# Quizbank/Bell/152874216196

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Bell152874216196

### Bell:Bell1:V0

Bell152874216196

1) You solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣. Which of the following loses?

a) K and K♣
b) two of these are true
c) K♠ and K♣
d) none of these are true
e) K and K♠

2) Your solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣, you would__

a) be disqualified for cheating
b) lose 1 point
c) win 1 point
d) win 3 points
e) lose 3 points

3) If you play the solitaire game 3 times, you will on average win ___ times.

a) 5
b) 3
c) 2
d) 4
e) 1

4) You solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣. Which of the following wins?

a) two of these are true
b) K and K♣
c) none of these are true
d) K♠ and K♣
e) K and K♠

5) For a binomial distribution with n trials, the variance is σ2=np(1-p). If 90 trials are made and p=.11, the expected number of positive outcomes is__. Make the approximation that this binomial distribution is approximately a Gaussian (normal) distribution.

a) 9.9
b) 3.3
c) 2.2
d) 1.1

6) How would you describe the "skew" of a binary distribution?

a) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a small number of trials n.
b) None of these are true.
c) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a large number of trials n.
d) The binary distribution is never skewed if it is a true binary distribution.
e) Distributions are never skewed. Only experimental measurements of them are skewed.

7) A local college averages 1600 new incoming students each year. Suppose the pool of potential high school graduates in the local area is so large that the probability of a given student selecting this college is small, and assume a variance of σ2 equal to p(1-p). What standard deviation would you expect in the yearly total of new enrollees, assuming nothing changes in this population from year to year?

a) 160
b) 16
c) 10
d) 32
e) 40

8) The binomial distribution results from observing n outcomes, each having a probability p of "success"

a) True
b) False

9) If the hypotenuse of a 45°-45° right triangle has a length of ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$  what is the length of each side?

a) ${\displaystyle 1}$
b) ${\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {2}}}$
c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
d) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
e) ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$

10) A linear polarizer selects a component of the electric field. Also, the energy density of light is proportional to the square of the electric field. By what factor does a filter reduce the electric field if it is oriented 30° to that field?

a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{4}}}$
b) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}}$
c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
d) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {3}{4}}}$
e) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$

### KEY:Bell:Bell1:V0

Bell152874216196

1) You solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣. Which of the following loses?

+a) K and K♣
-b) two of these are true
-c) K♠ and K♣
-d) none of these are true
-e) K and K♠

2) Your solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣, you would__

-a) be disqualified for cheating
-b) lose 1 point
+c) win 1 point
-d) win 3 points
-e) lose 3 points

3) If you play the solitaire game 3 times, you will on average win ___ times.

-a) 5
-b) 3
+c) 2
-d) 4
-e) 1

4) You solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣. Which of the following wins?

+a) two of these are true
-b) K and K♣
-c) none of these are true
-d) K♠ and K♣
-e) K and K♠

5) For a binomial distribution with n trials, the variance is σ2=np(1-p). If 90 trials are made and p=.11, the expected number of positive outcomes is__. Make the approximation that this binomial distribution is approximately a Gaussian (normal) distribution.

+a) 9.9
-b) 3.3
-c) 2.2
-d) 1.1

6) How would you describe the "skew" of a binary distribution?

-a) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a small number of trials n.
-b) None of these are true.
+c) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a large number of trials n.
-d) The binary distribution is never skewed if it is a true binary distribution.
-e) Distributions are never skewed. Only experimental measurements of them are skewed.

7) A local college averages 1600 new incoming students each year. Suppose the pool of potential high school graduates in the local area is so large that the probability of a given student selecting this college is small, and assume a variance of σ2 equal to p(1-p). What standard deviation would you expect in the yearly total of new enrollees, assuming nothing changes in this population from year to year?

-a) 160
+b) 16
-c) 10
-d) 32
-e) 40

8) The binomial distribution results from observing n outcomes, each having a probability p of "success"

+a) True
-b) False

9) If the hypotenuse of a 45°-45° right triangle has a length of ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$  what is the length of each side?

-a) ${\displaystyle 1}$
-b) ${\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {2}}}$
-c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
-d) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
+e) ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$

10) A linear polarizer selects a component of the electric field. Also, the energy density of light is proportional to the square of the electric field. By what factor does a filter reduce the electric field if it is oriented 30° to that field?

-a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{4}}}$
+b) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}}$
-c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
-d) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {3}{4}}}$
-e) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$

### Bell:Bell1:V1

Bell152874216196

1) For a binomial distribution with n trials, the variance is σ2=np(1-p). If 90 trials are made and p=.11, the expected number of positive outcomes is__. Make the approximation that this binomial distribution is approximately a Gaussian (normal) distribution.

a) 3.3
b) 9.9
c) 2.2
d) 1.1

2) The binomial distribution results from observing n outcomes, each having a probability p of "success"

a) True
b) False

3) A local college averages 1600 new incoming students each year. Suppose the pool of potential high school graduates in the local area is so large that the probability of a given student selecting this college is small, and assume a variance of σ2 equal to p(1-p). What standard deviation would you expect in the yearly total of new enrollees, assuming nothing changes in this population from year to year?

a) 40
b) 32
c) 10
d) 16
e) 160

4) You solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣. Which of the following loses?

a) K and K♣
b) two of these are true
c) none of these are true
d) K and K♠
e) K♠ and K♣

5) If the hypotenuse of a 45°-45° right triangle has a length of ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$  what is the length of each side?

a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
b) ${\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {2}}}$
c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
d) ${\displaystyle 1}$
e) ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$

6) If you play the solitaire game 3 times, you will on average win ___ times.

a) 2
b) 3
c) 5
d) 1
e) 4

7) A linear polarizer selects a component of the electric field. Also, the energy density of light is proportional to the square of the electric field. By what factor does a filter reduce the electric field if it is oriented 30° to that field?

a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}}$
b) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {3}{4}}}$
c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{4}}}$
d) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
e) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$

8) How would you describe the "skew" of a binary distribution?

a) The binary distribution is never skewed if it is a true binary distribution.
b) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a large number of trials n.
c) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a small number of trials n.
d) None of these are true.
e) Distributions are never skewed. Only experimental measurements of them are skewed.

9) Your solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣, you would__

a) be disqualified for cheating
b) win 1 point
c) lose 3 points
d) win 3 points
e) lose 1 point

10) You solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣. Which of the following wins?

a) none of these are true
b) K and K♠
c) K and K♣
d) two of these are true
e) K♠ and K♣

### KEY:Bell:Bell1:V1

Bell152874216196

1) For a binomial distribution with n trials, the variance is σ2=np(1-p). If 90 trials are made and p=.11, the expected number of positive outcomes is__. Make the approximation that this binomial distribution is approximately a Gaussian (normal) distribution.

-a) 3.3
+b) 9.9
-c) 2.2
-d) 1.1

2) The binomial distribution results from observing n outcomes, each having a probability p of "success"

+a) True
-b) False

3) A local college averages 1600 new incoming students each year. Suppose the pool of potential high school graduates in the local area is so large that the probability of a given student selecting this college is small, and assume a variance of σ2 equal to p(1-p). What standard deviation would you expect in the yearly total of new enrollees, assuming nothing changes in this population from year to year?

-a) 40
-b) 32
-c) 10
+d) 16
-e) 160

4) You solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣. Which of the following loses?

+a) K and K♣
-b) two of these are true
-c) none of these are true
-d) K and K♠
-e) K♠ and K♣

5) If the hypotenuse of a 45°-45° right triangle has a length of ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$  what is the length of each side?

-a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
-b) ${\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {2}}}$
-c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
-d) ${\displaystyle 1}$
+e) ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$

6) If you play the solitaire game 3 times, you will on average win ___ times.

+a) 2
-b) 3
-c) 5
-d) 1
-e) 4

7) A linear polarizer selects a component of the electric field. Also, the energy density of light is proportional to the square of the electric field. By what factor does a filter reduce the electric field if it is oriented 30° to that field?

+a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}}$
-b) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {3}{4}}}$
-c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{4}}}$
-d) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
-e) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$

8) How would you describe the "skew" of a binary distribution?

-a) The binary distribution is never skewed if it is a true binary distribution.
+b) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a large number of trials n.
-c) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a small number of trials n.
-d) None of these are true.
-e) Distributions are never skewed. Only experimental measurements of them are skewed.

9) Your solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣, you would__

-a) be disqualified for cheating
+b) win 1 point
-c) lose 3 points
-d) win 3 points
-e) lose 1 point

10) You solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣. Which of the following wins?

-a) none of these are true
-b) K and K♠
-c) K and K♣
+d) two of these are true
-e) K♠ and K♣

### Bell:Bell1:V2

Bell152874216196

1) Your solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣, you would__

a) lose 3 points
b) win 3 points
c) win 1 point
d) lose 1 point
e) be disqualified for cheating

2) How would you describe the "skew" of a binary distribution?

a) The binary distribution is never skewed if it is a true binary distribution.
b) None of these are true.
c) Distributions are never skewed. Only experimental measurements of them are skewed.
d) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a large number of trials n.
e) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a small number of trials n.

3) If the hypotenuse of a 45°-45° right triangle has a length of ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$  what is the length of each side?

a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
b) ${\displaystyle 1}$
c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
d) ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$
e) ${\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {2}}}$

4) You solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣. Which of the following wins?

a) none of these are true
b) two of these are true
c) K and K♠
d) K and K♣
e) K♠ and K♣

5) For a binomial distribution with n trials, the variance is σ2=np(1-p). If 90 trials are made and p=.11, the expected number of positive outcomes is__. Make the approximation that this binomial distribution is approximately a Gaussian (normal) distribution.

a) 9.9
b) 3.3
c) 1.1
d) 2.2

6) The binomial distribution results from observing n outcomes, each having a probability p of "success"

a) True
b) False

7) If you play the solitaire game 3 times, you will on average win ___ times.

a) 2
b) 5
c) 1
d) 3
e) 4

8) You solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣. Which of the following loses?

a) none of these are true
b) two of these are true
c) K and K♠
d) K♠ and K♣
e) K and K♣

9) A linear polarizer selects a component of the electric field. Also, the energy density of light is proportional to the square of the electric field. By what factor does a filter reduce the electric field if it is oriented 30° to that field?

a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
b) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}}$
c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{4}}}$
d) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
e) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {3}{4}}}$

10) A local college averages 1600 new incoming students each year. Suppose the pool of potential high school graduates in the local area is so large that the probability of a given student selecting this college is small, and assume a variance of σ2 equal to p(1-p). What standard deviation would you expect in the yearly total of new enrollees, assuming nothing changes in this population from year to year?

a) 160
b) 40
c) 10
d) 16
e) 32

### KEY:Bell:Bell1:V2

Bell152874216196

1) Your solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣, you would__

-a) lose 3 points
-b) win 3 points
+c) win 1 point
-d) lose 1 point
-e) be disqualified for cheating

2) How would you describe the "skew" of a binary distribution?

-a) The binary distribution is never skewed if it is a true binary distribution.
-b) None of these are true.
-c) Distributions are never skewed. Only experimental measurements of them are skewed.
+d) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a large number of trials n.
-e) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a small number of trials n.

3) If the hypotenuse of a 45°-45° right triangle has a length of ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$  what is the length of each side?

-a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
-b) ${\displaystyle 1}$
-c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
+d) ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$
-e) ${\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {2}}}$

4) You solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣. Which of the following wins?

-a) none of these are true
+b) two of these are true
-c) K and K♠
-d) K and K♣
-e) K♠ and K♣

5) For a binomial distribution with n trials, the variance is σ2=np(1-p). If 90 trials are made and p=.11, the expected number of positive outcomes is__. Make the approximation that this binomial distribution is approximately a Gaussian (normal) distribution.

+a) 9.9
-b) 3.3
-c) 1.1
-d) 2.2

6) The binomial distribution results from observing n outcomes, each having a probability p of "success"

+a) True
-b) False

7) If you play the solitaire game 3 times, you will on average win ___ times.

+a) 2
-b) 5
-c) 1
-d) 3
-e) 4

8) You solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣. Which of the following loses?

-a) none of these are true
-b) two of these are true
-c) K and K♠
-d) K♠ and K♣
+e) K and K♣

9) A linear polarizer selects a component of the electric field. Also, the energy density of light is proportional to the square of the electric field. By what factor does a filter reduce the electric field if it is oriented 30° to that field?

-a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
+b) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}}$
-c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{4}}}$
-d) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
-e) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {3}{4}}}$

10) A local college averages 1600 new incoming students each year. Suppose the pool of potential high school graduates in the local area is so large that the probability of a given student selecting this college is small, and assume a variance of σ2 equal to p(1-p). What standard deviation would you expect in the yearly total of new enrollees, assuming nothing changes in this population from year to year?

-a) 160
-b) 40
-c) 10
+d) 16
-e) 32

### Bell:Bell2:V0

Bell152874216196

1) Hold a pendulum a moderate distance from equilibrium and release it by tossing it in a direction parallel to the displacement of the mass from equilibrium. The resulting polarization will be ____ (pick the best answer)

a) linearly
b) circular or elliptical
c) circular
d) linear or elliptical
e) circular or linear

2) Suppose the referee selects neutral scoring with ${\displaystyle Q={\frac {4}{3}}\left({\frac {1-P_{S}}{P_{S}}}\right).}$  What is the penalty if the probability of asking the same question is 0.25?

a) ${\displaystyle 3}$
b) ${\displaystyle \infty }$
c) ${\displaystyle 4}$
d) ${\displaystyle 4/3}$
e) ${\displaystyle 0}$

3) Suppose the partners choose the β strategy (which was not available in the solitaire version). What are the best and worst possible outcomes for the partners? (Assume for this question that ${\displaystyle Q>3}$ )

a) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
b) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
c) None of these is correct
d) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
e) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$

4) Although it decreases the rate at which the partners lose point, increasing the probability of asking the same question is more effective at persuading students to act as particles by relying on the α-strategy because relying on a larger penalty for giving different answers to the same question will tempt students to use the β-strategy only briefly (hoping never to be caught) and then requesting a break to "re-establish" quantum entanglement.

a) True
b) False

5) If the frequency f associated with a photon increases by a factor of 4, the photon's energy E

a) is reduced by a factor of 4
b) becomes twice as big
c) stays the same
d) becomes 4 times as big
e) is cut in half

6) If 1018 photons pass through a small hole in your roof every second, how many photons would pass through it if you doubled the diameter?

a) 8x1018
b) 2x1018
c) 1018
d) 6x1018
e) 4x1018

7) A photon is polarized at 10° when it encounters a filter oriented at 40°. What is the probability that it is blocked?

a) 1/4
b) 1
c) 3/4
d) 1/2
e) 0
8) Calculate the measured quantum correlation:
C(♠,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
a) −2/5
b) −1/5
c) +2/5
d) +1
e) 0
f) +1/5
9) Calculate the measured probability:
P(♠,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
a) 5/6
b) 2/4=1/2
c) 3/4
d) 3/5
e) 2/5
10) Calculate the probability
P(♠,)+P(♠,)+P(,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
a) 5/6
b) 4/5
c) 7/5
d) 6/5
e) 5/4

### KEY:Bell:Bell2:V0

Bell152874216196

1) Hold a pendulum a moderate distance from equilibrium and release it by tossing it in a direction parallel to the displacement of the mass from equilibrium. The resulting polarization will be ____ (pick the best answer)

+a) linearly
-b) circular or elliptical
-c) circular
-d) linear or elliptical
-e) circular or linear

2) Suppose the referee selects neutral scoring with ${\displaystyle Q={\frac {4}{3}}\left({\frac {1-P_{S}}{P_{S}}}\right).}$  What is the penalty if the probability of asking the same question is 0.25?

-a) ${\displaystyle 3}$
-b) ${\displaystyle \infty }$
+c) ${\displaystyle 4}$
-d) ${\displaystyle 4/3}$
-e) ${\displaystyle 0}$

3) Suppose the partners choose the β strategy (which was not available in the solitaire version). What are the best and worst possible outcomes for the partners? (Assume for this question that ${\displaystyle Q>3}$ )

+a) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
-b) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
-c) None of these is correct
-d) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
-e) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$

4) Although it decreases the rate at which the partners lose point, increasing the probability of asking the same question is more effective at persuading students to act as particles by relying on the α-strategy because relying on a larger penalty for giving different answers to the same question will tempt students to use the β-strategy only briefly (hoping never to be caught) and then requesting a break to "re-establish" quantum entanglement.

+a) True
-b) False

5) If the frequency f associated with a photon increases by a factor of 4, the photon's energy E

-a) is reduced by a factor of 4
-b) becomes twice as big
-c) stays the same
+d) becomes 4 times as big
-e) is cut in half

6) If 1018 photons pass through a small hole in your roof every second, how many photons would pass through it if you doubled the diameter?

-a) 8x1018
-b) 2x1018
-c) 1018
-d) 6x1018
+e) 4x1018

7) A photon is polarized at 10° when it encounters a filter oriented at 40°. What is the probability that it is blocked?

-a) 1/4
-b) 1
+c) 3/4
-d) 1/2
-e) 0
8) Calculate the measured quantum correlation:
C(♠,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
-a) −2/5
+b) −1/5
-c) +2/5
-d) +1
-e) 0
-f) +1/5
9) Calculate the measured probability:
P(♠,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
-a) 5/6
-b) 2/4=1/2
-c) 3/4
+d) 3/5
-e) 2/5
10) Calculate the probability
P(♠,)+P(♠,)+P(,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
-a) 5/6
-b) 4/5
+c) 7/5
-d) 6/5
-e) 5/4

### Bell:Bell2:V1

Bell152874216196

1) Calculate the probability
P(♠,)+P(♠,)+P(,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
a) 4/5
b) 6/5
c) 7/5
d) 5/4
e) 5/6

2) A photon is polarized at 10° when it encounters a filter oriented at 40°. What is the probability that it is blocked?

a) 1/2
b) 0
c) 1
d) 1/4
e) 3/4

3) Suppose the partners choose the β strategy (which was not available in the solitaire version). What are the best and worst possible outcomes for the partners? (Assume for this question that ${\displaystyle Q>3}$ )

a) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
b) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
c) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
d) None of these is correct
e) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
4) Calculate the measured probability:
P(♠,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
a) 2/4=1/2
b) 3/4
c) 5/6
d) 3/5
e) 2/5

5) Although it decreases the rate at which the partners lose point, increasing the probability of asking the same question is more effective at persuading students to act as particles by relying on the α-strategy because relying on a larger penalty for giving different answers to the same question will tempt students to use the β-strategy only briefly (hoping never to be caught) and then requesting a break to "re-establish" quantum entanglement.

a) True
b) False

6) If 1018 photons pass through a small hole in your roof every second, how many photons would pass through it if you doubled the diameter?

a) 8x1018
b) 2x1018
c) 1018
d) 6x1018
e) 4x1018

7) Suppose the referee selects neutral scoring with ${\displaystyle Q={\frac {4}{3}}\left({\frac {1-P_{S}}{P_{S}}}\right).}$  What is the penalty if the probability of asking the same question is 0.25?

a) ${\displaystyle \infty }$
b) ${\displaystyle 4}$
c) ${\displaystyle 3}$
d) ${\displaystyle 0}$
e) ${\displaystyle 4/3}$

8) Hold a pendulum a moderate distance from equilibrium and release it by tossing it in a direction parallel to the displacement of the mass from equilibrium. The resulting polarization will be ____ (pick the best answer)

a) circular or linear
b) circular
c) circular or elliptical
d) linearly
e) linear or elliptical
9) Calculate the measured quantum correlation:
C(♠,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
a) −1/5
b) +1/5
c) −2/5
d) 0
e) +1
f) +2/5

10) If the frequency f associated with a photon increases by a factor of 4, the photon's energy E

a) stays the same
b) becomes 4 times as big
c) becomes twice as big
d) is cut in half
e) is reduced by a factor of 4

### KEY:Bell:Bell2:V1

Bell152874216196

1) Calculate the probability
P(♠,)+P(♠,)+P(,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
-a) 4/5
-b) 6/5
+c) 7/5
-d) 5/4
-e) 5/6

2) A photon is polarized at 10° when it encounters a filter oriented at 40°. What is the probability that it is blocked?

-a) 1/2
-b) 0
-c) 1
-d) 1/4
+e) 3/4

3) Suppose the partners choose the β strategy (which was not available in the solitaire version). What are the best and worst possible outcomes for the partners? (Assume for this question that ${\displaystyle Q>3}$ )

+a) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
-b) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
-c) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
-d) None of these is correct
-e) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
4) Calculate the measured probability:
P(♠,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
-a) 2/4=1/2
-b) 3/4
-c) 5/6
+d) 3/5
-e) 2/5

5) Although it decreases the rate at which the partners lose point, increasing the probability of asking the same question is more effective at persuading students to act as particles by relying on the α-strategy because relying on a larger penalty for giving different answers to the same question will tempt students to use the β-strategy only briefly (hoping never to be caught) and then requesting a break to "re-establish" quantum entanglement.

+a) True
-b) False

6) If 1018 photons pass through a small hole in your roof every second, how many photons would pass through it if you doubled the diameter?

-a) 8x1018
-b) 2x1018
-c) 1018
-d) 6x1018
+e) 4x1018

7) Suppose the referee selects neutral scoring with ${\displaystyle Q={\frac {4}{3}}\left({\frac {1-P_{S}}{P_{S}}}\right).}$  What is the penalty if the probability of asking the same question is 0.25?

-a) ${\displaystyle \infty }$
+b) ${\displaystyle 4}$
-c) ${\displaystyle 3}$
-d) ${\displaystyle 0}$
-e) ${\displaystyle 4/3}$

8) Hold a pendulum a moderate distance from equilibrium and release it by tossing it in a direction parallel to the displacement of the mass from equilibrium. The resulting polarization will be ____ (pick the best answer)

-a) circular or linear
-b) circular
-c) circular or elliptical
+d) linearly
-e) linear or elliptical
9) Calculate the measured quantum correlation:
C(♠,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
+a) −1/5
-b) +1/5
-c) −2/5
-d) 0
-e) +1
-f) +2/5

10) If the frequency f associated with a photon increases by a factor of 4, the photon's energy E

-a) stays the same
+b) becomes 4 times as big
-c) becomes twice as big
-d) is cut in half
-e) is reduced by a factor of 4

### Bell:Bell2:V2

Bell152874216196

1) If 1018 photons pass through a small hole in your roof every second, how many photons would pass through it if you doubled the diameter?

a) 4x1018
b) 8x1018
c) 1018
d) 2x1018
e) 6x1018
2) Calculate the measured probability:
P(♠,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
a) 2/5
b) 3/5
c) 2/4=1/2
d) 5/6
e) 3/4
3) Calculate the measured quantum correlation:
C(♠,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
a) 0
b) −1/5
c) +2/5
d) +1/5
e) +1
f) −2/5

4) Suppose the partners choose the β strategy (which was not available in the solitaire version). What are the best and worst possible outcomes for the partners? (Assume for this question that ${\displaystyle Q>3}$ )

a) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
b) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
c) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
d) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
e) None of these is correct
5) Calculate the probability
P(♠,)+P(♠,)+P(,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
a) 5/4
b) 4/5
c) 7/5
d) 6/5
e) 5/6

6) A photon is polarized at 10° when it encounters a filter oriented at 40°. What is the probability that it is blocked?

a) 1/4
b) 1
c) 3/4
d) 0
e) 1/2

7) Although it decreases the rate at which the partners lose point, increasing the probability of asking the same question is more effective at persuading students to act as particles by relying on the α-strategy because relying on a larger penalty for giving different answers to the same question will tempt students to use the β-strategy only briefly (hoping never to be caught) and then requesting a break to "re-establish" quantum entanglement.

a) True
b) False

8) If the frequency f associated with a photon increases by a factor of 4, the photon's energy E

a) becomes 4 times as big
b) stays the same
c) is reduced by a factor of 4
d) becomes twice as big
e) is cut in half

9) Hold a pendulum a moderate distance from equilibrium and release it by tossing it in a direction parallel to the displacement of the mass from equilibrium. The resulting polarization will be ____ (pick the best answer)

a) linear or elliptical
b) linearly
c) circular or elliptical
d) circular or linear
e) circular

10) Suppose the referee selects neutral scoring with ${\displaystyle Q={\frac {4}{3}}\left({\frac {1-P_{S}}{P_{S}}}\right).}$  What is the penalty if the probability of asking the same question is 0.25?

a) ${\displaystyle 3}$
b) ${\displaystyle 0}$
c) ${\displaystyle \infty }$
d) ${\displaystyle 4}$
e) ${\displaystyle 4/3}$

### KEY:Bell:Bell2:V2

Bell152874216196

1) If 1018 photons pass through a small hole in your roof every second, how many photons would pass through it if you doubled the diameter?

+a) 4x1018
-b) 8x1018
-c) 1018
-d) 2x1018
-e) 6x1018
2) Calculate the measured probability:
P(♠,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
-a) 2/5
+b) 3/5
-c) 2/4=1/2
-d) 5/6
-e) 3/4
3) Calculate the measured quantum correlation:
C(♠,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
-a) 0
+b) −1/5
-c) +2/5
-d) +1/5
-e) +1
-f) −2/5

4) Suppose the partners choose the β strategy (which was not available in the solitaire version). What are the best and worst possible outcomes for the partners? (Assume for this question that ${\displaystyle Q>3}$ )

-a) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
+b) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
-c) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
-d) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
-e) None of these is correct
5) Calculate the probability
P(♠,)+P(♠,)+P(,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
-a) 5/4
-b) 4/5
+c) 7/5
-d) 6/5
-e) 5/6

6) A photon is polarized at 10° when it encounters a filter oriented at 40°. What is the probability that it is blocked?

-a) 1/4
-b) 1
+c) 3/4
-d) 0
-e) 1/2

7) Although it decreases the rate at which the partners lose point, increasing the probability of asking the same question is more effective at persuading students to act as particles by relying on the α-strategy because relying on a larger penalty for giving different answers to the same question will tempt students to use the β-strategy only briefly (hoping never to be caught) and then requesting a break to "re-establish" quantum entanglement.

+a) True
-b) False

8) If the frequency f associated with a photon increases by a factor of 4, the photon's energy E

+a) becomes 4 times as big
-b) stays the same
-c) is reduced by a factor of 4
-d) becomes twice as big
-e) is cut in half

9) Hold a pendulum a moderate distance from equilibrium and release it by tossing it in a direction parallel to the displacement of the mass from equilibrium. The resulting polarization will be ____ (pick the best answer)

-a) linear or elliptical
+b) linearly
-c) circular or elliptical
-d) circular or linear
-e) circular

10) Suppose the referee selects neutral scoring with ${\displaystyle Q={\frac {4}{3}}\left({\frac {1-P_{S}}{P_{S}}}\right).}$  What is the penalty if the probability of asking the same question is 0.25?

-a) ${\displaystyle 3}$
-b) ${\displaystyle 0}$
-c) ${\displaystyle \infty }$
+d) ${\displaystyle 4}$
-e) ${\displaystyle 4/3}$

### Bell:Bell3:V0

Bell152874216196

1) Your solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣, you would__

a) lose 3 points
b) be disqualified for cheating
c) win 3 points
d) lose 1 point
e) win 1 point

2) You solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣. Which of the following loses?

a) K and K♠
b) two of these are true
c) K and K♣
d) none of these are true
e) K♠ and K♣

3) The normal distribution (often called a "bell curve") is usually skewed

a) True
b) False

4) By definition, a skewed distribution

a) is asymmetric about it's peak value
b) is broader than an unskewed distribution
c) includes negative values of the observed variable
d) is a "normal" distribution
e) contains no outliers

5) How would you describe the "skew" of a binary distribution?

a) None of these are true.
b) Distributions are never skewed. Only experimental measurements of them are skewed.
c) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a small number of trials n.
d) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a large number of trials n.
e) The binary distribution is never skewed if it is a true binary distribution.

6) For a binomial distribution with n trials, the variance is σ2=np(1-p). If 40 trials are made and p=.11, the expected number of positive outcomes is__. Make the approximation that this binomial distribution is approximately a Gaussian (normal) distribution.

a) 2.2
b) 1.1
c) 4.4
d) 3.3
e) 9.9

7) A linear polarizer selects a component of the electric field. Also, the energy density of light is proportional to the square of the electric field. By what factor does a filter reduce the electric field if it is oriented 30° to that field?

a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}}$
b) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {3}{4}}}$
c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{4}}}$
d) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
e) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$

8) If the hypotenuse of a 45°-45° right triangle has a length of ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$  what is the length of each side?

a) ${\displaystyle 1}$
b) ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$
c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
d) ${\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {2}}}$
e) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$

9) A linear polarizer selects a component of the electric field. Also, the energy density of light is proportional to the square of the electric field.A 12 mW laser strikes a polarizing filter oriented 60° to the incoming axis of polarization. How much power is passed by the filter?

a) 4mW
b) 3mW
c) 9mW
d) 8mW
e) 6mW

10) If the hypotenuse of a 45°-45° right triangle has a length of ${\displaystyle 1}$  what is the length of each side?

a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
b) ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$
c) ${\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {2}}}$
d) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
e) ${\displaystyle 1}$

11) Suppose the referee gives Alice and Bob receive question cards of the different suit (different questions). What are the best and worst possible outcomes for the partners? (Assume for this question that ${\displaystyle Q>3}$ )

a) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
b) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
c) None of these is correct
d) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
e) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
12) Why is the referee smoking a pipe?
a) The paper's author wishes to promote pipe smoking among college students.
b) It is nearly impossible for Inkscape to modify an svg file.
c) The paper's author either likes the pipe or was too busy to remove it.
d) The CC-BY-SA license denies the right to modify File:Silhouette Mr Pipo.svg.

13) Suppose the partners choose the β strategy (which was not available in the solitaire version). What are the best and worst possible outcomes for the partners? (Assume for this question that ${\displaystyle Q>3}$ )

a) None of these is correct
b) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
c) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
d) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
e) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$

14) A photon is polarized at 10° when it encounters a filter oriented at 100°. What is the probability that it is blocked?

a) 1
b) 1/4
c) 3/4
d) 0
e) 1/2

15) If an atom emits two photons in a cascade emission and both photons have 2 eV of energy, the atom's energy

a) stays the same
b) increases by 4 eV
c) increases by 2 eV
d) decreases by 2 eV
e) decreases by 4 eV

16) If the wavelength λ associated with a photon is cut in half, the photon's energy E

a) is reduced by a factor of 4
b) becomes 4 times as big
c) is cut in half
d) stays the same
e) becomes twice as big
17) This figure is associated with
a) A system similar to the one that led to the 1901 proposal that light energy is quantized as integral multiples of hf (except that Plank assumed that the walls were conductive.)
b) Evidence presented in 1800 that light is a wave.
c) Diffraction observed in light so faint that photons seemed to have no mechanism to interact with each other (observed in 1909)
d) The transfer of energy and momentum of a high energy photon of a nearly free electron.
e) Photons striking metal and ejecting electrons (photo-electric effect explained in 1905)
18) If a number is randomly selected from the set {2,3,4,5}, what is P(prime)+P(even), or the sum of the probability that it is even, plus the probability that it is prime?
a) 1/4
b) 0
c) 1
d) 1/2
e) 3/4
f) 5/4
19) Calculate the measured probability:
P(♠,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
a) 5/6
b) 2/5
c) 2/4=1/2
d) 3/4
e) 3/5
20) Calculate the probability
P(♠,)+P(♠,)+P(,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
a) 6/5
b) 7/5
c) 4/5
d) 5/6
e) 5/4

### KEY:Bell:Bell3:V0

Bell152874216196

1) Your solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣, you would__

-a) lose 3 points
-b) be disqualified for cheating
-c) win 3 points
-d) lose 1 point
+e) win 1 point

2) You solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣. Which of the following loses?

-a) K and K♠
-b) two of these are true
+c) K and K♣
-d) none of these are true
-e) K♠ and K♣

3) The normal distribution (often called a "bell curve") is usually skewed

-a) True
+b) False

4) By definition, a skewed distribution

+a) is asymmetric about it's peak value
-b) is broader than an unskewed distribution
-c) includes negative values of the observed variable
-d) is a "normal" distribution
-e) contains no outliers

5) How would you describe the "skew" of a binary distribution?

-a) None of these are true.
-b) Distributions are never skewed. Only experimental measurements of them are skewed.
-c) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a small number of trials n.
+d) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a large number of trials n.
-e) The binary distribution is never skewed if it is a true binary distribution.

6) For a binomial distribution with n trials, the variance is σ2=np(1-p). If 40 trials are made and p=.11, the expected number of positive outcomes is__. Make the approximation that this binomial distribution is approximately a Gaussian (normal) distribution.

-a) 2.2
-b) 1.1
+c) 4.4
-d) 3.3
-e) 9.9

7) A linear polarizer selects a component of the electric field. Also, the energy density of light is proportional to the square of the electric field. By what factor does a filter reduce the electric field if it is oriented 30° to that field?

+a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}}$
-b) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {3}{4}}}$
-c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{4}}}$
-d) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
-e) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$

8) If the hypotenuse of a 45°-45° right triangle has a length of ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$  what is the length of each side?

-a) ${\displaystyle 1}$
+b) ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$
-c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
-d) ${\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {2}}}$
-e) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$

9) A linear polarizer selects a component of the electric field. Also, the energy density of light is proportional to the square of the electric field.A 12 mW laser strikes a polarizing filter oriented 60° to the incoming axis of polarization. How much power is passed by the filter?

-a) 4mW
+b) 3mW
-c) 9mW
-d) 8mW
-e) 6mW

10) If the hypotenuse of a 45°-45° right triangle has a length of ${\displaystyle 1}$  what is the length of each side?

-a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
-b) ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$
-c) ${\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {2}}}$
+d) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
-e) ${\displaystyle 1}$

11) Suppose the referee gives Alice and Bob receive question cards of the different suit (different questions). What are the best and worst possible outcomes for the partners? (Assume for this question that ${\displaystyle Q>3}$ )

-a) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
-b) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
-c) None of these is correct
-d) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
+e) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
12) Why is the referee smoking a pipe?
-a) The paper's author wishes to promote pipe smoking among college students.
-b) It is nearly impossible for Inkscape to modify an svg file.
+c) The paper's author either likes the pipe or was too busy to remove it.
-d) The CC-BY-SA license denies the right to modify File:Silhouette Mr Pipo.svg.

13) Suppose the partners choose the β strategy (which was not available in the solitaire version). What are the best and worst possible outcomes for the partners? (Assume for this question that ${\displaystyle Q>3}$ )

-a) None of these is correct
-b) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
-c) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
-d) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
+e) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$

14) A photon is polarized at 10° when it encounters a filter oriented at 100°. What is the probability that it is blocked?

+a) 1
-b) 1/4
-c) 3/4
-d) 0
-e) 1/2

15) If an atom emits two photons in a cascade emission and both photons have 2 eV of energy, the atom's energy

-a) stays the same
-b) increases by 4 eV
-c) increases by 2 eV
-d) decreases by 2 eV
+e) decreases by 4 eV

16) If the wavelength λ associated with a photon is cut in half, the photon's energy E

-a) is reduced by a factor of 4
-b) becomes 4 times as big
-c) is cut in half
-d) stays the same
+e) becomes twice as big
17) This figure is associated with
-a) A system similar to the one that led to the 1901 proposal that light energy is quantized as integral multiples of hf (except that Plank assumed that the walls were conductive.)
-b) Evidence presented in 1800 that light is a wave.
-c) Diffraction observed in light so faint that photons seemed to have no mechanism to interact with each other (observed in 1909)
-d) The transfer of energy and momentum of a high energy photon of a nearly free electron.
+e) Photons striking metal and ejecting electrons (photo-electric effect explained in 1905)
18) If a number is randomly selected from the set {2,3,4,5}, what is P(prime)+P(even), or the sum of the probability that it is even, plus the probability that it is prime?
-a) 1/4
-b) 0
-c) 1
-d) 1/2
-e) 3/4
+f) 5/4
19) Calculate the measured probability:
P(♠,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
-a) 5/6
+b) 2/5
-c) 2/4=1/2
-d) 3/4
-e) 3/5
20) Calculate the probability
P(♠,)+P(♠,)+P(,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
-a) 6/5
+b) 7/5
-c) 4/5
-d) 5/6
-e) 5/4

### Bell:Bell3:V1

Bell152874216196

1) If a number is randomly selected from the set {2,3,4,5}, what is P(prime)+P(even), or the sum of the probability that it is even, plus the probability that it is prime?
a) 0
b) 1
c) 3/4
d) 1/4
e) 5/4
f) 1/2
2) Calculate the probability
P(♠,)+P(♠,)+P(,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
a) 5/6
b) 6/5
c) 7/5
d) 5/4
e) 4/5

3) Suppose the referee gives Alice and Bob receive question cards of the different suit (different questions). What are the best and worst possible outcomes for the partners? (Assume for this question that ${\displaystyle Q>3}$ )

a) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
b) None of these is correct
c) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
d) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
e) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$

4) If the wavelength λ associated with a photon is cut in half, the photon's energy E

a) stays the same
b) becomes twice as big
c) is reduced by a factor of 4
d) becomes 4 times as big
e) is cut in half

5) A linear polarizer selects a component of the electric field. Also, the energy density of light is proportional to the square of the electric field.A 12 mW laser strikes a polarizing filter oriented 60° to the incoming axis of polarization. How much power is passed by the filter?

a) 4mW
b) 6mW
c) 8mW
d) 9mW
e) 3mW

6) Your solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣, you would__

a) be disqualified for cheating
b) lose 3 points
c) win 1 point
d) win 3 points
e) lose 1 point

7) A linear polarizer selects a component of the electric field. Also, the energy density of light is proportional to the square of the electric field. By what factor does a filter reduce the electric field if it is oriented 30° to that field?

a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {3}{4}}}$
b) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
d) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{4}}}$
e) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}}$

8) How would you describe the "skew" of a binary distribution?

a) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a small number of trials n.
b) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a large number of trials n.
c) Distributions are never skewed. Only experimental measurements of them are skewed.
d) None of these are true.
e) The binary distribution is never skewed if it is a true binary distribution.

9) If an atom emits two photons in a cascade emission and both photons have 2 eV of energy, the atom's energy

a) decreases by 2 eV
b) increases by 4 eV
c) decreases by 4 eV
d) stays the same
e) increases by 2 eV
10) This figure is associated with
a) Evidence presented in 1800 that light is a wave.
b) The transfer of energy and momentum of a high energy photon of a nearly free electron.
c) A system similar to the one that led to the 1901 proposal that light energy is quantized as integral multiples of hf (except that Plank assumed that the walls were conductive.)
d) Photons striking metal and ejecting electrons (photo-electric effect explained in 1905)
e) Diffraction observed in light so faint that photons seemed to have no mechanism to interact with each other (observed in 1909)
11) Why is the referee smoking a pipe?
a) The CC-BY-SA license denies the right to modify File:Silhouette Mr Pipo.svg.
b) The paper's author wishes to promote pipe smoking among college students.
c) It is nearly impossible for Inkscape to modify an svg file.
d) The paper's author either likes the pipe or was too busy to remove it.

12) For a binomial distribution with n trials, the variance is σ2=np(1-p). If 40 trials are made and p=.11, the expected number of positive outcomes is__. Make the approximation that this binomial distribution is approximately a Gaussian (normal) distribution.

a) 3.3
b) 1.1
c) 2.2
d) 4.4
e) 9.9

13) If the hypotenuse of a 45°-45° right triangle has a length of ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$  what is the length of each side?

a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
b) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
c) ${\displaystyle 1}$
d) ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$
e) ${\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {2}}}$
14) Calculate the measured probability:
P(♠,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
a) 5/6
b) 3/4
c) 3/5
d) 2/5
e) 2/4=1/2

15) You solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣. Which of the following loses?

a) none of these are true
b) K and K♠
c) K♠ and K♣
d) K and K♣
e) two of these are true

16) A photon is polarized at 10° when it encounters a filter oriented at 100°. What is the probability that it is blocked?

a) 1/4
b) 1
c) 1/2
d) 3/4
e) 0

17) The normal distribution (often called a "bell curve") is usually skewed

a) True
b) False

18) Suppose the partners choose the β strategy (which was not available in the solitaire version). What are the best and worst possible outcomes for the partners? (Assume for this question that ${\displaystyle Q>3}$ )

a) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
b) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
c) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
d) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
e) None of these is correct

19) If the hypotenuse of a 45°-45° right triangle has a length of ${\displaystyle 1}$  what is the length of each side?

a) ${\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {2}}}$
b) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
d) ${\displaystyle 1}$
e) ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$

20) By definition, a skewed distribution

a) contains no outliers
b) is a "normal" distribution
c) is broader than an unskewed distribution
d) includes negative values of the observed variable
e) is asymmetric about it's peak value

### KEY:Bell:Bell3:V1

Bell152874216196

1) If a number is randomly selected from the set {2,3,4,5}, what is P(prime)+P(even), or the sum of the probability that it is even, plus the probability that it is prime?
-a) 0
-b) 1
-c) 3/4
-d) 1/4
+e) 5/4
-f) 1/2
2) Calculate the probability
P(♠,)+P(♠,)+P(,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
-a) 5/6
-b) 6/5
+c) 7/5
-d) 5/4
-e) 4/5

3) Suppose the referee gives Alice and Bob receive question cards of the different suit (different questions). What are the best and worst possible outcomes for the partners? (Assume for this question that ${\displaystyle Q>3}$ )

-a) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
-b) None of these is correct
-c) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
+d) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
-e) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$

4) If the wavelength λ associated with a photon is cut in half, the photon's energy E

-a) stays the same
+b) becomes twice as big
-c) is reduced by a factor of 4
-d) becomes 4 times as big
-e) is cut in half

5) A linear polarizer selects a component of the electric field. Also, the energy density of light is proportional to the square of the electric field.A 12 mW laser strikes a polarizing filter oriented 60° to the incoming axis of polarization. How much power is passed by the filter?

-a) 4mW
-b) 6mW
-c) 8mW
-d) 9mW
+e) 3mW

6) Your solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣, you would__

-a) be disqualified for cheating
-b) lose 3 points
+c) win 1 point
-d) win 3 points
-e) lose 1 point

7) A linear polarizer selects a component of the electric field. Also, the energy density of light is proportional to the square of the electric field. By what factor does a filter reduce the electric field if it is oriented 30° to that field?

-a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {3}{4}}}$
-b) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
-c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
-d) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{4}}}$
+e) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}}$

8) How would you describe the "skew" of a binary distribution?

-a) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a small number of trials n.
+b) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a large number of trials n.
-c) Distributions are never skewed. Only experimental measurements of them are skewed.
-d) None of these are true.
-e) The binary distribution is never skewed if it is a true binary distribution.

9) If an atom emits two photons in a cascade emission and both photons have 2 eV of energy, the atom's energy

-a) decreases by 2 eV
-b) increases by 4 eV
+c) decreases by 4 eV
-d) stays the same
-e) increases by 2 eV
10) This figure is associated with
-a) Evidence presented in 1800 that light is a wave.
-b) The transfer of energy and momentum of a high energy photon of a nearly free electron.
-c) A system similar to the one that led to the 1901 proposal that light energy is quantized as integral multiples of hf (except that Plank assumed that the walls were conductive.)
+d) Photons striking metal and ejecting electrons (photo-electric effect explained in 1905)
-e) Diffraction observed in light so faint that photons seemed to have no mechanism to interact with each other (observed in 1909)
11) Why is the referee smoking a pipe?
-a) The CC-BY-SA license denies the right to modify File:Silhouette Mr Pipo.svg.
-b) The paper's author wishes to promote pipe smoking among college students.
-c) It is nearly impossible for Inkscape to modify an svg file.
+d) The paper's author either likes the pipe or was too busy to remove it.

12) For a binomial distribution with n trials, the variance is σ2=np(1-p). If 40 trials are made and p=.11, the expected number of positive outcomes is__. Make the approximation that this binomial distribution is approximately a Gaussian (normal) distribution.

-a) 3.3
-b) 1.1
-c) 2.2
+d) 4.4
-e) 9.9

13) If the hypotenuse of a 45°-45° right triangle has a length of ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$  what is the length of each side?

-a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
-b) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
-c) ${\displaystyle 1}$
+d) ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$
-e) ${\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {2}}}$
14) Calculate the measured probability:
P(♠,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
-a) 5/6
-b) 3/4
-c) 3/5
+d) 2/5
-e) 2/4=1/2

15) You solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣. Which of the following loses?

-a) none of these are true
-b) K and K♠
-c) K♠ and K♣
+d) K and K♣
-e) two of these are true

16) A photon is polarized at 10° when it encounters a filter oriented at 100°. What is the probability that it is blocked?

-a) 1/4
+b) 1
-c) 1/2
-d) 3/4
-e) 0

17) The normal distribution (often called a "bell curve") is usually skewed

-a) True
+b) False

18) Suppose the partners choose the β strategy (which was not available in the solitaire version). What are the best and worst possible outcomes for the partners? (Assume for this question that ${\displaystyle Q>3}$ )

-a) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
-b) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
+c) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
-d) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
-e) None of these is correct

19) If the hypotenuse of a 45°-45° right triangle has a length of ${\displaystyle 1}$  what is the length of each side?

-a) ${\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {2}}}$
+b) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
-c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
-d) ${\displaystyle 1}$
-e) ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$

20) By definition, a skewed distribution

-a) contains no outliers
-b) is a "normal" distribution
-c) is broader than an unskewed distribution
-d) includes negative values of the observed variable
+e) is asymmetric about it's peak value

### Bell:Bell3:V2

Bell152874216196

1) Suppose the partners choose the β strategy (which was not available in the solitaire version). What are the best and worst possible outcomes for the partners? (Assume for this question that ${\displaystyle Q>3}$ )

a) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
b) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
c) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
d) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
e) None of these is correct

2) If an atom emits two photons in a cascade emission and both photons have 2 eV of energy, the atom's energy

a) increases by 2 eV
b) decreases by 4 eV
c) increases by 4 eV
d) stays the same
e) decreases by 2 eV

3) A photon is polarized at 10° when it encounters a filter oriented at 100°. What is the probability that it is blocked?

a) 0
b) 1/2
c) 1
d) 3/4
e) 1/4
4) Calculate the probability
P(♠,)+P(♠,)+P(,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
a) 4/5
b) 5/4
c) 6/5
d) 5/6
e) 7/5

5) How would you describe the "skew" of a binary distribution?

a) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a small number of trials n.
b) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a large number of trials n.
c) Distributions are never skewed. Only experimental measurements of them are skewed.
d) None of these are true.
e) The binary distribution is never skewed if it is a true binary distribution.
6) Why is the referee smoking a pipe?
a) The CC-BY-SA license denies the right to modify File:Silhouette Mr Pipo.svg.
b) The paper's author wishes to promote pipe smoking among college students.
c) It is nearly impossible for Inkscape to modify an svg file.
d) The paper's author either likes the pipe or was too busy to remove it.

7) The normal distribution (often called a "bell curve") is usually skewed

a) True
b) False

8) If the wavelength λ associated with a photon is cut in half, the photon's energy E

a) becomes 4 times as big
b) stays the same
c) becomes twice as big
d) is cut in half
e) is reduced by a factor of 4
9) If a number is randomly selected from the set {2,3,4,5}, what is P(prime)+P(even), or the sum of the probability that it is even, plus the probability that it is prime?
a) 1/2
b) 1/4
c) 1
d) 0
e) 3/4
f) 5/4

10) You solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣. Which of the following loses?

a) K and K♣
b) two of these are true
c) K♠ and K♣
d) none of these are true
e) K and K♠

11) A linear polarizer selects a component of the electric field. Also, the energy density of light is proportional to the square of the electric field. By what factor does a filter reduce the electric field if it is oriented 30° to that field?

a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {3}{4}}}$
b) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{4}}}$
d) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}}$
e) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$

12) By definition, a skewed distribution

a) is a "normal" distribution
b) is broader than an unskewed distribution
c) includes negative values of the observed variable
d) contains no outliers
e) is asymmetric about it's peak value

13) For a binomial distribution with n trials, the variance is σ2=np(1-p). If 40 trials are made and p=.11, the expected number of positive outcomes is__. Make the approximation that this binomial distribution is approximately a Gaussian (normal) distribution.

a) 9.9
b) 2.2
c) 4.4
d) 3.3
e) 1.1

14) Your solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣, you would__

a) be disqualified for cheating
b) win 1 point
c) lose 3 points
d) lose 1 point
e) win 3 points

15) If the hypotenuse of a 45°-45° right triangle has a length of ${\displaystyle 1}$  what is the length of each side?

a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
b) ${\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {2}}}$
c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
d) ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$
e) ${\displaystyle 1}$

16) A linear polarizer selects a component of the electric field. Also, the energy density of light is proportional to the square of the electric field.A 12 mW laser strikes a polarizing filter oriented 60° to the incoming axis of polarization. How much power is passed by the filter?

a) 4mW
b) 6mW
c) 8mW
d) 9mW
e) 3mW

17) If the hypotenuse of a 45°-45° right triangle has a length of ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$  what is the length of each side?

a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
b) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
c) ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$
d) ${\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {2}}}$
e) ${\displaystyle 1}$

18) Suppose the referee gives Alice and Bob receive question cards of the different suit (different questions). What are the best and worst possible outcomes for the partners? (Assume for this question that ${\displaystyle Q>3}$ )

a) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
b) None of these is correct
c) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
d) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
e) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
19) This figure is associated with
a) Diffraction observed in light so faint that photons seemed to have no mechanism to interact with each other (observed in 1909)
b) Evidence presented in 1800 that light is a wave.
c) Photons striking metal and ejecting electrons (photo-electric effect explained in 1905)
d) The transfer of energy and momentum of a high energy photon of a nearly free electron.
e) A system similar to the one that led to the 1901 proposal that light energy is quantized as integral multiples of hf (except that Plank assumed that the walls were conductive.)
20) Calculate the measured probability:
P(♠,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
a) 3/4
b) 2/4=1/2
c) 2/5
d) 3/5
e) 5/6

### KEY:Bell:Bell3:V2

Bell152874216196

1) Suppose the partners choose the β strategy (which was not available in the solitaire version). What are the best and worst possible outcomes for the partners? (Assume for this question that ${\displaystyle Q>3}$ )

+a) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
-b) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
-c) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
-d) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
-e) None of these is correct

2) If an atom emits two photons in a cascade emission and both photons have 2 eV of energy, the atom's energy

-a) increases by 2 eV
+b) decreases by 4 eV
-c) increases by 4 eV
-d) stays the same
-e) decreases by 2 eV

3) A photon is polarized at 10° when it encounters a filter oriented at 100°. What is the probability that it is blocked?

-a) 0
-b) 1/2
+c) 1
-d) 3/4
-e) 1/4
4) Calculate the probability
P(♠,)+P(♠,)+P(,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
-a) 4/5
-b) 5/4
-c) 6/5
-d) 5/6
+e) 7/5

5) How would you describe the "skew" of a binary distribution?

-a) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a small number of trials n.
+b) The binary distribution is always skewed, but has little skew for a large number of trials n.
-c) Distributions are never skewed. Only experimental measurements of them are skewed.
-d) None of these are true.
-e) The binary distribution is never skewed if it is a true binary distribution.
6) Why is the referee smoking a pipe?
-a) The CC-BY-SA license denies the right to modify File:Silhouette Mr Pipo.svg.
-b) The paper's author wishes to promote pipe smoking among college students.
-c) It is nearly impossible for Inkscape to modify an svg file.
+d) The paper's author either likes the pipe or was too busy to remove it.

7) The normal distribution (often called a "bell curve") is usually skewed

-a) True
+b) False

8) If the wavelength λ associated with a photon is cut in half, the photon's energy E

-a) becomes 4 times as big
-b) stays the same
+c) becomes twice as big
-d) is cut in half
-e) is reduced by a factor of 4
9) If a number is randomly selected from the set {2,3,4,5}, what is P(prime)+P(even), or the sum of the probability that it is even, plus the probability that it is prime?
-a) 1/2
-b) 1/4
-c) 1
-d) 0
-e) 3/4
+f) 5/4

10) You solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣. Which of the following loses?

+a) K and K♣
-b) two of these are true
-c) K♠ and K♣
-d) none of these are true
-e) K and K♠

11) A linear polarizer selects a component of the electric field. Also, the energy density of light is proportional to the square of the electric field. By what factor does a filter reduce the electric field if it is oriented 30° to that field?

-a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {3}{4}}}$
-b) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
-c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{4}}}$
+d) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {\sqrt {3}}{2}}}$
-e) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$

12) By definition, a skewed distribution

-a) is a "normal" distribution
-b) is broader than an unskewed distribution
-c) includes negative values of the observed variable
-d) contains no outliers
+e) is asymmetric about it's peak value

13) For a binomial distribution with n trials, the variance is σ2=np(1-p). If 40 trials are made and p=.11, the expected number of positive outcomes is__. Make the approximation that this binomial distribution is approximately a Gaussian (normal) distribution.

-a) 9.9
-b) 2.2
+c) 4.4
-d) 3.3
-e) 1.1

14) Your solitaire deck uses ♠ ♣ and your answer cards are 4 and 5. You select 4♠, 5♣, and 5. If the questions were Q♠ and Q♣, you would__

-a) be disqualified for cheating
+b) win 1 point
-c) lose 3 points
-d) lose 1 point
-e) win 3 points

15) If the hypotenuse of a 45°-45° right triangle has a length of ${\displaystyle 1}$  what is the length of each side?

-a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
-b) ${\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {2}}}$
+c) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
-d) ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$
-e) ${\displaystyle 1}$

16) A linear polarizer selects a component of the electric field. Also, the energy density of light is proportional to the square of the electric field.A 12 mW laser strikes a polarizing filter oriented 60° to the incoming axis of polarization. How much power is passed by the filter?

-a) 4mW
-b) 6mW
-c) 8mW
-d) 9mW
+e) 3mW

17) If the hypotenuse of a 45°-45° right triangle has a length of ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$  what is the length of each side?

-a) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{2}}}$
-b) ${\displaystyle {\tfrac {1}{\sqrt {2}}}}$
+c) ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$
-d) ${\displaystyle 2{\sqrt {2}}}$
-e) ${\displaystyle 1}$

18) Suppose the referee gives Alice and Bob receive question cards of the different suit (different questions). What are the best and worst possible outcomes for the partners? (Assume for this question that ${\displaystyle Q>3}$ )

+a) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
-b) None of these is correct
-c) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -3}$
-d) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle +1}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
-e) Best for partners: ${\displaystyle 0}$  ... Worst: ${\displaystyle -Q}$
19) This figure is associated with
-a) Diffraction observed in light so faint that photons seemed to have no mechanism to interact with each other (observed in 1909)
-b) Evidence presented in 1800 that light is a wave.
+c) Photons striking metal and ejecting electrons (photo-electric effect explained in 1905)
-d) The transfer of energy and momentum of a high energy photon of a nearly free electron.
-e) A system similar to the one that led to the 1901 proposal that light energy is quantized as integral multiples of hf (except that Plank assumed that the walls were conductive.)
20) Calculate the measured probability:
P(♠,) = ?
Assume the dots represent five observations.
-a) 3/4
-b) 2/4=1/2
+c) 2/5
-d) 3/5
-e) 5/6