Reasoning means forming a premise of an argument in support of a belief, especially a minor premise when given after the conclusion.
Def. the "deduction of inferences or interpretations from premises" is called reasoning.
Def. "for application of common sense and/or intuition regardless of technical parameters" is called a duck test.
From the expression: "If it looks like a duck, swims like a duck and quacks like a duck, then it probably is a duck."
Def. "a fried egg generally means an egg (and generally a chicken egg or similar) fried in a particular way that generally doesn't denote a scrambled egg, which is nonetheless cooked by frying" is called a fried egg test.