Programming Fundamentals

Computer programming (often shortened to programming) is a process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable computer programs. Programming involves activities such as analysis, developing understanding, generating algorithms, verification of requirements of algorithms including their correctness and resources consumption, and implementation (commonly referred to as coding) of algorithms in a target programming language.[1]

This course comprises nine lessons on the fundamentals of computer programming. Each lesson includes a combination of Wikibooks, Wikipedia, and Internet-based readings, YouTube videos, and hands-on, interactive learning activities. Examples are provided using flowcharts, pseudocode, and a wide variety of computer programming languages.

This entire Wikiversity course can be downloaded in book form by selecting Download Learning Guide in the sidebar.



This is a second-semester, college-level course. Learners should already be familiar with introductory computer concepts and have advanced or proficient-level computer skills. Learners need to have access to the internet readily available to them.


  1. Introduction
  2. Variables
  3. Functions
  4. Conditions
  5. Loops
  6. Arrays
  7. Strings
  8. Files
  9. Objects

See Also



  • Braunschweig, D. and Busbee, K. L. (2018). Programming Fundamentals - A Modular Structured Approach, 2nd Edition. Pressbooks.
  • Farrell, J. (2015). Programming Logic and Design, Introductory, 8th Edition. Cengage. ISBN 9781285845777
  • Gaddis, T. (2016). Starting Out with Programming Logic and Design, 4th Edition. Pearson. ISBN 9780133998160