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Relativistic astrophysics

PLEASE NOTE THAT THIS PAGE IS A THEORY OF MY OWN AND ONLY A THEORY, NOT A PROVEN POINT THE LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION The universe is constantly expanding. This material covers some of the ideas into that expansion. Most of it is focused around an idea that I call the “bumper effect.” It is a visualization into one of the known equations called the Lorentz transformation. It provides insights into other areas of space and offers a solution to a difficult paradox as well. L=(L_(0^ )∙√(1-v^2/c^2 ))¦ Within this equation is a lot of information. We will maintain what Einstein’s simple idea is correct, that regardless of what speed that a person is traveling, the speed that a light wave is traveling always seems to be the same. Everything is dependent on who is doing the observing. To each person, the changes in length or changes in how fast time is passing (dilation) is correct to each person and neither is wrong. We shall also assume that the Lorentz transformation also holds true. Now, we will consider that we shall build several models of a space ship that will attempt to dilate time using this equation. We will see that each model with variations will have different effects from how the equations work. These shall relate in showing the size of the universe and its expansion. As a stationary observer (like a person standing still on Earth) watches a space ship move closer towards the speed of light with a telescope, the space ship will appear to shrink in size. According to Einstein, his interpretation of the shrinkage and time dilation is correct from his position. From a person on the space ship moving close to the speed of light, looking at the Earth through his telescope, the Earth would appear to be longer as well. Einstein also says that his take on what he perceives for time and length dilation is correct at the same time. More important, also within the equation is a small realization I call the “bumper effect.” Consider a ship that is 1000 meters long. As it moves to the speed 90% to 95% that of light, there will be an obvious and apparent shrinkage. Assuming the ship is equally balanced in mass across length from front to back, as it is accelerating (not just moving the high speed), the front bumper will have the appearance of moving faster towards the center, as the center is accelerating at that rate. The rear will also move closer to the center. From an observer’s point of view, this would make the front bumper slower than the center of the ship and the rear bumper faster than the center of the ship. From this fact, we can extract a great deal of information. For the ship that is 1000m long and moving from 0.90 to 0.95 of the speed of light, we will see the following changes: L=(1000m∙√(1-((〖0.90c)〗^2)/c^2 ))¦= 436m L=(1000m∙√(1-((〖0.95c)〗^2)/c^2 ))¦= 312.25m These are the apparent lengths of the ship. The shrinkage of the ship is the original length minus the change. ΔL=564m ΔL=687.75m The change from each bumper to the center is the total change divided by two. ΔL/2=282m ΔL/2=343.88m Now consider a second ship is 10,000 meters long. The results are very different. L=(10000m∙√(1-((〖0.90c)〗^2)/c^2 ))¦= 4360m L=(10000m∙√(1-((〖0.95c)〗^2)/c^2 ))¦= 3122.5m

ΔL=5640m ΔL=6877.5m ΔL/2=2820m ΔL/2=3438.8m

Though the numbers don’t show much other than an increase in growing by a factor of 10, we can see that ΔL/2 is the distance that the front bumper comes closer to the rear and also the distance the rear bumper comes closer to the center of the ship. Focusing on the rear part, let us consider that there is a capsule back there with the space traveler as the moving observer. As a stationary observer on Earth helps him clock his speed and acceleration for him, speed is going to be very dependent on this “bumper effect”. As he travels form 90%c to 95%c, speed is going to be proportional to: 0.95c + (ΔL/2)/(time taken to change speed) I believe the “time taken to change speed” is a more complex equation rather than simply one number as the time passing has a variable rate along the length of the ship. What we can extrapolate is that the speed of the rear bumper (or capsule located in the rear) gets a bonus speed. The longer that the ship is, the more that it will have a change in length, giving it a bonus speed greater than the center speed. [A side note, I always wondered how a supposedly infinite creation of gravity never consumed the earth light years away. A person more recently pointed out that there is still a mass X distance away and the gravemetrics between the two are still too weak to have a significant effect at all.] For the 1000m ship, this is an additional 343.8m/sec and the 10000m ship, an additional 3438.8m/sec over the speed of the center of the ship. While that may not be much when compared to the speed of light at almost 300,000m/sec, the longer the ship, the more the “bumper effect” is pronounced. These numbers are assuming that the change from 0.90c to 0.95c occurs after 1 second, for the simplicities sake. Further, if the time taken to change this speed is two seconds instead of one, the bonus speed is cut in half, so the rate of acceleration also contributes to the speed of the back bumper. Do note that changes in time and length are not uniform, but exponential in ways across the ship. From here, we can see limits as we maintain the speed of light as a universal speed limit. The limits depend on a couple factors that go hand in hand. The longer the ship, the more pronounced the “bumper effect.” Also, the faster or slower the acceleration, the more or less pronounced the “bumper effect.” Next let us consider the gravitational effects aboard the ship. As we originally stated, we have a ship that is a consistent mass across the ship long ways. Here, we shall consider 3 separate perspectives, the center of the ship, the rear bumper, and a stationary observer. The stationary observer sees the same mass traveling across space at high speed. The overall mass of the ship is not changing, so the gravity between the ship and the observer should be negligible at best. Next, let us consider aboard the ship. Just on the ship, there are two different speeds with pronounced effects. Looking from the rear bumper to the center, the rear bumper sees the time passing faster than the center of the ship and all of the molecules at the center of the ship spreading thinner. The center of the ship observes rear as moving faster and time appears to be slower. Further, if there were an observer at the center of the ship, he would notice that every molecule on the back of the ship appears to be coming closer together as the ship shrinking. The molecules would appear to be coming closer together because you have the same number of molecules at the rear of the ship and length is shrinking. This would lead to an apparent density increase. As a result of this, the rear of the ship is observed to have a gravity increase from the middle of the ship’s perspective. This is because the mass has remained the same, but the distance between the atoms has come closer to one another. In this sense, it best to see gravity as the effect of space curving. This does negate the idea of a gravity wave. The observer on Earth would not notice a pull in gravity because the masses are the same and the distances between them are what they were. If the observer looked through a telescope, he would see these effects visually between the center and rear taking place. A note about gravity wave, I have never like the idea of it for one reason. If it existed, it would have a speed that it travels. It is assumed to be that of the speed of light. Not having its own speed that is unique, I do not buy it. Not that it is testable right now, but a simple test for the existence of a gravity wave would be as follows. Imagine that the sun could instantly be transported to a faraway galaxy. We would see the light on Earth for about 9 minutes as if were still there. The Earth has its mass but no mass pulling it at the moment the sun disappears, so there can be no gravity keeping it in the same orbit of the sun. Space would return to its normal curvature immediately. The Earth would begin following a straight path before it could notice visually from light of the sun that it started following this different orbit. Further, if we had the capability of instantly vaporizing the sun into a faraway place where it has no mass, you could conceptualize that a light wave that goes in the path of where the sun was, right after it was transported, there is no mass to cause a curvature and it would not appear to bend as if the sun were there. It would follow a straight path. Closely observing the formation of a black hole and its surrounding environment should determine the existence and properties of a gravity wave. I am more convinced it is an instant factor right now. Further, if it is not, that moves more to the point that the wave would not exist at all. The instant factor would not necessarily prove its non-existence, but the speed of light would be more of a convincing point to me that it does not exist. The next factor that comes into consideration is space itself. As I said, it is important to consider gravity as a curvature of space. Let us consider a hypothetical object the size of a star, except this object has no type of atmosphere (to exclude the possibility of light refracting). As we conduct measurements of passing light from one side to the next, while getting close to the other side of the object, we will find that gravity is intense around the object. We will also find that space has a curvature around that object. As light travels, it is traveling straight. Space has warped so straight is now a curved line. Space is the dominant factor. As space bends, the force of gravity increases. Taking this information back to our space ship, if our ship has a hollow inside, i.e. crew sleeping compartments and such, as the ship is accelerating at a fast speed, it will not only be the outer hull that is shrinking and experiencing all of the apparent changes. The inner hull, include absolute vacuum spaces within the hull will experience space warpage. This is for the same reason as our object the size of a star just discussed, or how space warps around our sun. Space around mass moving fast or heavy warps, not just the mass. Very interesting to me is the fact that this warpage would occur just forward of the ship, where as the mass has not yet traveled to. This would also have a say in the distance in the universe. I wish to put more thought into this of how it would affect the size of the universe, or even how far this distance alone would change based on different variables. I also wish to put more time into thinking about how warping space fields alone could be a means of propulsion.   PARADOX This answers a paradox of our time. The paradox says that we have a car 10’ long. It is driving at a sufficiently large speed to be 5’ long according to a stationary person, via dilation. Dad builds a garage 8’ long with the garage open. The son drives in the garage and obviously cannot stop fast enough so he crashes through the back and dad gets mad because he has a broken garage. The son’s response is that “yeah dad, but I did fit in the car for a moment.” As the car was an apparent 5’ long, it would seem like he could fit within an 8’ long garage for a moment in time. The flaw in the paradox is that as the son drove into the garage, the space of the car and its contents had a warped space. The space around the car also warps as he pulls into the garage, just as the outside of a star. This would cause the garage to have an apparent shrinkage, even though the garage is stationary, and therefore the 5’ apparent car could not fit into a 8’ garage that shrinks to an apparent less than 5’ garage.   SIZE OF THE UNIVERSE All of this has less to do with a space ship or stars or garages that shrink. It has more to do with the size of the universe. We know that the universe has a speed and is accelerating. Those are two very important facts. We also know that space will warp even without the presence of mass, as where we had a ship with voids, or the space around our very heavy, massive object the size of a star. If we consider a massless wire, like an axis of the universe and we treat that as a long tubular ship and we apply the same rules to it, we find some interesting facts. As we said, the longer the axis, the more pronounced the “bumper effect.” For the sake of our work, we will consider the universe from our point of view at 13 billion years old and 30 billion light years long, being created by the big bang. If we consider a younger universe of where the mass that creates the Earth ejects from the big bang (let us say half way out of the radius of an axis, it has taken a very different path than the first mass that has ejected from the big bang and currently at the edge of the universe. We must still assume that the speed of light is the fastest that anything can occur in the universe. How is it then that a universe is expanding for 13.72 +/- 0.12 billion years at the speed of light and it is 45.7 billion light years radius long? It should be 13.72 billion light years long. The reason is we are putting that into terms of our time rather than how time has worked on different parts of the radius as it has expanded without taking into consideration time dilation. Interesting enough, known radius of universe divided by current age equals 3.33 m/sec. Tinkering with the numbers a little bit for a more accurate value will likely produce a more accurate number, but this looks to me as an acceleration of the universe at the point we are currently at. Let us take different solar systems originating from the big bang at different times. The first solar system material comes out and travels at close to the speed of light for a million light years. Though it has traveled for a million years, one must ask whose million years that is. Assuming it is its own million years, having traveled or shot out one million light years, and then our own solar system material is shot out, the first may have been traveling at closer to the speed of light for quite some time. If this is the case, we would have a visual perspective that would place it 30 billion light years away after 13 billion years where the Earth was ejected, but their time is dilated causing them to age slower. As we tried by some means to give them an age by some visual means, they would not seem that much older than us, and the farther out one looks, it may actually look younger. This prevents anything from still being faster than the speed of light. Going back to the ship, we might ask how this can have to do with the size of the universe. A couple of factors are at hand. First, space does not have to have mass necessarily to warp, as in the example of the massive solid star that does not have an atmosphere. Gravity around the star will still warp the space, or in my opinion, space is warped and that unit of measure is gravity. Second, as mentioned earlier, the longer the ship (or we will consider a massless wire), the easier to achieve the “bumper effect.”. Rather than just using a ship, we will now consider a wire. First, we shall give it a mass. A set of uniform rockets are intermittently placed and timed to all start moving the wire in the same direction. If the wire is very, very long, like more than the size of a solar system, there comes a point where the “bumper effect” is very significant. Also, if this wire is hollow, the space inside the wire, along with some of the space around the outside will be distorted in some way. With observing the speed and acceleration of the universe the best we can tell, I believe that this will also tell us the exact length of the universe. In this scenario, the rear bumper is actually the edge of the universe, or a tip of the wire. If the wire is a consistent density and long enough, and moving and accelerating (or decelerating), it will notice the “bumper effect.” This phenomena should be observable with large or small amounts of mass of the wire. I would venture to say that while there may be some more special math that goes along with taking the material to a limit of going to zero mass, it would not change the fact that the universe on a single axis follows this principle exactly, making this its means and rate of expanding. These would take effect for all three dimensions of space. Further, knowing a specific path that space will take at specific intervals, the same information could be viewed with time dilation rather than just length changes. This would also explain how much time would remain for a given system. For me, this is a beginning point to other questions, such as whether this becomes some sort of converging sequence that allows the universe to settle out, or ultimately come to some sort of big freeze. The first thing that comes to mind is that when we consider a cluster of atoms that we put into a phase of BEC, we find that there is a strong resistance to go below a very low temperature. This is likely not arbitrary as if pushed a bit more, other forces begin to go into effect causing an equilibrium of sorts. Going back to the really long hollow wire with rockets intermittently placed throughout, the length of the wire is the most significant factor in the “bumper effect,” defining the limit of many elements of the wire. Regardless of the mass or density of the wire, the acceleration or movement at all is limited to the speed of light. The hollow part inside the tube also follows the same space curvature as the surrounding tube or wire, giving that same rate that time passes, or dilation. If this hypothetical tube were the space within the universe, like initiated by the big bang, it has a movement. Then the rear of the wire has a limit by the “bumper effect,” but the front bumper also moving forward with the center, it has a speed that it is slowing down. Whatever mass is on that end of the wire cannot slow down towards the center of the universe as a speed greater than the speed of light. On the forward end of this wire, these segments in space are given a time dilation based on this movement. On any of the axis of 3D space, the same constructs are in place maintaining length. The accelerations dictate how fast time passes. I have not entirely, but this creation of the universe (big bang), primarily its momentum in a direction may be what gives way to the possibility of time existing. I have to put a lot more time into developing this thought process though. All of these ideas do not explain what is on the outside of the universe, but if this last point does come to be true (I have not given it enough thought), it may be true that either time does not exist outside of it, or that alternate universes in some other form are constructed without the element of time, the latter helping to construct the inner workings of a black hole.

  SPACE WARPAGE Space Warpage: I did not hit much on the importance of warpage of space. First, we know that space can have a warpage, curvature, even in the absence of mass. Second, as we think back to our time ship, we see that as it approaches the speed of light, there is a relatively easier method of calculating curvature from the center of the ship. In the rear though, we have noticed that the curvature is higher because the speed is greater. By taking a firmer look into how this curvature warps along the ship, one could extrapolate the warpage of the front of the ship and rear, beyond the bumpers. A concept that may need further consideration is that weak force and strong force have different lengths at which one seems to have more influence over the other. Gravity also has its own where at extremely close distances, it is far more influential. As we consider the ship once again, we have noted that there is a warpage forward and in the rear of the ship. With this, it is not creating space, but warping it. It is also measurable, usable, and real. Let us consider that we have a planet passing behind a star and we are observing it from a distance. As we watch it pass, the outer edge of the star has a warpage that bends the light coming from the planet. It is not really bending the light, once again, it is the space that is bent and the light is continuing in the straightest line possible. It is the same as the straightest path possible from New York to China to travel is around the surface of the Earth, curved, rather than through the center, as it would be too hot to travel through the core. The lensing around the star allows us to see the planet longer and also allows us to see it quicker as it comes back around the other side. Further, as we study that star more, we might find that there is a star even further out. As we look at the star at a distance pass behind, we can gain more insight into how far the closer one is by more accurately triangulating it. Consider that we are watching the planet continuous and we determine that it is traveling at a certain speed. By observing how much faster the planet appears to be traveling behind the planet and coming from behind the planet, this provides more insight into the gravity of the star, giving more accuracy into the size and density of the star.

So I have put much more thought into the bumper concept and how it flows into the microscopic level. There is still much that I have trouble understanding. One simple concept is the electron tube. Within it, an electron will start at a velocity of zero and instantaneously travel at the speed of light. If you tried to come up with a math that allows it to speed up, like a car, having acceleration until it reaches the speed of light, it would need more distance than given within an electron tube. The exception to this may very well be that as the conditions become right for the electron to jump from anode to cathode, that creation of the right condition is simultaneously altering the length of the electron and the space around it in such a manner that it allows for the jump. It is not violating the one simple condition that the galactic speed limit is the speed of light. This does not offer a complete explanation of how an electron can go from standstill to the speed of light instantaneously.

THE CONNECTION INTO THE MICRO-WORLD It seems to be that the concept of the bumper effect is not only a factor that regulates how things work on a macro-scale of varying sorts, but also one of a micro-scale. Let us consider the electron first. Rather than assuming it is a pretty circle, let us look at it as a wire with a diameter. A concern that I have developed quickly for this theory when I thought about it and had concerns that it would crack the theory all together in a negative way is that I could not immediately think of a way that a wire with electrons running through it changed its space and time. I imagined that with all the electronics that we run all the time, shouldn’t we see some sort of space-time distortion of some sort? It turns out that one of the simplest and most common electronic components use exactly that principle of time-space shrinking and we can see it in action. It is the common fuse. As you watch the common fuse blow in slow motion, you will see that it grows to intensity that it will emit light. Further, as it is approaching its threshold, it also warps the length. At a particular point, it becomes a point where the heat will snap the tiny wire inside. I have also considered other elements around the length of the wire under these circumstances. I questioned why the wire did not shrink more rapidly with applied electrons. The answer is that the electrons are still traveling around the valence shell, only modifying time-space slightly, where if it were working within even closer of the atom, it would have more pronounced effects of shrinkage. So, now that we have a simple component to start with, how does it work, down to a smaller level? As the electron moves around the valence shell, it is modifying the space that it occupies. Imagine that it remains at the speed of light the entire time (or a set speed close to it). As it orbits, if there is more energy applied that the atom takes on, the electron responds by slowing the time that passes on the electron. This in effect, shrinks the space that it occupies, making the orbit smaller. If sufficient energy is applied, If energy is increasing, the matter expands with little exceptions, like water.

FRICTION Friction is generally calculated best today by observational data between two materials. That is different for any two materials and is generally looked up in a book each time it is needed, much as using sine, cosine, and tangents on a chart in the old days. In more modern day, we already have the understanding of how those values of sine, cosine, and tangents come about, but we also now have a quick and more accurate method of calculating those numbers with a calculator. With friction, there is no understanding behind the values, and they are largely on those old charts that have to be looked up in a book. There is also the element of starting friction versus moving friction. Starting friction, when you first start moving something is often larger than when something is already moving. Let us once again take a renewed look at the concept of friction in a very new light. There is a distinct relationship between mass and energy, well defined. There is also one between time and space, which is also well defined. Let us further consider the idea that friction, as we know it to be real, it is for very different reason than we may think. Let us imagine two materials, such as a sheet of metal that is laying on a sheet of glass. As we begin to move the metal sheet that is on top of the glass, let us assume that there is a time-space connection between the two materials. As two atoms have a closeness with one another, there is a unique gravity curve (meaning time and space curvature). As the two materials are moved from one another, that curvature is changing to a new value. The curvature is only present between those two atoms. As we consider the sheets, the planes closest to the planes of opposite material is changing its time dilation. As the material initially begins to move, the connection that existed and a set space that was there, it is physically being bent. There is obviously a force involved and it is calculable. Further, as we now have a moving two materials, with a now bent space-time between the two materials, the masses are moving along with an attraction to one another through a different time-space. All of those materials have a natural connection. Moving through a different time-space is what alters attraction level. Further, as the materials are closer, such as pressed down or with less pressure between them, that also alters the attractive force between the two materials. As most things that revolve around gravity have a very exponential value behind the result, the same holds true with friction, revolving around a curvature. As you imagine rolling around a tonka truck with rubber wheels through the mud, there is a certain stickiness to it. However, As you keep rolling it while picking it up off of the ground, you will notice that friction decreases and then rapidly ceases all together as it is off of the ground. There is a rapid cut off of that force of friction. All of this is not arbitrary, but between any two materials, a very distinct mathematical equation that explains the friction based on time-space curvature on an atomic level. There is not just an element of beauty in understanding how friction works and the glory of humanity in understanding the world around us. There is the practicality that it enables. Some of these things that I explore are multiple “if’s” compounded on one another. Imagine that a quark, the muon is influenced by gravity and none of the other forces as currently thought of today. It is widely created in space today and there are several applications already in consideration for using them as tools if the ability to control them were understood. We could use the muon to travel at the speed of light to travel through the sun where light cannot and give detailed insight into stars. Further, if we had a means of using that as an energy source, it would be abundant as it is a natural phenomena created in stars as a by-product of fusion. Here is how it might work. As I have described friction as a time-space curvature between two materials (defined as a simple word gravity), plates can be set up that are very thin and spinning against one another. Let us assume that we are using magnetism to spin thousands of these plates in different directions offering an opposing force, there would develop a three dimensional field of dense friction and shifting gravity. As the muon is better understood, it is likely to have a very particular half-life that is well altered by this field, normalizing its time, allowing for a quick breakdown. As this occurs, the muon is likely to dissipate into energy that is usable. For use of a tool, the best means of controlling the muon for understanding the star would be to set up one of these friction makers and detectors that we currently have on Earth (only the detector is currently set up), and also then, set up a satellite around the sun that will make these muons. Muons are created in fission reactions as well. A nuclear reactor can be operated in an amplitude modulation fashion, operating it and turning off the reactor at different times and so forth. The receiving detector on Earth could observe the muons normalized from the reactor and gain valuable information as it is turned into a signal. For example, as the signal comes in, there will be the strong carrier wave created, with the natural background signal subtracted from the signal. Further, as the muon deflector (the satellite) takes aim at different parts of the sun, more dense parts will be dampened. This is information that we are gaining of the core of stars. The same can be used to gain information of the core of planets. Further, if the satellite also has a well engineered set of spinning plates, specifically designed, it can have a more calibrated narrow beam of muons aiming towards the detector. Next, we get to how this might create the muons as a power source. It is likely that muons could be a good power source, however, not on earth. If it requires a great deal of energy to create the friction with spinning plates, it is very likely that the detector section of this sort of reactor is going to have to be in a closer orbit of the sun in order to avoid spreading losses that naturally occur. Such a reactor would also be a solar collector at the same time, with the sum of all energies being radiated to the Earth. There are already many, many explorations into how just a handful of these solar collectors in space can power all of the world’s reliance on power.




  THE CONNECTION So how is it then that we can draw the connection from the macro to the micro world. The simple answer is that they follow the same rules. First, let examine the electron as an elementary quark, which cannot be broken down further as a neutron or proton can be. While this may prove to be untrue in some distant future, we shall consider the elementary particle for now. Assume that it is the same as the long bar as mentioned previously, however, it is obviously not so long. Rather, its advantage stands in that it is fast, such as really close to the speed of light. In this case, counting on length is less of a concern. In this case, from what was already learned of warping space and time, the electron also consider as a bar. On the front end, time is slower while in the back end, time is faster. From here, this gives the electron a natural wave travel. It maintains a curvature of space that would allow for a wave movement. When it is in orbit of a nucleus of an atom, the difference is that the rotation follows that of the sum of the magnetism between the two sets, along with the curvature of its own. The basic premise of the cloud revolves around partially because of the changing time and it playing catch up from moment to moment. There is more. Consider two electrons that are colliding. How is it that they are traveling at or close to the speed of light and somehow know now not to run into one another when no information can travel faster than the speed of light, how can all that be? It seems as though there is some sort of contradiction. If we consider the electrons as bars, two of them coming head on towards one another, we shall see the answer. Within a distance far enough away, there is a vision that they are coming together, but with little accuracy. As they get within a certain distance from one another, the warped field (time and space) in opposite directions begin to sum together, before the collision is allowed to occur. Let us say that on the forward end of each, where time passes more rapidly and space is more normalized, as they are coming together, they are a quarter way within each other’s field. When the quarter of the warped space within the front of the electron is overlapped with the other’s, they do not simply overlap. A transformation of the space and time occurs. In this instance, space is shrunk (really more like a compressed spring, as it does not disappear, it is just tighter). Time begins to slow on this end as well. At this moment, for each of them, there is a crunched space and slowed time on both ends of both of the electrons. This slower time passing on both of the electrons allows time to seem more in slow motion for both to make a decision for which direction to oppose one another with their charge. If by chance they seem to pick the new direction to follow that will once again lead to a collision, time will once again pass more slowly and push them into another direction. In the event that all of this fails, when they get to a very close distance to one another, the front end of each becomes more crunched in time and space such that the front end of the electron will have the dominating driving force and push each away from one another. Whether that would require the “bar” of the electron to turn around, I do not know, however, it would have to be in a fashion such that it would allow the above scenario to have occurred. Next, we run into the scenario of two electrons traveling in the same direction, but, like two aircraft, one is traveling downwards and one upwards in an attempt to have a midair collision. The same corrective action carries out where time and space choose a new direction to travel to oppose one another. The funny thing is that as we consider two electrons within the same orbital of an atomic shell, this potential of colliding and correction occur all the time. This is partially why we see very wide range of a cloud rather than just following one specific path. If we consider BEC, we can see more of a wave pattern. This is because as energy is almost completely removed, this is also slowing time, normalizing space, and allowing us to see the specific pattern always taken at a much slower rate. If observed often enough, we would see electrons also taking the same approach in attempting collisions and corrections many times over.

  ATOMIC WARPED FIELDS The nucleus of the atom handles much of how an atom interacts with other atoms. The valence shell also has a primary interaction on other atoms as well. Less identified is the inner electrons. Consider the atomic structure. A single proton is over 1800 times the size of the electron, while the electron is still charged equally, however, with an opposite charge. Despite its size, they are held together at a distance of 100,000 times the length of the proton’s diameter. From here, we also have the neutron. The proton and neutron work together in a manner that preserve the integrity of the atom. There is generally a one to one ratio of protons to neutrons for a reason. The structure affords the greatest stability because of the charge of each keep the nucleus together despite two like charges are very close together. Also consider the size (as already mentioned). While electrons are traveling at 100,000 times the diameter of the proton from the nucleus, electrons are not permitted that close to one another. This is not arbitrary. As we consider atoms of larger and larger atoms, consider one with 2 protons first. Here, we observe two electrons, where each are traveling in two different directions. In their time, they are traveling at pretty much the speed of light. As those are the valance electrons, as heat is added to the atom, this allows for the electrons orbit to flow further from the nucleus. The electrons are following an orbit with a space, warped before and after. As mentioned, there are many instances that the electrons will inadvertently attempt collision with one another. We can probably calculate the probability that this would occur rather easily. As we calculate the surface area of the electron, we also then know the rough size of the electron that is important to us (less that 1800X that of the proton). As we observe the atoms increasing in size (more protons and electrons), we find that within each valance shell, the size of the atom actually decreases. This quickly makes little sense as with more electrons, there should be greater opposing forces that increase the radii. In actuality what occurs is the electron has a warped space is shrunk compared to normal space. With more electrons, there is more shrunk space, making the overall space smaller. At this point, we shall transition to the second valance shell as there is more data to look at. In lithium, there is but one electron in the valance electron and the radius is 152pm (picometeres). This is about the standard for the radius of the material overall as there are no other electrons interacting there. As a second is added, the size reduces to 112pm. What we are finding is that after a single electron shell is filled with electrons, the maximum electrons are warping space to its minimum allowance. The next electron coming in is piggy back on top of that, creating a new warped field. With only a single electron and much ground to cover, relatively speaking, there is little warpage among the atom as a whole. The second electron coming in, while still having to avoid the first, assists in covering more ground around the atom, warping more space around the atom. Even as these atoms work as molecules, the same principles would follow suit. If we looked at ice at 0 Celsius to 100 Celsius, there is a strange phenomenon among most other materials where it actually shrinks rather than expands. As more studies have been done over water than over other materials, we will notice that the distance the electrons must travel between the hydrogen atoms and oxygen atom are a longer distance. [THIS STATEMENT NEEDS TO BE VERIFIED] BLACK HOLES There is a misconception that there is little known of black holes. I would venture to say that there is quite a bit of information available to us about black holes. It is said that black holes have so much gravity that they consume everything, including light. This is not an entirely accurate statement. Time-space (gravity) is curved more and more around the black hole in such a manner that while light is traveling in a straight path, as it arrives at a point within the event horizon, space is curved enough that the straight line of space leads towards inside the black hole. One of the more important elements is not so much what goes into a black hole, but rather what does constantly escape, X-Rays and gamma rays. Consider here on earth, sound travels through the medium of mass. Light on the other hand may travel through space freely, while sound cannot. If we consider that there is a minimum frequency that can begin to travel through space, without a medium, why is it that we would see X-rays escape from a black hole, but not a smaller frequency? I believe this alone is a key. Time-space is warped to a degree such that the minimum frequency we know that can travel through space without a medium is shifted in a black hole. There are other reasons as well, that we do see pronounced X-rays. However, as light waves, if only allowed to curve into the black hole, something of lower frequencies should be visible of them coming out of lower frequencies, unless space alone is altered. The difference in the minimum X-ray frequency traveling should be an indicator as to the warping of the space within the black hole. Strong force is obviously not a force that is used much within a black hole. With Gravity being very strong, muons should provide a great means of detailing many of the inner workings of the black hole, with the exception of the core itself. There are limits to the size of the black hole. It is known that their spin and other factors are at play when looking at variables of the black hole. Also, as any star, the material it is made of is a fuel. When enough fuel is consumed and converted into higher materials (heavier atoms) and X-rays are emitted, there is a limit the black hole has. When this limit is reached, it will normalize within normal space, exploding, taking those heavier atoms and spewing them in all directions. Some of those materials may manifest into a large mass again. It is likely that the method of the explosion has uses the normalization of time and space as means of contributing to the explosive power, uses the normalization of time and space as means of contributing to the explosive power, distributing mass very atomized. I would almost be curious about this single moment with a black hole collapsing at the end of its life as I would see the normalization of that time space would likely be much like a sock, initially inside out, and then pulled to the flat point (normal time space), and then pushing further (outside in) to a good degree, before returning to a flat time space again.


  USING WARPED FIELDS FOR ENERGY As with most things, there ought to be a simple question of what is the value of knowing the science of a warped field besides the pursuit of knowledge? The answer is simple in its practicality as well. As we look at a couple of abundant materials here on earth, we should consider those materials primarily in how we may manipulate them for use of energy, among other things. So, let us take one simple example water, though it may be something else like a nitrogen molecule. Using our water molecule, as we know much about the structure on an atomic level and molecular level, we can make a single destructive strike within the molecule that would make a strong enough change that would yield a large energy discharge. Let us make a priority that we wish for the oxygen atom within a set of water molecules to fall apart on an atomic level. We shall work all processes or methods around that goal. There are a variety of mechanisms that can be employed. First, let us assume that we wish to align the oxygen atoms up with a specific distance from one another. Freezing salt water slowly may be one method. Next, let us assume that electrons are heavily influenced by magnetism. Using a phased array method of injecting multiple beams of magnetism within a certain inner valance shell around the target oxygen atom, the goal is to create a field where the magnetism is repelling the valance electrons. By using several carrier waves that will have little effect on penetrating the outer valence shells, a combination of those waves can create a single bubble within the atom, deflecting those inner electrons. A variety of methods may also be employed from here, maybe like injecting a couple of neutrons into the atom to further destabilize the oxygen atom within the bubble towards the center of the atom. As we know from organic chemistry, many processes that occur in nature rapidly for cellular energy require many steps. For us to try and manipulate this on a single set of molecules would be labor intensive and not yield as much output as input. However, as this is done in the trillions naturally, we know that the method works. As with organic chemistry, once the plan of how the deconstruction is done, finding the method for which the process is done shall revolve around that process. For example, it may prove more useful to use aluminum dust (un-oxidized) rather than salt in creating the ice. Use of chemical reactions around the ice may prove to allow for a conducive environment for completing the process.