Public assembly risk management

This examination of public assembly risk management considerations is under development by University of Florida, College of Health and Human Performance, Department of Sport Management, SPM 4724 Risk Management in Live Entertainment and Sports undergraduate students. This ongoing coursework initiative started Fall 2020 and is being led by the students at the direction of Brian D. Avery, UF SPM Faculty member.

Students will develop a foundation based on consensus defining and outlining risk management considerations including safety, security, business continuity, legal, and regulatory issues impacting the live entertainment and sport industry. Students will focus on new and existing assembly occupancies (both indoor and outdoor) accommodating 250 patrons or more with an emphasis on occupancy in excess of 6000 (large-scale).

Learning Objectives

  1. Analyze and define prevailing public assembly risk management theories;
  2. Analyze and define applicable public assembly risk management standards and practices;
  3. Evaluate and define prevailing public assembly continuity plans;
  4. Analyze and define public assembly safety and security protocols;
  5. Evaluate and define public assembly incident trends and accepted responses; and,
  6. Analyze and define public assembly legal considerations regarding matters of negligence.

Topics

  • History and introduction of public assembly risk management;
  • Typology of risk management as it relates to public assemblies;
  • Accepted risk management frameworks for public assemblies;
  • Management roles and practices as it relates to public assemblies;
  • Public assembly risk considerations related to spectators, participants, staff, and vendors;
  • Theories of accident / ancient causation as it relates to public assemblies;
  • Hazard recognition, mitigation and/or elimination practices as it relates to public assemblies;
  • Regulations, standards, and practices as they release to public assemblies;
  • Business continuity planning for public assemblies;
  • Security and loss prevention planning for public assemblies;
  • Medical and first aid considerations for public assemblies; and,
  • Occupational safety and health considerations as they relate to public assemblies.

Medical and First Aid Considerations for Public AssembliesEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

A key principle associated with medical and first aid considerations for public assemblies is determining the type of public assembly and associated risk levels. Depending on these two factors, it will determine what level of medical/first aid equipment is needed on-scene of the event. According to an article by Arthur Hsieh, there are several factors during an event that can have an impact on public safety. These include weather, age, drugs and alcohol, location, timing, and potential for violence (Hsieh, 2020). For example, an outdoor event in Florida in July would require different precautions than one in December because of extreme heat. An event hosting an older crowd has a greater risk of falls, slips, or health emergencies than a children’s event. A heavy metal concert would be more likely to attract alcohol and drug users and violence versus a Little League World Series game. All of these factors have an impact on how many medical personnel should be on scene, whether basic life support (BSL) or advanced life support (ASL) are preferred, and what other first aid services should be offered on scene.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory

The World Health Organization notes characterization of risk in determining the extent of medial/first aid at an event. Their chart characterizes risk from minimal to severe, and understanding what can happen at each level is an important practice for those frequently involved in the implementation of large events or public assemblies. Minimal risk is characterized by little or no consequences (World Health Organization, 2015). This could include no injuries or very small ones such as cuts/abrasions. The next level is minor, characterized by low risk of injury or illness (World Health Organization, 2015) such as the potential for broken bones, food poisoning, etc. Next is moderate, characterized by having the potential for death or serious injury (World Health Organization, 2015). This could include a carnival event. A major risk event is characterized by substantial loss of life or injury (World Health Organization, 2015) which could include an event at which the likelihood of alcohol/drug overdoses are prevalent. Lastly, risks classified as severe include extreme loss of life or serious injury (World Health Organization, 2015) which could be attributed to an act of terrorism. The WHO characterization of risk is applicable when looking at medical and first aid considerations because it can help determine appropriate courses of action and what medical devices/personnel should be nearby and ready to go. A second practice associated with medical and first aid considerations is the event classification matrix that scores event risk on a 0-6 scale, with 0 being the least risk and 6 being the most (Avery, 2020). This looks at characteristics such as weather, attendance, predicted alcohol consumption, crowd age and intent, and transport time to hospital to determine how high risk the event is and the associated medical and first aid components that should be present at the given event (Avery, 2020). The three levels of event risk are high, intermediate, and low. High-risk events (5-6) should have a licensed physician and ALS equipment on-site (Avery, 2020). By having ALS equipment on site at events that are expected to produce a significant amount of injuries (i.e. an event in which a high amount of drugs and/or alcohol is being consumed), the probabilities of death decreases as patients can be treated sooner. Especially if transport time to a hospital is not reasonable and risk is inherent to the event, this will be very important for public safety. An intermediate risk event (3-4) should have a mix of BLS/ALS components and should consider appropriate staff, stations, and equipment based on the nature of the event (Avery, 2020). It is always better to be prepared and ready for any feasible incident to occur, which is why medical and first aid considerations are a necessary factor at places of public assembly. A low risk event (0-2) should have BLS equipment ready to go. Looking at the event classification risk matrix is an important practice when assessing medical and first aid considerations. It gives event organizers a proper gauge on the safety of their event, an idea of what could happen (extreme weather, overdose, various injuries, etc.), and time to prepare safety stations for maximum patron safety.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice  Edit

To mitigate the risk of an event, it must first be considered if the risks are avoidable or not. Some may be, such as moving an outdoor event indoors if the location is under a severe storm warning. Some risks, however, are unavoidable, such as the use of drugs and alcohol at an EDM concert, for example. The use of drugs at these festivals could be considered a part of the environment, and precautions are not typically taken to eliminate the drug use but instead to monitor the use of ‘safe’, non-poisoned drugs (Avery, 2020). This is why the event classification matrix is such a helpful practice for medical and first aid considerations. The matrix helps determine what risks are avoidable and which ones are not and can therefore help mitigate extreme occurrences (i.e. death) by having appropriate personnel and equipment on-scene to handle an emergency. Each public assembly occurrence should also have an emergency action plan (EAP) if there is to be an emergency requiring medical attention/first aid. The EAP assigns specific roles to various staff members so they know what their course of action and duties are in a situation. Especially for high risk events, the EAP is necessary to ensure there is no chaos or confusion on part of anyone during a situation. By looking into the World Health Organization’s risk classification system, it can help determine the depth and scope of the EAP. For example, if risk at an event is minimal the EAP will not have that many components because the extent of an injury may simply be a cut or a broken bone. However, if the perceived risk is to be severe (an example being the potential for an act of terrorism), there would have to be strict EAP guidelines and assurance that everyone could do their part.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tacticEdit

A method of applying a risk assessment is to do a facility inspection before the event. This can help determine if there are any falling/trip hazards, if and how weather can be an issue, if the facility is appropriate for the demographic (for example, you would not want to host an event for wheelchair-bound individuals in the sand), and more. A facility inspection can help determine the avoidable and unavoidable risks and can perhaps determine if the venue should be changed in the best interest of public safety. A method of applying the emergency action plan would be to run a drill with all members of the emergency response team before the event. Going back to the EDM concert example, maybe a scenario is run in which a patron experiences an overdose. On-scene EMTs would retrieve the individual and bring them to a critical care medical station. As this would be a high-risk event by the event classification matrix, the individual would probably then be treated by appropriate personnel and equipment. By running a practice scenario, the EAP can be practiced and the mitigation of a real overdose during the event would go a lot smoother. There would be no question as to what medical and first aid services would be needed, and there would be appropriate personnel on-scene to take care of the situation.

A citationEdit
  1. Avery, B. (2020). Health, Medical, and Safety: Best Practices for Mass Gatherings [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/jordi/Downloads/Health-Medical_Event-Planning.pdf
  2. Hsieh, A. (2020, May 28). EMS coverage for mass gatherings and public events. Retrieved November 10, 2020, from https://www.ems1.com/ems-products/incident-management/articles/ems-coverage-for-mass-gatherings-and-public-events-KQdJ0H4MfeULbEtS/
  3. World Health Organization. (2015). Public Health for Mass Gatherings: Key Considerations [PDF]. Retrieved from WHO_HSE_GCR_2015.5_eng.pdf


Public assembly risk considerations related to spectators, participants, staff, and vendors.

 A description of a key principle associated with the topic;

A key principle in regard to risk considerations for those involved with public assemblies is fire safety. There is always a risk of a fire in any situation, but in a public assembly many lives are involved which makes security and proper training on fire safety paramount. In an event where there may be fireworks or pyrotechnics involved, the risk of a fire is heightened. The operator for the pyrotechnics holds the overall responsibility in safely using them, and educating others on safety measures required during their use.


Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory;

     The NFPA 1126 standard for use of pyrotechnics before an audience provides safety training and guidance on appropriate measures to take when dealing with pyrotechnics in front of a large gathering. There needs to be at least one license holder on hand with adequate training although all members of the staff should be well equipped to perform safely.  


A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice;

                       Fire alarms systems used to detect fires, should they occur, can help to mitigate the hazard. Making sure fire alarm systems are functioning properly is part of the training and setup for an event with pyrotechnics involved. Portable fire extinguishers should also be present in case they need to be used by trained personnel in the event of a fire related emergency. It is important to make sure all loose wires are tied up and ensure that there is only one plug in per outlet. These are risks that can cause sparks which ultimately lead to fires. Furthermore, the best elimination tactic is doing a run through before events and keeping all running wires separate from each other. The responsibility of run throughs falls on both maintenance and fire protection crews to thoroughly evaluate the safety of the setup before and after events.


A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tactic; and,

                       All events using pyrotechnics are required to have a trained professional in direct supervision of the pyrotechnics operator at all times. This is not a suggestion, but a requirement. In doing so the hope is that the likelihood of a fire occurring is lessened with supervision taking place during the display. There should also be a written checklist that has to be run through in order for an event to occur. Making these sweeps through mandatory might seem tedious, but it can be life or death if an accident occurs. Citation        

Fire safety in public assemblies. (2004). Retrieved November 17, 2020, from https://www.nfpa.org/Public-Education/Staying-safe/Safety-in-living-and-entertainment-spaces/Nightclubs-assembly-occupancies/Fire-safety-in-assembly-occupancies

Preventing a Home Electrical Fire. (n.d.). Retrieved February 1, 2021, from https://www.thehartford.com/about-us/junior-fire-marshal/electrical-fire-safety

Safety in places of public assembly - nfpa. (n.d.). Retrieved February 28, 2021, from https://www.nfpa.org/~/media/files/public-education/resources/safety-tip-sheets/publicsafetyoccupanciessafetytips.pdf?la=en

Theories of accident / ancient causation as it relates to public assembliesEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

A key principle associated with the theories of accident/ancient causation is determining the type of event and audience that will be in attendance at the event. Without knowing the type of event, it is hard to pinpoint exactly what the potential risks would be. This information is necessary because crowds act differently depending on the event attended. An example of this could be music genres in concert. If someone is at an EDM concert they should expect to see some head-banging, but mainly some fun dancing. If that same person then went to a Metal concert, they should expect to see mosh pits and fist fights. Without knowing the type of event or audience, event staff struggle to prepare for potential accidents they could experience. It is crucial for staff to familiarize themselves with the market the event is targeting in order to best predict and prepare for accidents.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theoryEdit

There are multiple theories associated with accident causation. There is the Domino theory which states that an injury is caused by the preceding factors. This means that the moments and actions that one makes before an accident are what caused it. Another theory is the Human Factor Theory which states that a chain of events caused by human error will lead to an accident. This essentially means that what someone does is what will lead to an accident, not the forces around them. Another applicable theory is the Incident Theory which is a build off of human factors but accounting for system failure and err. Another theory is the Epidemiological Theory which studies the relationship between environmental factors and disease and can be used to study causal patterns in a relationship. This theory is used to study how everything interacted to cause the accident. Another theory that is applicable is the Systems Theory which states accidents arise from interactions among humans, machines, and the environment. All of the forces interacted in such a way that it caused a problem. The final theory is the Combination Theory which states accidents may/may not fall under one model and that they result from factors from multiple models. This is the one that most people agree upon when looking at the cause of an accident.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice Edit

When trying to figure out the root cause of an accident, these theories can each be applied in some way or another to find the cause of an accident. Using these theories, companies can then trace the data to the root cause and fix it so that it will not happen again. An example of this as it pertains to public assemblies would be if a stage fell apart in the middle of an event. By looking at the damage organizations are able to see the cause of the problem and change it so that it does not happen again. Unfortunately, it is hard to predict an accident to happen unless something seems out of place. These theories if studied properly can give employees the information they need to plan out how the assembly will be run correctly and with minimal risk. The main tactic that can be used is the pulley system in order to prevent stage collapses during outdoor shows. One of the worst stories was at the Indiana State Fair where a massive windstorm caused the collapse of the stage killing several people. Outside of clearing people out in time, the stage did not have the proper backdrop with holes through them to allow wind to go through. Furthermore, the stage should be tied down with attachments so that it does not lean one one, but can be supported from all angles.

A method of applying a mitigation/elimination tacticEdit

By studying Systems Theory in this example, employees are able to see how people, machines, and the environment are all interacting. This gives employees insight of how to set up the event to properly protect all three areas. If the assembly is a music concert, the stage shouldn’t be too close to the crowd in case it collapses, and the crowd should stay away from the stage because they could make the stage collapse, and both parties need to be wary of the weather because rain could cause injuries to people or machines. In the event that a problem happens, event planners can accurately forecast potential risks before they happen through use of the Domino Theory. If it is supposed to rain, then event planners will be able to lay out tarps to prevent people from slipping or getting electrocuted. These theories each work differently to help event planners account for risk.

A CitationEdit

1. Avery, B. (2020). Theories of Accident Causation [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from   file:///C:/Users/jordi/Downloads/Theories_of_Accident_Causation.pdf 2. Duffy, S. “Theories of Accident Causation.” Powerpoint, academic.csuohio.edu/duffy_s/Section_03.pdf.

2. Avery, B (2021). Intro to Risk Management; “EMBOK Facets and Applications” 2016

3. World Health Organization. (n.d.). Managing health risks during mass gatherings. Retrieved February 28, 2021, from https://www.who.int/activities/managing-health-risks-during-mass-gatherings

Accepted Risk Management Frameworks for Public AssembliesEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

The EMBOK modelEdit

The EMBOK (Event Management Body of Knowledge) is the recognized international framework addressing the knowledge and skills essential to create, develop and deliver an event. It has become accepted now in the court of law as the standard for event management practices. The EMBOK model encompasses 5 domains that cover every aspect of event management: design, administration, marketing, operations and risk. The EMBOK model also rules by core values which include strategic thinking, ethics, creativity, continuous improvement and integration.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theoryEdit

The EMBOK modelEdit

Within the EMBOK model, there are phases that are followed when using the model. The process consists of 5 stages: initiation, planning, implementation, the event and closure. Each stage includes various tasks associated with their respective place within the process of the event. One example would be that during the initiation stage, ideas are thrown around and the feasibility of the event is determined. Each new event will begin this process over again.

Recognized potential mitigation/elimination tacticEdit

The EMBOK modelEdit

Using the EMBOK model, one can safely and properly hold an event. Because the EMBOK model is held up by the law, employing this model with proper documentation will lead to a successful and safe event. The EMBOK model uses a strict process to eliminate all safety hazards as long as it is followed. First is the assessment step where you identify and analyze the situation and foreseeable hazards. Next, is the selection step where you select the processes and goals of the event. Third is the monitoring phase where the events progress and status is tracked. Then, the documentation stage where all assessments and evaluations must be documented prior to the event. Lastly, the communication phase where one must assess that everyone is agreeable and that the event has been evaluated and is ready. Following this process closely will eliminate virtually any risk.

Method of applying a mitigation/elimination techniqueEdit

Multiple methods can be used to apply the EMBOK model. One method is to use the EMBOK as a planning tool.

  • The model can be put into a chart form to help assign tasks to people or departments.
  • It can also be used to create a timeline or calendar for any event by showing what phase of the model to be in by a certain date.
  • Checklists can be used with the EMBOK model as well, especially in the implementation stage, to show which tasks are done or need to be done.
  • Using the domain classification of the EMBOK model, analyses can be done to find

strengths/weaknesses in each department and mitigate tasks. Organizations can

additionally use the EMBOK models domains to create a classification system for

themselves.

  • The EMBOK model can also be used to create criteria for each

department or phase of the event management process.

CitationEdit

  1. Avery, B (2021). Intro to Risk Management

Occupational Safety and Health Considerations for Public AssembliesEdit

A Description of a Key Principle Associated with the TopicEdit

Slip and FallsEdit

One of the most dangerous incidents under the umbrella of occupational safety and health is falls/slips. This type of accidental event is responsible for the second most fatalities according to OSHA, only behind motor vehicle accidents. Many occupational hazards are thought to be related to specific job fields, but slip and fall risk can be present in any career, including live event hosting. It is important that we don’t forget about the safety of our own employees while watching out for our patrons. There are a number of walking-working areas in a venue for public assembly that are only accessible to employees, and it is critical that we show those areas of our facility the same care we would to the entrance of the building.

While slip and fall accidents are one of the top leading causes of accidents in the work field, it is important to understand where they come from and how they are created. It is important according to OSHA standards, that we foresee these hazards and implement the correct strategies to prevent them.OSHA recommends that all surfaces be even flooring, spillage is immediately reported, waxed surfaces are encouraged, proper footwear, only property maintained ladders, no sharp corners, and areas from from clutter and disorganization. With these adjustments, slip and fall hazards are not only addressed, but mitigated.

Covid-19 PrecautionsEdit

A relatively new principle in Occupational Safety and Health for public assemblies is the new guidance on preparing Workplaces for Covid-19. A large focus in the media has been made on guests to stores and venues not wearing masks or practicing safe social distancing, but there is also a large list of responsibilities we have to prepare our space before any patrons are permitted to enter. This is done not only for the safety of those guests but for the safety of our employees who spend the most time in our assembly. This specific guidance has been developed on the fly this year, but it is based on years and years of preparation for the spread of infectious diseases. This is just specific for the risks imposed by Covid-19 on our facilities.

NRTL RequirementsEdit

Another key principle associated with occupational safety and health in public assemblies is staying up to date with required testing and certification of life saving devices in our facilities. In particular, fire prevention devices such as fire extinguishers and automatic sprinkler systems in areas of indoor public assembly need to be functional and up to code, and should be regularly inspected to ensure this. There is also a strict testing method put into place for certain products before these devices are ever approved for use in any facility that many people may not be aware of, but it is a requirement for all employers who have any of these products anywhere in their facilities. These tests are carried out by laboratories designated by OSHA at the manufacturing level, but employers need to be aware of changes in certification over time. OSHA states in order to suffice the requirements of qualifying as a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory one must: Have the “capability to test and evaluate equipment for conformance with appropriate test standards”; possess “adequate controls for the identification of certified products, conducting follow-up inspections of actual production”; Establish “complete independence from users (i.e., employers subject to the tested equipment requirements) and from any manufacturers or vendors of the certified products"; and acquire "effective measures for producing its findings and for handling complaints and disputes."

Cooking VentilationEdit

One hazard that is applicable to many different types of public assemblies is the risk posed by cooking. This hazard can apply to purpose built facilities such as arenas or stadiums, as well as mobile and temporary cooking set ups such as those found at fairs or festivals. It is important that we remain aware of the risks posed when we allow fresh cooked food to be a part of our event. Maintaining the safety of guests and employees requires proper training, effective protocols, and scheduled inspection and maintenance to ensure cooking devices are up to code. These devices can range from cotton candy machines to deep oil fryers, and the consequences can be wide ranging as well. If these precautions are not taken thoroughly, event hosts run the risk of severe burns, ventilation issues, and possibly life-threatening fires. It is our duty as event risk managers to double check any vendors bringing in outside materials for compliance.

Severe Injury ReportingEdit

A relatively new principle in the world of Occupational Safety and Health is the recent requirement for businesses to report serious injuries to the OSHA offices. OSHA knew that they did not have the requisite injury data to efficiently respond to accidents. On January, 1, 2015 OSHA officially made it a requirement for workplaces to report serious injuries suffered on the job in a timely manner, within twenty four hours. Serious injuries are classified by OSHA as “Amputations, in-patient hospitalization, or the loss of an eye”. The goal of this program was too properly allocate resources to where workers were most in danger as well as to effectively engage with high risk industries to improve worker safety in general. (OSHA, 2016)

Use of an Applicable Regulation, Standard, and/or Practice Associated with the Topic or a Prevailing TheoryEdit

Slip and FallsEdit

OSHA 1910 Subpart D outlines the basic protections that should be given for walking-working surfaces in general industry. This includes a declaration that “All places of employment… are kept in a clean, orderly, sanitary condition” as well as outlining the need for regular and “as necessary” inspection of walking-working surfaces in and around our building. This OSHA statute clearly covers any area of our building where “an employee walks, works, or gains access to a work area or workplace location.” And it also stipulates that walkways should not be used by any employee if any of those conditions are not met. OSHA standard 29 CFR 1910.22 requires that an employer must supply, and warrant each employee uses, a safe means of access and egress to and from walking-working surfaces. Additionally, the standard dictates "walking-working surfaces are maintained free of hazards such as sharp or protruding objects, loose boards, corrosion, leaks, spills, snow, and ice." Furthermore, these walking-working surfaces must be able to support the maximum intended load for that particular surface.

Covid-19 PrecautionsEdit

OSHA 3990-03 lays out guidance for “Preparing Workplaces for Covid-19”, but it states clearly at the beginning of the journal that “this guidance is not a standard or regulation and it creates no new legal obligation”. Simply put, this reference serves as an effective guide and is not required to be adhered to nationwide, yet, making it an applicable practice/prevailing theory within the world of Occupational Safety and Health. Following the practices outlined in this guidebook will have our organization operating at the peak of Covid prevention protocols.

According to OSHA regulations, it is important to comply with the CDC standards to help prevent the spread of covid-19. They also insinuate that employers should implement COVID-19 prevention programs. These programs will be in the workplace to have employers engage with workers most effectively. Within the prevention programs employers should address the key elements of “conducting a hazard assessment, identifying a combination of measures that limit the spread of COVID-19 in the workplace, adopting measures to ensure that workers who are infected or potentially infected are separated and sent home from the workplace, and implementing protections from retaliation from workers who raise COVID-19 related concerns.

NRTL RequirementsEdit

OSHA, per provisions of the General Industry Standards 29 CFR Part 1910 has established the Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL) program to govern certain product certification. This program compiles guidelines and statutes in and outside of OSHA across all industries into a collection of 37 different product categories that are required to be certified by one of 20 different NRTL’s currently designated by OSHA. These products tend to be life saving devices or products that are prone to fail or cause injury/fire. Some example products that must be NRTL certified include fire sprinklers, fire doors, and portable fire extinguishers, all common products that should be located in large indoor venues for public assembly. The list of NRTL’s approved by OSHA and the requirements for testing are always liable to change as new information becomes available, so it is important that we insure we are up to date in our compliance.

Cooking VentilationEdit

NFPA standard 96 is written with a focus on ventilation and fire prevention in cooking operations across many industries. Chapter 4 specifically governs the “General Requirements for Cooking Operations in Buildings and Mobile and Temporary Operations”, which suffices to cover all forms of cooking likely to be found in public assemblies. The focus of this manual is to provide preventative and operative fire safety requirements in order to significantly reduce the potential fire hazard of public and private cooking facilities. Ensuring our facility remains up to these standards is the best recognized method for fire prevention. OSHA standard 1926.57(b) is applicable to cooking due to exhaust fumes which are prevalent in many forms of cooking in the kitchen. The standard states, “Local exhaust ventilation when used as described in (a) shall be designed to prevent dispersion into the air of dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, and gases in concentrations causing harmful exposure. Such exhaust systems shall be so designed that dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases are not drawn through the work area of employees.”

Severe Injury ReportingEdit

Considering this requirement is less than 6 years old, it is reasonable to expect some lag in effectively administering the regulation in a public assembly. I would not expect most live events or assemblies to be considered a high risk event in the eyes of OSHA, but that does not mean the risk of serious injury is not present at every single event. Even a simple slip and fall could result in an injury requiring hospitalization, which rises to the level of a serious injury. This data is critical to continuing OSHA’s mission of minimizing the risk of workplace injury regardless of industry, and we must follow all OSHA requirements as an employer in general industry, meaning any private sector business outside of agriculture. When an employee experiences a work-related hospitalization amputation, or the loss of an eye, it must be reported to OSHA within 24 hours of the incident occurring at the workplace. On the other hand, in the situation of a fatality happening at the workplace, this must be reported to OSHA within 8 hours of the event. To make a report, you must call the nearest OSHA office or contact the OSHA 24-hour hotline at 1-800-321-6742. Upon reaching one of these two parties, employers must be prepared to answer questions pertaining to the injury or death including: Business name; names of employees affected; time and location of the incident; a brief description of what happened during the incident and how it may have occurred; and the contact person for the business supplied with a phone number.

A Recognized or Potential Mitigation/Elimination Tactic or Rationale for the Theory/PracticeEdit

Slip and FallsEdit

The mitigation technique for this issue is twofold. First, the organization must show that they have a set schedule for inspecting walking-working surfaces. Inspections must also be done “as necessary” meaning that some conditions or incidents may lead to another requisite inspection. Second, there must be an ability to resolve any issues that are found in the walking-working surface before allowing any employees to utilize that surface. It is estimated by the U.S. Department of labor that net reduction in costs associated with following the updated version of OSHA regulation 1910 subsection D is over 300$ million per year.

Covid-19 PrecautionsEdit

Some of the mitigation/elimination tactics for this practice are simple and already enforced by the health department, such as frequent employee handwashing. A few however are newly recommended since the outbreak of Covid-19. This guide outlines the development of policies and procedures for “Prompt Identification and Isolation of Sick People, if Appropriate”. This is a new responsibility that very few people in the world of Public assemblies were professionally prepared for, but it is a critical step to slowing the spread of Covid-19 and other highly infectious respiratory diseases that may appear in the future. This is an especially important consideration for employees at places of public assemblies, as the potential for spread is amplified with so many guests from different areas.

NRTL RequirementsEdit

In accordance with this policy, all products certified by an NRTL will have a printed certificate insignia proving that they are seen as  fit for use in a facility under OSHA guidelines. The testing laboratories ensure that these devices meet the stringent requirements placed forth OSHA, to help prevent failure and streamline the process of finding approved devices for use by employers. Five NRTLs have seen their status removed since the year 2000, showing the importance of staying up to date with this information. If our devices have the NRTL approval removed by OSHA, we will need to buy all new equipment that has been certified by a currently approved NRTL.

Cooking VentilationEdit

There are a number of steps organizations must take for safe operation of potentially dangerous cooking devices in public assembly. First, and kitchen appliance that could produce smoke or “grease-laden vapors” must be equipped with a compliant exhaust system, and a measurement must be done of the approximate output of grease. Certain items in the kitchen are required to be kept in working order at all times, including cooking equipment, hoods, ducts, fans, fire extinguishing equipment, and energy control equipment. Guidance is given for when a dedicated overhead hood is required and outlines the specific design requirements for different situations. There is even a need to have several devices certified by an OSHA NRTL despite this being an NFPA standard. There is a section outlining the need for regular inspection and maintenance at intervals determined by the device in question. Furthermore, this guide lays the ultimate responsibility for inspection, testing, maintenance, and cleanliness at the hands of the owner of the operation.

Severe Injury ReportingEdit

According to Weekly Safety, there is a great deal of information that must be reported along with a description of the severe injury itself. (Weekly Safety, 2017) This information includes the location of the accident, business and affected employee(s) names, date and time of incident, as well as a description of how the injury-causing incident occurred. This information must be sent to  an OSHA field office within 24 hours of the injury occurring. Furthermore, this information must be submitted by the direct supervisor of the worker on a day to day basis. This report may or may not lead to an OSHA investigation of the premises so managers should be prepared for all of these responsibilities.

NFPA Code

The NFPA code is there to protect any patrons during a public assembly. This code must be followed when an assemble of people are in one main space. The code provides a mandate that requires numerous safety systems and features to be present to keep all patrons safe in the event of a fire. Thinking to the Waterfall diagram, the NFPA code uses a combination of multiple safeguards to achieve its goal of limiting risk and providing a safe area.

A Method of Applying the Mitigation/Elimination TacticEdit

Slip and FallsEdit

The best way to apply this tactic is firstly to have a dedicated employee area janitorial staff who is adequately trained to address simple issues with the surface, such as spills, leaks, obstruction of walkways. The response here is to block off the walkway and commence fixing the issue. They should also be trained to block off and call in issues that they cannot fix to be inspected. Our venue should also have a dedicated construction consultant who specializes in repairing dangerous issues with the surface, such as corrosion, loose construction material, or sharp protruding objects.

Covid-19 PrecautionsEdit

The method provided by OSHA is to develop policies and procedures to educate employees about the signs and symptoms of infectious respiratory diseases, and to train your employees to isolate themselves if they feel there is any chance they may be sick. OSHA 3990-03 encourages employers to designate a room with a closed door as a temporary “isolation space” for immediate removal of potentially sick persons from the healthy population. This could be especially effective for public assembly venues. If an employee begins exhibiting symptoms after arriving to an event, swift isolation could limit the number of contracts they have and slow the spread. Further, employers should make moves to protect uninfected workers by enforcing 6 feet of social distance between all people in the venue when possible, and creating additional engineering and administrative controls when 6 feet of social distance is not possible. An example of this would be OSHA regulated sneeze guards installed at point of sale terminals in arenas. Although OSHA explains that there is not a legal obligation for businesses to follow, they do object that there are safety measures that can be taken in the workplace to prevent a breakout from occurring. These practices are (from most effective to least effective): engineering controls, administrative controls, safe work practices, and PPE. Engineering controls are safety measures taken that limit exposure without depending on worker behavior. An example of this is installing high-efficiency air filters or installing physical barriers between employees.Administrative controls, on the other hand, involve actions taken by the worker himself in order to reduce exposure to one another. This could include establishing alternating shifts or work schedules for employees, limiting contact among workers, and encouraging workers to stay home if sick. Safe work practices are a form of administrative control which include procedures for safe work. These actions promote personal hygiene and health. Requiring hand washing prior to working, providing no touch trash cans or disposable towels for workers to clean all fall under this category. Proper Protective equipment (PPE) may be necessary in addition to another control in order to eliminate or mitigate the hazard of COVID-19. Appropriate proper protective equipment in the fight against the disease might include: goggles, gloves, face shields, face masks and respiratory equipment, if needed.

High-Impact, Low-Probability Risks

In General, these types of events cannot be covered with contingencies. These events have to be mitigated by reducing the impact it has if a huge event transpired. With having to use risk mitigation and management that comes at a cost and that cost can be 1 million dollars or more depending on the owner of the event. It would be necessary to identify specific risk mitigation activities. The selection of such is based on whether or not the activity is effective and using the waterfall diagram.

Waterfall Diagram

A way to mitigate risk is using a waterfall diagram. A waterfall diagram helps to show the risk mitigations it takes in order to get to an acceptable risk. Acceptable risk would be those that are not in the red or yellow. However, part of this is making sure that this is a part of the standard project management.

NRTL RequirementsEdit

As part of our organizations policy for testing the working condition of fire prevention products found within our public assembly space, considerations should also be made to ensure our devices are up to date in their NRTL certification. Products such as fire extinguishers and fire sprinklers should be tested at regular intervals to ensure that the devices are working when needed most, and it is simple to include up to date NRTL certification as a part of that checklist.

Cooking VentilationEdit

With the number of responsibilities and potential hazards laid on the shoulders of the owner-operator of kitchen facilities under NFPA 96.4, it is important that all employees are trained on proper operation and cleaning techniques. Our cooking operations should adhere to a strict inspection and maintenance schedule, and cleaning of grease heavy machinery should be conducted daily. All kitchen equipment, particularly overhead hoods and exhaust systems should be designed and installed according to NFPA guidelines intended to significantly reduce fire risk. All kitchen employees must be trained in proper use of ventilation systems and prepared to identify issues with increased grease production in certain machinery. This training will be beneficial to the safety of everyone involved in a public assembly with cooking structures.

Severe Injury ReportingEdit

Knowing the importance of following this new regulation as well as the requirements for reporting within the scope of the regulation, we can determine a course of action to prepare our staff. Employees and supervisors should already be prepared with a plan for mitigating workplace injuries. With this added requirement we should also ensure they are prepared and vigilant in looking out for themselves and those around them, and be concscious of all of their actions in the workplace. It is also possible to install publicly known cameras in the workplace to ensure the direct supervisor can see and explain exactly how the incident occurred to the OSHA field office if necessary, and considering most public sporting venues have cameras for security purposes, this seems like a potential solution for reporting serious workplace injuries in places of public assembly.

A CitationEdit

Slip and FallsEdit

A Guide to OSHA’s Revised General Industry Walking-Working Surfaces and Fall Protection Standards (2020). Diversified Fall Protection. Retrieved from Diversified Fall Protection: https://www.fallprotect.com/wp-content/uploads/Diversified-Fall-Protection-Guide-OSHA-Updates-Slips-Trips-Falls.pdf

Covid-19 PrecautionsEdit

OSHA. (2020). Guidance on Preparing Workplaces for COVID-19. Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

NRTL RequirementsEdit

OSHA. (2020). Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory Program. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Intertek. (2018). What is an "NRTL" and what is it's role? Retrieved from Intertek: https://www.intertek.com/knowledge-education/partners-in-product-safety/nationally-recognized-testing-laboratories/

Cooking VentilationEdit

NFPA. (2020). Codes & Standards. Retrieved from National Fire Protection Association: https://www.nfpa.org/codes-and-standards/all-codes-and-standards/list-of-codes-and-standards/detail?code=96

NV Fire Department. (2019). Module Public Assembly. Retrieved from Nevada State Fire Marshal: https://fire.nv.gov/uploadedfiles/firenvgov/content/bureaus/fst/publicassemblysm.pdf

Severe Injury ReportingEdit

OSHA. (2016). Year One of OSHA's Severe Injury Reporting Program. Retrieved from OSHA: https://www.osha.gov/injuryreport/2015.pdf

Weekly Safety. (2017). How to Report Injuries and Fatalities to Osha. Retrieved from Weekly Safety: https://weeklysafety.com/blog/reporting-injuries-and-fatalities-to-osha

Regulations, Standards, and Practices As They Relate To Public AssembliesEdit

A Description of a Key Principle Associated with the TopicEdit

A key principle associated with this topic is that regulations, standards, and practices are codified and published so that parties are on notice and up to date on what is and is not legal. They describe the standards that administrative agencies adopt and how such laws will be enforced. An example of this is the Fire Marshal’s office in a particular county having its own regulations and rules for enforcing safety and how they investigate but, the state in which they county resides outlines statutes to comply with fire investigations. They exist for the purpose of enforcing safety, quality, and etc. it also outlines the necessary signage and terminology required based on the probability and severity of injuries. Practices may be established by authorities or internally by a company’s management team.

Use of an Applicable Regulation, Standard, and/or Practice Associated with the Topic or a Prevailing TheoryEdit

One of the biggest parts of this would be the portion that deals exclusively with terminology, signage, and marking requirements that are meant to keep people out of danger. The signage, terminology, and markings are different based on the severity of harm and the probability of an accident occurring.

  • Instructional signage
    • Informs how to act in certain areas, what to expect, and where to go
    • Describes behavior, rules, or tasks
    • Graphics and/or typographics
  • ADA Compliance signage
  • Warning signage
    • Redirect people away from performing unsafe acts
    • OSHA 29 CFR 1910.145
      • DANGER- white on red on black
        • Used to indicate immediate danger
      • WARNING- black on orange
        • Used to warn against hazards
      • CAUTION-black on yellow
        • Used to warn against potential hazards
      • SAFETY- white on green
        • Used where there is a need for general instructions
    • ANSI Standard, Z535.4-2007
      • Probability of Accident if Hazardous Situation is not Avoided and Probability of Death or Serious Injury if Accident Occurs
        • WILL & WILL
          • Danger
        • WILL & COULD
          • Warning
        • COULD & WILL
          • Warning
        • COULD & COULD
          • Warning
      • If Worst Credible Severity of Harm is Moderate or Minor Injury
        • For all Probabilities
          • CAUTION
      • If Worst Credible Severity of Harm is Property Damage
        • Preferred
          • NOTICE
        • Alternate
          • CAUTION

A Recognized or Potential Mitigation/Elimination Tactic or Rationale for the Theory/PracticeEdit

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale would be to ensure that employees and staff are properly trained and informed on all of the regulations, standards, and practices that company and higher authorities have in place. This would ensure that everything is done to the standards that it is supposed to. Also, ensuring that all signage, terminology, and markings are consistent and that no misunderstanding can occur. Making sure that signs are easily interpreted and that there is no room for misinterpretation is key to safety and the prevention of accidents that could have been otherwise avoided.

A Method of Applying the Mitigation/Elimination TacticEdit

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination is completing a facility inspection prior to the event occurring. This would make sure that all signage, marking, and terminology around the event is correct and is simple, yet descriptive. You should also have your employees complete a practice/run-through day or scenario to see how they respond to the standards, regulations, and practices in place and to ensure that they are fully knowledgeable on all of them. This makes sure that they are able to keep things running exactly how they are supposed to be. They should also be knowledgeable about all of the areas where patrons are not allowed and the most dangerous areas. They should patrol these areas often to ensure there is not trespassing or unauthorized personnel in those areas to help reduce the risk of injury and even death. Teaching employees what to do in the event of an emergency will also aid in the mitigation in the event that something occurs.

Methods to help apply mitigation and elimination tactics can vary depending on the venue, type of event, and existing risks. In terms of regulations, standards, and practices, is using secondary data (data collected from previous events) in order to acknowledge and address hazards and risk already known. Researching historic data can be vital to help mitigate and eliminate potential emergencies and disasters from happening. This helps event planners and mangers be able to address the precautions with not only the immediate staff, but all staff members working the event. This also helps create plans and strategies based on past situations. Which is important for particular scenarios, such as terroristic threats.

A CitationEdit

  • Avery, B. (2020). Regulations, Standards and Practices
  • Avery, B. (2020).  Display and Patron Acknowledgement of Signs

Typology of Risk as it Relates to Public AssemblyEdit

Description of Key Principle: Typology of RiskEdit

Typology of risk management refers to specific ordinances, regulations, and standards that events must adhere to and consider when conducting a venue. In order to understand more about the typology of risk, we must understand what are ordinances and regulations.

  • Ordinance:
    • An ordinance is a local law that is passed by municipal governing authorities. Enforcement measures include penalties.
  • Regulation:
    • standards and rules adopted by administrative agencies that govern how laws will be enforced. Regulations are used with the same force as laws and used to enforce laws.

There are four different types of risk that were discussed throughout this course: objective risk, subjective/perceived risk, virtual risk, and inherent/real risks:

  • Objective risk: The experts’ or scientists’ definition of risk, who (in theory) make probability risk assessments in an unbiased, unemotional manner, usually based on statistical evidence.
  • Subjective/Perceived risk: The laypersons, or non-expert assessment, which can be biased or distorted by a person’s preconceived views, emotions, experiences, or a lack of information. Subjective risk can be controlled through skill, judgment, and equipment.
  • Virtual Risks: The areas which are contested between research and people’s direct experiences, or even perceptions of fear.
  • Inherent/real risks: the risks associated with the activity, but which cannot be removed without destroying the essence of the activity.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practiceEdit

There are multiple standards that have been focused on in respects to risk management in public assemblies. The standards we focused on the most were OSHA, NFPA 101, NFPA 102, ANSI Z535, ASTM 1673, DOT/MOT,  FEMA, and ICC.

  • OSHA: Occupational health and safety administration
  • NFPA 101: National Fire Protection Association, life safety codes
  • ANSI Z535: Signage requirements
  • NFPA 102: Temps or temporary membrane structures, larger than 10x10 installations and maintenance.
  • ICC: International Code Council
  • ASTM 1637: Lighting and walkway requirements. Permisibilities.
  • DOT/MOT: Department of transportation and management of transportations plans.
  • FEMA: Federal Emergency Management Agency.
  • NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration


A Recognized or Potential Mitigation/Elimination Tactic or Rationale for the Theory/PracticeEdit

  • Identify:
    • Determine the facts and documenting internal and external risks
    • A continuing process that should be done periodically throughout the event.
  • Analyze:
    • each risk is analyzed based on an assessment of likelihood and impact

Additional uses or Risk Matrices can be used to determine the inherent risk of an event by considering the typical impact and likelihood of the event occuring.

Methods of Applying the Mitigation/Elimination TacticEdit

When there are a lack of standards it is essential for businesses and organizations to avoid liability for public assemblies and control inherent risk. Ways to avoid liability include: legislation checks, manufacturers materials check, associations check, and case law checks.

Overview of the Risk Management Process:

  1. Establish the context-Once in your place of work or your event setting, walk through your environment. See where people will be located and where staff will be as well. Keep a checklist with you as you begin the analyzing process.
  2. Identify Risk-Throughout your walk throughs, begin to take note of where potential risks are located. Make sure to also note the seriousness of them and if they are likely to occur or not. This is important for us to understand how we would like to treat the risk.
  3. Analyze Risk-As noted prior, this is where we would decide the level of risk there is per one found. It is important to not shy away from all methods of treatment when deciding how to analyze specific risks.
  4. Evaluate Risk-The risks need to be ranked and organized, with a thoughtful list coming out so that there will be a proper use of resources dedicated to the right risks. It is important to consider whether or not the business would be hurt by each risk when building this list.
  5. Treat Risk-There are several methods that can be used to treat risk. The first is avoidance, which is eliminating the risk all together, but often this is not fathomable. The next would be retention, this would be not touching the risk at all. In order to meet in the middle one could always transfer the risk. This can be done through waivers and different insurance companies.

Risk Planning is an essential mitigation tactic for all risk typologies. Avoiding 5 pitfalls can help elimiminate risk.

5 Pitfalls

  1. Planning -last minute changes that go unchecked
  2. Supervision - Do certain people need extra guidance
  3. Communication - How are messages being relayed?
  4. Site Selection - Purpose vs. non-purpose built
  5. Activities - Venue Limitations

A CitationEdit

  • Avery, B. (2020). Risk Management Framework
  • Avery, B. (2020). Intro-Risk Management
  • Yu, J. (2020, October 07). 5 basic methods for risk management. Retrieved February 09, 2021, from https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing-strategy/082816/methods-handling-risk-quick-guide.asp#:~:text=The%20basic%20methods%20for%20risk,the%20management%20of%20health%20risks.
  • The owner's role in project risk management. (2005). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  • Fires in nightclubs and other assembly occupancies. (n.d.). Retrieved March 29, 2021, from https://www.nfpa.org/Public-Education/Staying-safe/Safety-in-living-and-entertainment-spaces/Nightclubs-assembly-occupancies

Business Continuity Planning for Public AssembliesEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

The idea of Risk management is reducing and mitigating the risk associated with a particular event. Unfortunately, perfect risk management does not exist, and we need to plan on how we as a company will continue operations during or after an unplanned disruption. There are several incidents that can occur that would require a business continuity plan when running an event. Factors that can lead to the occurrence of a disaster is human behavior, environmental, design, and system and procedures. From random acts of terror to natural disasters, there always has to be a plan to act accordingly. The location of an event can factor into what incidents you should plan for. For example, an event in Florida would not be worried about potential earthquakes happening, but they would consider other meteorological instances. Each event and event coordinator has to consider how their event could be affected. The main idea of Business continuity is to expect the unexpected. In the event of a disaster, a coordinated continuity plan would:

  • Define a response team
  • Roles of each team and team member
  • Response protocols
  • Evacuation plans
  • External resources
  • Means of communication
  • Aftermath response
  • Public response
  • Ect.

Some disasters are harder to predict than others and it is very important that a plan is in place to act accordingly. Team members should run drills and constantly be trained on potential disasters. A team must also be prepared for unprecedented instances such as COVID-19.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theoryEdit

The idea of a Business Continuity plan is very broad as it is hard to determine exactly what disaster you will be facing. For this reason, the standards and protocols that are to be followed are infinite. Protocols for a mass shooting will vary from a tornado, responding to COVID-19 will be different from a structural disaster. According to the Heinrich's accident pyramid the more accidents that occur the higher the likely hoof of a major accident occurring. Due to the vast number of threats an event faces, you must be familiar with the general practice of many different standards. This list includes; OSHA 1910.6, ANSI, ASTM, NFPA, and numerous others. These practices will help mitigate and eliminate the odds of disasters. Most important of all is the NFPA 1600 as it specifically addresses the standards for Continuity, Emergencies, and Crisis Management. With this information is important to apply it to whatever particular event is being hosted. Many factors must be considered when hosting an event, and those factors will help determine the necessary equipment and personnel for crisis response and management.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practiceEdit

The main course of action for a Business Continuity Plan is constant training and practice. The is no telling when a disaster will occur and it is most important that you actively participate in training drills. The elimination of a disaster happening is near impossible so the best we can do is reduce the threat and minimize the harm to the patrons. Without proper training, the occurrence of said disaster will not be the only issue you will face. The chaos that will erupt can cause just as much damage as the disaster itself. For this very reason, it is important to always have qualified persons at every event as well as the necessary equipment and plans to face whatever disaster comes your way. The type of event you are hosting will determine the required personnel and equipment to act in the event of a disaster occurring. If we can constantly maintain a safe environment we can reduce the odds of a serious disaster occurring at an event. Most important of all, to mitigate the results of a disaster at an event you increase your awareness and have a properly trained staff to act in the event of an emergency.

A Method of Applying the Mitigation/Elimination TacticEdit

A good method to mitigate the effects of a crisis occurrence is to ensure your staff are properly qualified. This would include out sourced licensing required as necessary. Some options would be having your staff trained and licensed by another company or hiring an out sourced staff completely. It would be more effective to have your staff trained on a regular basis as each location, event and crisis brings about its unique characteristics. Drills should also be conducted regularly to practice what to do in the event of a disaster. The main goal of a business continuity plan is reduce the effects of a crisis. The only way to do so is to have well equipped team that is ready to perform in the event of an emergency. A big concern in the event of disaster is the evacuation process. This is a process that is most in control by the event staff and coordinators. A useful tool to help with the evacuation process is to comply with other standards such as ingress/egress laws as well as proper signage and capacity regulations.

CitationsEdit

Avery, B. (2020) Theories of Accident Causation

Avery, B. (2020) Crisis Management

NFPA 1600, (2013)

Risk in the Context of Implementation StrategiesEdit

Description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

A key principle associated with implementing risk management is to determine the strategies being used to prevent risks as well as the potential positive or negative effects of those strategies. This is vital to understand the potential risks at hand as well as making sure they are prevented or handled with the correct strategies. Without understanding these completely or not following them with precision could allow these potential risks to occur.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theoryEdit

The common practice that is being shown here is the risk analysis. Following this is the implementation of the different practices needed to follow to ensure safety for everybody attending. This is an important step in ensuring that the many different risks involved are prevented.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practiceEdit

Following the elements to implement risk prevention, the 3rd step would be to determine the potential for the hazard to occur. By doing this, the team can work on every aspect involved in that potential hazard and pinpoint the areas to focus on. The fourth step is to estimate the level of risk which involves the consequences and likelihood of the potential risks. Lastly, make sure to go over any types of uncertainties there may have been regarding the steps involved in the risk prevention for that event. It is important when conducting a risk analysis that you assign probability. The reason is because some risks are not likely for this event but might be for another one so when you should spend the manpower mitigating the risk if more than likely is not going to occur. On top of that it is important to assign what the impact is because unfortunately if something happens after it is all up to you and your reaction to the event. Ultimately it is all up to you analyzing the risk and monitoring them to know what the contingencies are.  

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tacticEdit

The best way to put the risk implementation stage into action is to ensure that whoever is giving the message is respected, as well as being clear and concise about the risks involved with each persons area. The times when hazards occur are when there is a lack of communication in regards to how to prevent or stop a hazard. Without good communication from the top management, there will be increased chances of injury or damage due to lack of correct implementation of risk strategies. Outside of communication, there should be signage in order to warn of potential hazards. According to OSHA, one of the main causes of injuries and dangers is fall damage, especially on construction sites. Many work sites have created verbal warning and also signage that shows it is needed to put up guardrails on the sides of elevated work surfaces. Furthermore, it is important to make sure that each worker can speak back to you what they learned and what is being communicated so that everyone is on the same page.

CitationEdit

Avery, B (2021) Implementation of Risk Management

Risk Management in Event Planning. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://library.olivet.edu/subject-guides/communication/comm325/docs/risk-management-event-planning.pdf

Standards for Field Safety for AthletesEdit

Description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

A key principle associated with on field safety is having every person associated with the athletes aware of the proper precautions to take on specific turf including coaches, personnel staff, and turf managers. It is important to understand that these different types of jobs can be cause or prevention of a player’s injury. There is also the inclusion of medical staff who need to understand the turf so they know what types of injuries to look for.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theoryEdit

A common theory that is becoming used is the “beadup” theory. This theory applies to artificial turfs, which talks about perspiration buildup rolling off the turf rather than penetrating the turf and causing weak spots. These weak spots are areas that can cause divots within the ground and cause loose traction, resulting in potential non-contact injuries.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practiceEdit

As stated from the theory, an elimination tactic is having turf that features micro fibers and small beads. These beads are compiled and stop the moisture from slipping through and soaking into the ground. However, there has not been long term effects of many of these fields, which means that yearly maintenance and examinations must be done.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tacticEdit

The easiest way to apply these tactics is to simply use the turf. On spots where the surface might be weaker it is important to use more beads and provide a cushion to prevent soft spots within the field. On baseball fields it is important to find a balance between clay and turf, so that there is not an imbalance which can lead to players having slippage and more injuries might occur.

CitationEdit

McNitt, A., & Adviser, D. (2020, December 21). Evaluation of Playing Surface Characteristics of Various In-Filled Systems. Retrieved January 19, 2021, from https://extension.psu.edu/evaluation-of-playing-surface-characteristics-of-various-in-filled-systems

Hazard Recognition, Mitigation, and/or Elimination Practices as it Relates to Public AssembliesEdit

Description of a key principle associated with the topic - Hazard CommunicationEdit

Hazard Communication: Hazard communication is a standard described by OSHA as “information about the identities and hazards of the chemicals [that] must be available and understandable to workers” (OSHA 2021). In other words, this work standard gives workers the right to know and understand the hazards and risks associated with the chemicals that they are handling. The Global Harmonizing System (GHS) of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals is a system that is used internationally in order to identify hazardous materials.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory - Hazard CommunicationEdit

Depending on where you work, you could be exposed to numerous chemical hazards. These chemical hazards can include neurotoxins, reproductive toxins, carcinogens, and many other life threatening chemicals. Due to this, OSHA has a hazard communication standard that when applied, requires that all employers that handle “hazardous chemicals in their workplaces must have labels and safety data sheets for their exposed workers, and train them to handle the chemicals appropriately” (Avery 2021).

  • There are six primary hazards that need to be recognized in the workplace and they are as followed
    • Biological Hazards: Mold, insects/pests, communicable diseases, etc.
    • Ergonomic Hazards: Repetition, lifting. Awkward postures
    • Work Organization Hazards: Things that cause stress
    • Physical Hazards: Noise, temperature extremes, radiation, etc.
    • Chemical and Dust Hazards: Cleaning products, pesticides, asbestos, etc.
    • Safety Hazards: slips, trips and falls, faulty equipment

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice - Hazard CommunicationEdit

By recognizing these six primary hazards, workplaces and public assemblies can better mitigate/eliminate these hazards and better protect their employees. Workplaces and public assemblies can eliminate these hazards by doing routine inspections of their environment and properly train employees to identify and mitigate/eliminate these hazards.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tactic - Hazard CommunicationEdit

A great method to apply hazard communication standards is to inform and train employees on protective measures on how to properly recognize and handle the six primary hazards of workplaces and public assemblies. These employees will be required to attend a training exercise regarding hazard communication every three months to ensure that they are continuously up-to-date on how to handle these hazardous chemicals. Along with this, safety inspections of the workplace and public assemblies will be conducted every month as well. Similary, successful tactics include the use of proper signage. The strong colors on the signs allow for the attention of people to be caught.

Citations - Hazard CommunicationsEdit

OSHA (n.d.). Hazard Communication. Retrieved March 11, 2021, from https://www.osha.gov/hazcom

Avery, B (2021) OSHA Workplace Hazards: Standards and Best Practices

Avery, B (2021).  Risk Management Live Entertainment and Sport Hazard Communications

See AlsoEdit

Theories of accident / ancient causation as it relates to public assembliesEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topic- Domino Theory

-This theory was created by Herbert Heinrich who was a pioneer for safety research. He saw that injury was created by the many different events that in all cause a hazard. When the first domino falls, they all start to fall with It.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory

-There are multiple types of human effects that could cause the domino effect such as

--Social or Environmental Domino

--Worker's Carelessness or Personal fault

--Unsafe act based on a Mechanical or Physical hazard

--The Accident Itself.

--Insurance Data

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice

-The way you are raised has a huge impact on the way you respond to stimuli in the work environment. It was previously thought that this wasn't the case, but studies have shown that there is a direct correlation to how somebody was raised and how they react to different events. By working on how you work on a certain problem and take time to make a decision, there is a chance the domino doesn't start to fall. On top of the domino theory, you have previous events that lead to drastic changes to public assemblies. As we know from today’s age that we need to have Covid Protocols at events to help prevent the spread of COVID-19. You also have events like 9/11 that changed the world and changed sports by requiring metal detectors to mitigate the risk of someone harming others.  

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tactic

-The best method to mitigate this tactic is to work with all employees and ensure that they are not only mentally stable but also following all of the correct rules set in place to prevent hazards. Most times, these hazards occur due to a lack of observation of these errors about to occur. Also, making sure the mental health of all employees is necessary as those are key factors to the domino theory occurring.

Citations

-Avery, B (2021) Introduction and Theories of Accident Causation

Regulations, standards, and practices as they release to public assembliesEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topic- Terroristic Events Practices

-There are multiple steps that should be followed when there is a Terrorist attack such as a bomb, shooter, or any other sort of hazard to others. By following these steps, It insures that more people will be safe and the event will be mitigated quickly.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory

-These are the few steps that should be take to prevent or end any type of Terrorist hazard.

--Step 1: Remain calm and ensure the fans and staff are aware and are also calm.

--Step 2: Notify the authorities. After this also notify the facility supervisor to ensure they are aware of the situation.

--Step 3: Search the venue and have each person have a designated area to ensure everything is searched.

--Step 4: Look for internal and external public areas for potential clues to find the attacker, which could be somebody working at the venue. Nobody should be made clear without making sure they weren't involved.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice

-By following all of the above practices during a potential terrorist attack, the chances of the hazard getting out of hand is diminished. By quickly contacting police and ensuring that they are aware of a potential threat, the attacker will have a less likely chance to want to follow through if they notice tons of reinforcements coming in.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tactic

-A method of applying this tactic would be to ensure there are people all around the venue or stadium who can easily communicate so that if one hears something of a potential attack, they can quickly tell the rest of the team and the entire arena can work together to ensure everybody is safe. By only having one or so people aware of what to do in these situations, It allows the attacker to blend in more as there are less eyes looking for somebody.

Citations

-Avery, B (2021) Security and Loss Prevention

Medical and first aid considerations for public assembliesEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topic- ALS

- There are many factors that go into play when deciding if a venue needs to have ALS (advanced life support) which is some type of medical aid station or response for events that meet the requirements for that.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory

-There are a few circumstances that make a certain venue need ALS such as,

--Is Temperature High

--Alcohol and Food Being Sold

--Location is Remote

--Potential Drug Use

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice

-A recognized tactic to remove any potential hazards due to those circumstances is to apply an advanced life support team at the venue to ensure that there is a quick response for anybody with any health conditions. Without anything nearby, the chances of the injury being worse or death rises substantially.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tactic

-By going over the many different factors that could increase the chances of a hazard and noticing if there are more than half, It is a smart idea to initiate ALS. It is important to always have this at events, but at times It isn't necessary if the main factors that are listed above aren't used in the venue.

Citations

-Avery, B (2021) Medical and First Aid

Security and loss prevention planning for public assemblies- Responses and SecurityEdit

Description of a key principle associated with the topic - Responses and SecurityEdit

In most events we have security, police, and EMS present. It is important to have these people present at all events because we do not know what could happen. Two methods that were discussed include a Unit-Team response and a Zone-team response. A Unit-Team response allows for less confusion amongst the police or security and gets information more accurate. The problem with this is that they tend to have a longer time reaching the incident due to them being in one quadrant. The Zone-Team response allows them to break into quadrants of up to 12 and assign individuals to an area to watch. It allows them to cover more areas along with responding in seconds. Security should always be present at events as you are not sure what could happen during an event. That is why it is always appropriate to figure out how many security/police officers at arenas along with EMS. At the end of the day they are here to help when in trouble so having these people can be very beneficiary. In the event that an active shooter is happening, a plan would be needed that could let others know how we are going to prevent any further loss and what will happen to try and stop it.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory - Responses and SecurityEdit

The regulation that is used in most events for security or EMS would be the degree to which the event will be deemed safe or not. They do this by having a base of 1 per 1000 patrons along with the process of adding 0.5 or subtracting 0.25. For example, an antique Road show should not have much violence involved so you could subtract 0.25 in this case but due to the age being much older you have to add 0.5 as there might be a problem. Depending on the event at hand you can have upwards to 8 officers, 2 sergeants and 10 private security at an event. These numbers can change depending on if it is a live concert, festival, or the amount of people that are expected to attend. In most cases hiring a police officer can be around $100 dollars depending on the rank of the officer. Having metal detectors at the entryways for places is a good way to detect any unwanted items from coming into a building. While this may not always be feasible, a good alternative is having security who is observing the crowds. In the event of an active shooter the best steps are to either lock down or evacuate the areas.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice - Responses and SecurityEdit

A potential mitigation/elimination strategy would be having different types of units attending all events. In some cases you might have bicycle units if the event is outside or you can have crisis management units if the event is special. Depending on the nature of the event we can see that the use of other units can be very beneficiary if something were to happen. It does not hurt to have more security at hand. here is currently a mitigation/elimination tactic at place with NFPA 101 12/13.7.73* NFPA 1 20.1.4.6.3* that basically states that in all occupancies an audible or projected image will be shown prior to the start of the game to show locations of exits or emergencies in theaters, motion pictures, auditoriums, and other similar assembly occupancies with occupant loads exceeding 300.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tactic - Responses and SecurityEdit

The greatest way to apply these tactics would be to have the security properly trained in case of an event turning into a disaster. Having all units whether that be a bomb unit or EMS to be ready for an emergency as they can happen at any moment throughout the event. As stated in the previous paragraph we have the regulation in NFPA but there is one problem with that. The problem with this is that most people are not at the event 30 minutes before it starts so maybe it could change to being in every other commercial break so guests are aware of exits in case of emergency. This would help with the security and response teams.

Citations - Responses and SecurityEdit

Avery, B. (2021). Crowd Management: Responses. Risk Management in Sports and Live Entertainment.

Avery, B (2021)  Risk Management Live Entertainment and Sport Your role during a shooting

Theories of accident / ancient causation as it relates to public assembliesEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topic- Domino Theory

-This theory was created by Herbert Heinrich who was a pioneer for safety research. He saw that injury was created by the many different events that in all cause a hazard. When the first domino falls, they all start to fall with It.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory

-There are multiple types of human effects that could cause the domino effect such as

--Social or Environmental Domino

--Worker's Carelessness or Personal fault

--Unsafe act based on a Mechanical or Physical hazard

--The Accident Itself.

--Insurance Data

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice

-The way you are raised has a huge impact on the way you respond to stimuli in the work environment. It was previously thought that this wasn't the case, but studies have shown that there is a direct correlation to how somebody was raised and how they react to different events. By working on how you work on a certain problem and take time to make a decision, there is a chance the domino doesn't start to fall.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tactic

-The best method to mitigate this tactic is to work with all employees and ensure that they are not only mentally stable but also following all of the correct rules set in place to prevent hazards. Most times, these hazards occur due to a lack of observation of these errors about to occur. Also, making sure the mental health of all employees is necessary as those are key factors to the domino theory occurring.

Citations

-Avery, B (2021) Introduction and Theories of Accident Causation

Crowd Management roles/practices as it relates to public assembliesEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

Crowd management surrounds the procedures to be able to handle the process and facilitation of movements in order to handle crowd related functions. Different than crowd control which is apart of the crowd management procedures and process. Crowd Management is aware of the event, surroundings, people attending, and is a big part of risk management.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theoryEdit

A practice associated with being prepared for mass crowds for an event is implementing a crowd control staff. To assist with the flow and movements of the crowd to properly navigate through and around the event, mitigating the risk of collisions, falls, and many other things that come with a large crowd. Signage is used especially in high anticipated pedestrian areas and makes the vehicles around aware they are not to go over a certain speed by that area and yield for pedestrians.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practiceEdit

A successful mitigation tactic would be implementing crowd control, and in the surrounding areas of the actual event make sure pedestrians and vehicles are separated properly because as we know those two things do not mix and lead to accidents. Timing is everything when controlling a crowd, specifically when entering and exiting the event. Another way to mitigate risk for crowd management procedures is to have signage around the event fro every process, where things are, where they will be and restricted areas to help the flow of traffic.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tacticEdit

A method of applying this tactic would be implementing the crowd control crew when organizing the event and having a thorough well taught training process in preparation to completing all aspects of the job when event occurs. Implying the signage would be finding the certified way to get these signs in the areas they are needed, the ones with the highest chance of a riskful situation fro pedestrian traffic.

A CitationEdit

Avery, B. (2021). Crowd Management Control. Part 1&2.

Theories of accident / ancient causation as it relates to public assemblies (Systems Theory)Edit

A description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

  • The systems theory explains that accidents can arise from interactions among humans, machines, and the environment. This is a solid theory since most accident stories include two of the three generally. The systems theory could involve machinery, environment, and human mistakes, which within public assemblies are the three major factors of an accident. This is why I believed the systems theory to be the most accurate accident causation theory.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theoryEdit

  • A situation associated with the systems theory would be an accident at an event or venue from loss of concentration while operating a construction lift. This is an accident among a human being using a machine that wasn't aware of his surrounding environment. I believe the systems theory is the most accurate theory when coming to all the accident theories.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practiceEdit

  • A way to mitigate the risk of accident causation, specifically the systems theory, would be to be aware of the surroundings and make sure every job is not being done without any supervision. So if an accident does happen there is a procedure to react to the outcome of the accident for the person supervising.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tacticEdit

  • A method of applying it would be educating the staff members the dangers and expectations thoroughly before they begin work, make sure the staff isn’t doing anything short-handed for safety reasons. Also enforcement of these rules and regulations on equipment and usage of everything. This will make sure the staff is as safe and protected as possible from accidents that could arise from machinery.

A citationEdit

  • Avery, B. (2021).Theories from Accident Causation. Part 1,2,3.
  • Avery, B (2021) Risk Management Live Entertainment and Sport : Introduction of Theories of Accident Causations Part 1

Accepted risk management frameworks for public assembliesEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

  • A risk management framework is the process used to identify threats to any given situation. A key principle associated with frameworks are checklists and documentation. In every event there will be a form or multiple forms of risk management frameworks, in order to implement the procedures to mitigate risk during an event.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theoryEdit

  • Checklists are a popular risk management framework used for the practice. Checklists offer a mechanism to identify, communicate, track and monitor, develop procedures, and provide ways to deal with crisis situations. These are crucial points to be checked off during the early stages of a risk management process and must be done accordingly.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practiceEdit

  • A mitigation tactic for risk management frameworks is all based with education and enforcement of the procedures and tasks given to the staff. The risk management frameworks are so the steps of the risk management plan are running smoothly as if they are in a form of template. So checklists, documentation, and more are needed to organize all of that information. Checklists are primarily good because they are easy to understand, no one can be too inexperienced to adhere to them, and are good for remembering where to access information and that is key for frameworks.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tacticEdit

  • When implementing a risk management framework education and enforcement are everything, it is just a matter of how you do it for it to stick to the people you are explaining it to. For example, starting with questions to ask the staff in order for them to understand the framework given. What are the hazards? Who may be harmed and why? What are you currently doing? And most importantly, How will you put the assessment to action? These questions and answers along with them will let everyone know thoroughly the steps and process of following the risk management frameworks and the theories behind why we follow them and what risk they can mitigate.

A citationEdit

  • Avery, B. (2021).Risk Management Frameworks. Part 1.

Regulations, standards, and practices as they release to public assembliesEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

  • Regulations, standards and practices all play a different and crucial role in almost everything in life. Regulations are the general rules one needs to follow in order to begin an assembly. Standards are something the assemblies are expected to do at a good level, not necessarily a must do but is due to the expectations. Practices are the actual implementation of the procedures that have been drawn out for the assemblies and there are specific practices that are universal across event planning and organizing.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theoryEdit

  • Venue exit sign regulations and standards. Every venue has to have specific exit signs placed in areas where people can exit. They also have to be well lit and noticeable in case of an emergency for evading a crisis. The exit sign numbers vary based on the assembly size and location, indoor, outdoor, or stadium. This is a basic requirement for all events/assemblies held in any given area and must be approved by the local city and fire marshal.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practiceEdit

  • A tactic to mitigate risk through following regulations, standards, and practices would be following a risk assessment plan. A risk assessment plan is meant to anticipate risk and taking actions accordingly to minimize the exposure of risk and possible negative repercussions. This is a part of the risk management process which also would be a tactic of that, identify, analyze, action, monitor, and control risk.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tacticEdit

  • A method of applying a risk assessment plan would be to implement a standard practice and education of knowing the risk assessment plan and why we implement one. Which would actually be the last step of having a concrete risk management plan, education and enforcement are two of the three E’s and are typically used for every situation regarding implementation.

A citationEdit

  • Avery, B. (2021).Regulations, Standards, and Practices. Part 1,2,3.

Accepted risk management frameworks for public assembliesEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topic- Calculating Risk

  • Calculating risk can be very difficult as it is hard to determine what may happen in the future. There are many different steps and areas to follow to ensure that if those are completed correctly, the venue itself has a better chance of avoiding any types of hazards.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory

  • Calculating the Safety side of the venue and ensuring that the basic areas for fans are up to code and are properly set up. You are protecting everybody who attends from failure or error on the venue's part, as well as preventing harm, injury, or loss to anybody.
  • Calculating Risk is important as security becomes a big part of this as they must ensure that everybody attending is safe from any potential threats or loss that could occur. There are many different factors that could occur that must be thought out and planned as anything could happen. Being prepared is a huge step in making a high risk situation de-escalated.
  • Terrorism is the last risk that needs to be calculated and made sure that all possible threats are mitigated. Each threat comes from a different possible entry, which is why there must be teams set up for each one so that they can work simultaneously. This is the highest threat as It reaches the crisis phase. The staff and team must work together to ensure everything is handled properly and swiftly as people's lives are in danger.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice

  • By calculating these three types of threats and ensuring teams are set in place to work together, the safety of everybody attending will be much higher. Although threats cannot be prevented always, there are steps that can be taken to possibly prevent or end the threat before It gets serious.

Citation

Avery, B. (2021) Risk Management Frameworks Part 2

Medical and first aid considerations for public assembliesEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

  • Medical and first aid are very important when running an assembly, and are a part of the preparation and planning of taking action if something or someone is to need immediate medical attention during your assembly. EMS is something that is a must known thing and what this stands for is emergency medical services. This is something all assemblies have to have and be aware of in case of an immediate medical emergency.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theoryEdit

  • A practice associated with this would be having emergency care on hand and ready to execute along with easy access to call for an ambulance or having an ambulance present at the assembly. BLS is something all event organizers have to have educated for staff members. Basic life support is the treatment of minor medical injuries from care providers that have the minimal EMT level training. This will ensure the safety and response to any injuries at the assembly.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practiceEdit

  • To mitigate the risk of having medical emergencies due to something at the event or surrounding it people typically make what is called a medical matrix. The medical matrix is essential and unique for every assembly, but gets the same thing done, it mitigates risk for medical emergencies. It helps determine what type of EMS an assembly needs based on weather, venue, attendees, crowd intent, and hospital transport time. What this does is helps everyone get a good look at all of the risk factors and what they may cause and will promptly get a better understanding of what EMS or support you'll need for your specific assembly.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tacticEdit

  • In order to apply all of this to the assembly. You will need to identify the medical risks, analyze them, monitor them, and control them. This will be done by preparing for any and all factors that could lead to any medical risk and it will help create a better plan for the medical and first aid portion of this assembly. Mitigating the risk of a medical emergency for all the people at the event. Once everything is done and created, there will need to be a checklist for every staff member for education purposes on the matter because all staff should know the medical safety drills and procedures.

A citationEdit

  • Avery, B. (2021).Medical and First-Aid. Part 1,2,4

Theories of Accident/ Causation as it relates to public assemblies (Domino Theory)Edit

Description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

Accident: An unintended, not anticipated, and unexpected event often resulting in an undesirable outcome, such as causing injury to a person or a group of people

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory

Domino Theory:the five-domino model of accident was theorized by Herbert W. Heinrich in his publication; Industrial Accident Prevention: A Scientific Approach. In this model, he concludes that injury is caused by the action of preceding factors. This means that an accident is a casual chain of events that form a sequence. The first domino falls causing the second to fall, and so forth until all the dominos have fallen one after another.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice

In order to mitigate and/or eliminate the undesirable outcome, Heinrich found that the chain needs to be interrupted. This can be done by eliminating one or more factors that build the sequence. This means that by removing one or more of the dominos, the falling of dominoes will stop and the accident won’t occur. The action of preceding factors becomes ineffective.

CitationEdit

Avery, B. (2021). Introduction and Theories of Accident Causation. Risk Management in Sports and Live Entertainment.

Marsden, Eric. (2017, July 1). Heinrich’s Domino Model of Accident Causation. Risk Engineering. https://risk-engineering.org/concept/Heinrich-dominos

Management roles and practices as it relates to public assemblies (Crowd Management)Edit

Description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

Crowd Management: the operational planning and procedures employed to handle the process and facilitation of movement as related to crowd associated functions

Crowd Control: associated with the response techniques that may be necessary when crowd behavior begins to disrupt acceptable crowd management expectations

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory

Crowd management and crowd control is very important in order to establish expectations and develop response techniques for crowd safety measures. The movement of people in a systematic and measurable way is crucial to the success of an event and the safety of event attendees. There have been many instances, for example the Hillsborough Disaster in 1989, where ineffective crowd management and control has let to undesirable outcomes such as death and injury.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice

There are a few essential elements to crowd management to mitigate potential crowd issues and accidents.

Essential Elements:

·     Wayfinding: techniques use clear signage and markers to ease navigation and avoid congestion

·     Barriers and fencing: help implement queuing techniques

·     Clear means of access and escape

·     Law enforcement, security, stewarding, medical, and first aid personnel

·     Metering: technique used to control the arrival rate of persons at a “bottleneck” facility

Citation:Edit

Avery, B. (2021). Crowds: Management and Control. Risk Management in Sports and Live Entertainment.

Medical and first aid considerations for public assemblies (Response Techniques)Edit

Description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

Law enforcement, security, medical, and first aid personnel are extremely important to the response techniques at places of public assemblies. There are two primary methods of response to crowd related functions.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory

1.    Unit-team response: when a venue is set-up as a unit-team response, this means there is one primary location in which all staff are housed. This method has its advantages because all calls are directed to one location which causes less confusion between teams and allows for more accurate information and communication. However, disadvantages to this method include fatigue of personnel and a much slower response time. For example, if an incident occurs across the venue from the primary location, response teams may take longer to attend to the issue due to the distance they must travel.  

2.    Zone-team response: when a venue is set-up as a zone-team response, this means the venue is broken down into territorial zones. Then there are teams that are responsible for incidents that occur in each zone. The zone-team response method is the recommended technique due to the fact that response times are much faster than the unit-team method. One disadvantage to this method may be confusion of information between zones.

Citation:Edit

Avery, B. (2021). Crowd Management: Response Techniques. Risk Management in Sports and Live Entertainment.

Public assembly risk considerations related to spectators, participants, staff, and vendors (Slips, Trips, and Falls)Edit

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory

Slips, trips, and falls cause the majority of general industry accidents, making up 70% of all industry accidents. They also cause 15% of all accidental industry deaths, which is the second highest cause. Some common fall hazards include, but are not limited to, ladders, scaffolds, floor openings, and wall openings. Falls from ladders is one of the leading causes of fatalities and injuries in the industry. It is estimated that a fall from 6 feet has an impact on the body of 2,400 pounds, while a fall from 10 feet has a 4 out of 5 chance of causing permanent injury.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice

There are many ways to control, mitigate, or eliminate fall hazards. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standards requires fall protection when exposed to a fall from 4 feet or higher. In order to control fall hazards from a ladder, it is important to use a ladder that is free from defects and using that ladder properly.

Citation:Edit

Avery, B. (2021). Slips, Trips, and Falls. Risk Management in Sports and Live Entertainment.

Accepted risk management frameworks for public assemblies (Types of Risk)Edit

Description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

Risk: the English dictionary defines risk as a change or possibility of lander, loss, injury, etc. In the sports and entertainment industry, risk is associated with the probability or likelihood of an event occurring. For example, “uncertainty of outcome, whether positive opportunity or negative threat, of actions and events,” is another definition for risk.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory

There are different kinds of risk within the industry.

·     Objective: a risk that can be calculated or measured. In other words, an objective risk is one that is quantifiable. This means the risk is clearly defined and the impact of the risk is known.

·     Subjective/ Perceived: a known hazard is associated with the activity or event

·     Virtual: use what has been learned about how to do something wrong and continue to do so because you have not experienced negative consequences.

·     Inherent/real: risk is inseparable from an activity. An inherent risk is one that cannot be eliminated without changing the entirety of the event or activity itself. This means that the risk cannot be eliminated. For example, while attending a baseball game, there is an inherent risk of getting hit by a foul ball. This is an inherent risk of the game because foul balls cannot be eliminated from the game without eliminating hitting baseballs as a whole. This would completely alter the nature of the game and therefore inseparable from the game.

Citation:Edit

APMG International. (2020). Defining Risk: The Risk Management Cycle. PPP-Certification.https://ppp-certification.com/ppp-certification-guide/52-defining-risk-risk-management-cycle36

Avery, B. (2021). Risk Framework and Prevention Methods. Risk Management in Sports and Live Entertainment.

Medical and First Aid Considerations for Public AssembliesEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

  • A key principle associated with this topic is an operational plan, meaning the plans that are in place to deal with medical issues and medical emergencies.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theoryEdit

  • A standard associated with this topic is situation, mission, execution, administration and logistics, and communications (The SMEAC), which is a format for how operation managers should write guidelines on their operational plans. This way the operational plans can be well understood and executed. Using this standard can allow for operational managers to solve medical issues quicker and more effectively.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practiceEdit

  • A rationale for this practice is to make sure that everything that can go wrong has been thought through, and that there is a plan ready to combat every unexpected situation and every unusual or usual medical issue that may arise.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tacticEdit

  • A way to apply the mitigation tactic of operational plans is to hire a risk management manager to investigate your venue and tell you everything that could go wrong so you can plan accordingly for it. This helps prevent medical issues such as falls and crowd stampeding.

A citationEdit

  • Avery, B (2021) Medical and First Aid. Public Assembly Risk Management
  • World Health Organization (2015). Public Health for Mass Gatherings: Key Considerations. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/Baylie%20Alvis/Downloads/WHO_HSE_GCR_2015.5_eng.pdf

Public Assembly Risk Considerations Related to Spectators, Participants, Staff and VendorsEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

  • A key principle associated with the topic is weapon safety, because it is a big concern in a place of public assembly that people aren’t subjected to dangerous weapons that can cause harm.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theoryEdit

  • An applicable regulation with this topic is that weapons are not allowed in places where there are large crowds or gatherings.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practiceEdit

  • A recognized potential mitigation tactic is using metal detectors to be able to find things like knives and guns to keep everyone safe.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tacticEdit

  • A method of applying the metal detector mitigation tactic is to set them up at all entrances of the public assembly, and train security guards or staff on how to properly use them. This way weapons can be mitigated and people present can be kept as safe as possible.

A citationEdit

  • Avery, B. (2021). Public assembly risk considerations related to spectators, participants, staff, and vendors. Public Assembly Risk Management

Regulations, Standards and Practices as They Relate to Public AssembliesEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

  • A key principle associated with this topic is the practice of public safety. In a place of public assembly the people who put it together typically do everything possible to keep their patrons safe.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theoryEdit

  • An applicable practice associated with public safety is evacuation plans. Having evacuation plans allows for patrons and staff to plan for different situations such as fires and potential shootings, so that everyone can be kept as safe as possible.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practiceEdit

  • A rationale for this theory is that the more you plan for ways to keep the public safe, the more prepared and efficient you can be when something unexpected happens.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tacticEdit

  • A method of applying evacuation plans to public assemblies is to make sure that all staff members are briefed on the evacuation plans but also to make sure plans are clearly posted where patrons can see them. Also, all evacuation and exit points need to be clearly marked.

A citationEdit

  • Avery, B. (2020). Regulations, Standards and Practices as They Relate to Public Assemblies. Public Assembly Risk Management.

Crowd Management Roles/ Practices as it Relates to Public AssembliesEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

  • A key principle of this topic is planning, because it takes an immense amount of planning to try and manage large crowds in public assemblies.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theoryEdit

  • An applicable practice associated with the planning aspect of crowd management is you need to plan the correct number of staff members and security so that all people can be well taken care of and directed in the case of an emergency.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practiceEdit

  • A rationale for the practice of planning is that it makes events run more smoothly and efficiently, and it keeps more patrons happy and it also keeps everyone safer.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tacticEdit

  • A method of applying planning as a mitigation tactic would be to plan to the best of your ability so that you can eliminate as many problems as possible.

A citationEdit

  • Avery, B (2021). Crowd Management Roles/ Practices as it Relates to Public Assemblies. Public Assembly Risk Management.

Accepted Risk Management Frameworks for Public AssembliesEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topicEdit

  • A key principle associated with this topic is the risk management process, which is about eliminating and mitigating risks to the best of your ability.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theoryEdit

  • An applicable practice associated with this topic is probability and assessment of risk, which is when you evaluate plans to reduce the bad things that could happen and plan for the unexpected things.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practiceEdit

  • A potential mitigation tactic is risk tolerance which is eliminating the risk.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tacticEdit

  • A method of applying an elimination tactic of risk tolerance would be the employees at stores and restaurants all wearing masks during the COVID-19 pandemic to eliminate the risk of employees giving sickness to patrons or one another.

A citationEdit

  • Avery, B. (2021). Accepted Risk Management Frameworks for Public Assemblies. Public Assembly Risk Management.
  • Avery, B. (2021). Module 2 Part 2.

Venue and Show Site SafetyEdit

A description of a key principle associated with the topic

  • A key principle associated with this topic is the implementation of proper safety measures when planning an event of any capacity.

Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory

  • Many code requirements are dependent upon the occupant load of a place of assembly, such as the International Building Code, International Fire Code, and the National Fire Protection Association Life Safety Code 101. The occupant load is defined as the number of persons for which the means of egress, or building, or portion thereof is designed. In order to be certain code requirements are correct, calculating the occupant load of a place of assembly is necessary.

A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice

  • International Fire Code is a recognized practice which eliminates risk. Venues must properly obey fire codes in order to operate. Managers must be trained to identify if a venue is at capacity while taking proper action.

A method of applying the mitigation/elimination tactic

  • Acquiring permits is a method which mitigates risks. Most municipalities have permitting requirements which make event holders aware municipal codes which can aid in ensuring compliance while also eliminating risk.

Citation

  • Avery, B. (2021). Venue and Show Site Safety. Public Assembly Risk Management. Module 7


Theories of accident / ancient causation as it relates to Public Assemblies

  1. A description of a key principle associated with the topic.
    1. Domino theory of accident causation - “a theory of accident causation and control, developed by H.W. Heinrich, that purports that all accidents, whether in a residence or a workplace environment, are the result of a chain of events. The chain of events consists of the following sequential factors: ancestry and social environment, an individual's mistake, an unsafe action and/or physical hazard, the actual accident, and an injury as the result of the preceding factors. These factors are described as dominoes, and the removal of any one of these five factors can prevent the accident”
      1. “Domino Theory.” Domino Theory | Insurance Glossary Definition | IRMI.com, www.irmi.com/term/insurance-definitions/domino-theory#:~:text=Domino Theory — a theory of,and control, developed by H.W.&text=The chain of events consists,result of the preceding factors.
  2. Use of an applicable regulation, standard, and/or practice associated with the topic or a prevailing theory.
    1. A practice associated with this theory is the human factors theory. This theory states that human decisions and errors are the driving factors that lead to incidents. The three main factors leading to human error are overload, inappropriate response, and inappropriate activities.
  3. A recognized or potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice.
    1. The Domino theory only leads to an accident when a series of events leads to an incident. The way to mitigate the accident is to remove one or more of the “dominoes” from the series of events. The most achievable way to meet this goal is to prevent access to a physical hazard. This can be in the form of any of the three E’s of accident prevention. These are Educating, Engineering, and Enforcing.
  4. A method of applying the mitigation/elimination technique.
    1. A method of applying the mitigation technique is hazard education, engineering, and enforcement. This method states that the most effective way to mitigate risk is to first engineer hazards out of venues. The second option is to educate patrons about the potential risk, if it is not possible to remove the hazard through engineering. The last option is to enforce the rules so that patrons are not exposed to the hazard.
  5. Citation
    1. "Domino Theory.” Domino Theory | Insurance Glossary Definition | IRMI.com, www.irmi.com/term/insurance-definitions/domino-theory#:~:text=Domino Theory — a theory of,and control, developed by H.W.&text=The chain of events consists,result of the preceding factors.


Public Assembly Risk Considerations Related to Spectators, Participants, Staff and Vendors

Description

  • A key principle associated with the topic is weapon safety, which is a big concern in a place of public assembly to ensure patrons aren’t subjected to dangerous weapons or bringing them causing harm.

Use

  • An applicable regulation with this topic is that weapons aren’t permitted in venues that contain large crowds or gatherings.

Potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice

  • A recognized potential mitigation tactic is utilizing metal detectors to locate objects like knives and guns in order to ensure everyone’s safety.

Applying the mitigation/elimination tactic

  • A method of applying the metal detector mitigation tactic is to set them up at entrances utilized by the public and staffing them with security guards or staff that have been properly trained to use them.

Citation

  • Avery, B. (2021). Public assembly risk considerations related to spectators, participants, staff, and vendors. Public Assembly Risk Management

Occupational safety and health considerations as they relate to public assemblies

Description

  • The Occupational Safety and Health Administration ensures occupational workers and health workers are treated fairly and have safe working conditions through the federal government.

Use

  • OSHA works by benefiting everyone involved and adhering to strict laws that were created from the most commonly cited standards.

Potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice

  • OSHA provides its own hazard recognition list that includes chemical, dust, ergonomic, biological, work organization, physical, and safety hazards that could be utilized in various work industries and occupations through providing knowledge of these potential risks.  

Applying the mitigation/elimination tactic

  • A tactic used is write ups and written warnings when you don’t follow OSHA guidelines as well as informing employees and administration of the high statistical numbers of workplace injuries.  The more people are aware of the potential hazards, the safer they will try to be to avoid those injuries.

Citation

  • Avery, B. (2021). OSHA Workplace hazards: Standards and Best Practices.

Accepted Risk Management Frameworks for Public Assemblies

Description

  • A key principle associated with this topic is the risk management process, which is about eliminating and mitigating risks to the best of your knowledge.

Use

  • An applicable practice associated with this topic is probability and assessment of risk meaning based on your evaluation plans are made to reduce the negative outcomes that could occur and prepare for the unexpected.

Potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice

  • A potential mitigation tactic is risk tolerance which is eliminating the risk.

Applying the mitigation/elimination tactic

  • A method of applying an elimination tactic of risk tolerance would be employees at stores and restaurants all wearing masks during the COVID-19 pandemic to eliminate the risk of employees giving sickness to patrons or one another.

Citation

  • Avery, B. (2021). Accepted Risk Management Frameworks for Public Assemblies. Public Assembly Risk Management.
  • Avery, B. (2021). Module 2 Part 2.

Hazard Communication

Description

  • Hazard communication is essential to help prevent risks as well as understand them. Signage is a huge aspect of hazard communication as it informs potential users of the hazards and risks that could affect them if they utilize that product. Some aspects of Hazard communication include storing, labeling and organizing the inventory.

Use

  • Hazard communication labels include product identifier, signal word, hazard statement, precautionary statement, pictogram, and name/address/telephone number. 9 examples of the use of hazard communication labels include health hazard, flame, exclamation mark, gas cylinder, corrosion, exploding bomb, flame over circle, environment and skull/crossbones. One example of hazard communication is the use of safety data sheets which is required by OSHA. This can be used to help inform users of the hazard and includes 16 sections to help organize the sheet for easy and accessible information.

Mitigate or Eliminate Risk?

  • Hazard communication is essential in terms of eliminating and mitigating risk. Hazard communication labels are very informative through their instructions and pictograms. The pictograms in hazard communication labels each refer to a specific hazard. For instance the skull and crossbones pictogram informs about toxicity, oral, dermal, and inhalation.

Citation

Avery, B (2021). Intro to Risk Management; “EMBOK Facets and Applications” 2016

Hazard Recognition and Mitigation - Extreme Weather

Description

  • A key principle associated with this topic are the measures of risk. The three measures of risk are impact, probability, and exposure. The impact extreme weather events have on humans is often great and even deadly. An example of an extreme weather event with a large human impact would be the wind blowing over a tent that collided with patrons and injured/killed them. .

Use

  • A practice associated with this topic is consulting with weather experts from NOAA before the event. They are utilized to discern the signs that extreme weather is near and how big of an impact it could have on an event.

Potential mitigation/elimination tactic or rationale for the theory/practice

  • Rationale for this practice is that NOAA scientists have the knowledge and expertise that qualify them to make the call about whether or not an event should proceed. They are more concerned with the potential human impact more than the promoter and planner who are focused on appealing to the entertainment or the profit.

Applying the mitigation/elimination tactic

  • Once the weather expert has informed the promoter that extreme weather is imminent, the planner is responsible for promptly evacuating the crowd to a safe location. The event planner and weather expert must work together to keep attendee safety a priority.

Citation

  • Avery, B. (2021). Risk Framework and Prevention Methods. Part 2. ; Whitaker, S. (2020, August 13). Looking Back on Sugarland’s Tragic Stage Collapse. Retrieved from https://tasteofcountry.com/sugarland-stage-collapse-indiana-state-fair-five-years/.