or False, Naked sunspots seen in Hβ which are devoid of plage are never associated with coronal holes.


63 The Sun as a star has what green geographical property?

it's a primordial population III star
it passes once a year across the Lockman Hole
silicates have been discovered in its interior structure
optical reflectance studies have found evidence of magnesium
it has a surface temperature of ~700 K
polar coronal holes
it has a longitude and latitude grid system for locating active regions

64 Complete the text:

"In 1999, observations of the Venus

with the

telescope showed that the 5577 Å oxygen green line was a


65 True or False, The PC-1 F502N is centered at 501.85 nm with a band pass of 2.97 nm.


66 When close binary stars are present, what characteristics are readily observed?

iron XIV green line
facular excess brightness
magnetic poles
neon clouds

67 The population of coronal loops can be directly linked with the?

68 True or False, Coronal loops project into the coronal cloud, through the transition region and the chromosphere.


69 Which of the following is not a prominent contributor associated with a variable star?

star spots
chromospheric activity
brightness fluctuations
iron XIV green line

70 Astronauts onboard the International Space Station used a Nikon digital camera to take pictures of what green astronomy phenomenon?

71 True or False, Chemiluminescence caused mainly by oxygen and nitrogen reacting with hydroxyl ions at heights of a few hundred kilometers contributes to airglow.


72 Which of the following is not a phenomenon usually associated with regions?

a connected part of a space
a tract of green fields
definite extent of a corn field
Capella B
temporal change in green radiation flux

73 Complete the text:

"Auroras result from emissions of

in the Earth's upper

, above 80 km (50 mi), from ionized

atoms regaining an electron, and


atoms returning from as excited state to


74 Yes or No, Oxygen emissions can be green or brownish-red depending on the amount of energy absorbed.


Hypotheses edit

  1. Green astronomy studies all the astronomical objects of the Solar System.

See also edit

External links edit

{{History of science resources}}{{Radiation astronomy resources}}