# PlanetPhysics/Cstar Algebra

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### C*- and von Neumann algebras: Quantum operator algebra in quantum theoriesEdit

#### IntroductionEdit

C*-algebra has evolved as a key concept in Quantum Operator Algebra after the introduction of the von Neumann algebra for the mathematical foundation of quantum mechanics. The von Neumann algebra classification is simpler and studied in greater depth than that of general C*-algebra classification theory.

The importance of C*-algebras for understanding the geometry of quantum state spaces (Alfsen and Schultz, 2003 ^{[1]}) cannot be overestimated. The theory of C*-algebras has numerous applications in the theory of representations of groups and symmetric algebras, the theory of dynamical systems, statistical physics and quantum field theory, and also in the theory of operators on a Hilbert space.

Moreover, the introduction of non-commutative C*-algebras in noncommutative geometry has already played important roles in expanding the Hilbert space perspective of Quantum Mechanics developed by von Neumann. Furthermore, extended quantum symmetries are currently being approached in terms of groupoid C*- convolution algebra and their representations; the latter also enter into the construction of compact quantum groupoids as developed in the Bibliography cited, and also briefly outlined here in the second section.
The fundamental connections that exist between categories of -algebras and those of von Neumann and other quantum operator algebras, such as JB- or JBL- algebras are yet to be completed and are the subject of in depth studies ^{[1]}.

### Basic definitionsEdit

A **C*-algebra** is simultaneously a --algebra and a Banach space -with additional conditions- as defined next.

Let us consider first the definition of an *involution* on a complex algebra .

An *involution* on a complex algebra is a *real--linear map*
such that for all

and **Failed to parse (unknown function "\bC"): {\displaystyle \lambda \in \bC}**
, we have

A **-algebra* is said to be a complex associative algebra together with an operation of involution ~.

### C*-algebraEdit

A *C*-algebra* is simultaneously a *-algebra and a Banach space ,
satisfying for all ~ the following conditions:

**Failed to parse (syntax error): {\displaystyle \Vert S \circ T \Vert &\leq \Vert S \Vert ~ \Vert T \Vert~, \\ \Vert T^* T \Vert^2 & = \Vert T\Vert^2 ~. }**

One can easily verify that ~.

By the above axioms a C*--algebra is a special case of a Banach algebra where the latter requires the above C*-norm property, but not the involution (*) property.

Given Banach spaces the space of (bounded) linear operators from to forms a Banach space, where for , the space is a Banach algebra with respect to the norm \bigbreak \bigbreak In quantum field theory one may start with a Hilbert space , and consider the Banach algebra of bounded linear operators which given to be closed under the usual algebraic operations and taking adjoints, forms a --algebra of bounded operators, where the adjoint operation functions as the involution, and for we have~:

and </math> \Vert Tu \Vert^2 = (Tu,
Tu) = (u, T^*Tu) \leq \Vert T^* T \Vert~ \Vert u \Vert^2~.**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "/mathoid/local/v1/":): {\displaystyle By a ''\htmladdnormallink{morphism'' {http://planetphysics.us/encyclopedia/TrivialGroupoid.html} between C*-algebras} <math>\mathfrak A,\mathfrak B}**
we mean a linear map </math>\phi :
\mathfrak A \lra \mathfrak BS, T \in \mathfrak A**Failed to parse (unknown function "\bigbreak"): {\displaystyle , the following hold~: \bigbreak <math>\phi(ST) = \phi(S) \phi(T)~,~ \phi(T^*) = \phi(T)^*~, }**
\bigbreak
where a bijective morphism is said to be an isomorphism (in which case it is then an
isometry). A fundamental relation is that any norm-closed -algebra in
is a C*-algebra, and conversely, any C*-algebra is isomorphic to a norm--closed -algebra in for some Hilbert space ~.
One can thus also define the category **Failed to parse (syntax error): {\displaystyle \mathcal{C ^*}**
of C*-algebras and morphisms between C*-algebras}.

For a C*-algebra , we say that is *self--adjoint* if </math>T
= T^*\mathfrak A^{sa}\mathfrak A as ~:

A *commutative* C*--algebra is one for which the associative multiplication is
commutative. Given a commutative C*--algebra , we have ,
the algebra of continuous functions on a compact Hausdorff space .

The classification of {-algebras} is far more complex than that of von Neumann algebras that provide the fundamental algebraic content of quantum state and operator spaces in quantum theories.

## All SourcesEdit

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## ReferencesEdit

- ↑
^{1.0}^{1.1}^{1.2}E. M. Alfsen and F. W. Schultz:*Geometry of State Spaces of Operator Algebras*, Birkh\"auser, Boston--Basel--Berlin (2003). - ↑
I. Baianu : Categories, Functors and Automata Theory: A Novel Approach to Quantum Automata through Algebraic--Topological Quantum Computations.,
*Proceed. 4th Intl. Congress LMPS*, (August-Sept. 1971). - ↑ J. Dixmier, " -algebras" , North-Holland (1977) (Translated from French)
- ↑ S. Sakai, " -algebras and -algebras" , Springer (1971)
- ↑ D. Ruelle, "Statistical mechanics: rigorous results." , Benjamin (1974) '
- ↑ R.G. Douglas, "Banach algebra techniques in operator theory" , Acad. Press (1972)
- ↑
I. C. Baianu, J. F. Glazebrook and R. Brown.: A Non--Abelian, Categorical Ontology of Spacetimes and Quantum Gravity.,
*Axiomathes***17**,(3-4): 353-408(2007). - ↑
M. R. Buneci.:
*Groupoid Representations*, Ed. Mirton: Timishoara (2003). - ↑
M. Chaician and A. Demichev:
*Introduction to Quantum Groups*, World Scientific (1996). - ↑
W. Drechsler and P. A. Tuckey: On quantum and parallel transport in a Hilbert bundle over spacetime.,
*Classical and Quantum Gravity*,**13**:611-632 (1996). doi: 10.1088/0264--9381/13/4/004 - ↑
V. G. Drinfel'd: Quantum groups, In
*Proc. Intl. Congress of Mathematicians, Berkeley 1986*, (ed. A. Gleason), Berkeley, 798-820 (1987). - ↑
G. J. Ellis: Higher dimensional crossed modules of algebras,
*J. of Pure Appl. Algebra***52**(1988), 277-282. - ↑
P.. I. Etingof and A. N. Varchenko, Solutions of the Quantum Dynamical Yang-Baxter Equation and Dynamical Quantum Groups,
*Comm.Math.Phys.*,**196**: 591-640 (1998). - ↑
P. I. Etingof and A. N. Varchenko: Exchange dynamical quantum groups,
*Commun. Math. Phys.***205**(1): 19-52 (1999) - ↑
P. I. Etingof and O. Schiffmann: Lectures on the dynamical Yang--Baxter equations, in
*Quantum Groups and Lie Theory (Durham, 1999)*, pp. 89-129, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001. - ↑
B. Fauser:
*A treatise on quantum Clifford Algebras*. Konstanz, Habilitationsschrift. (arXiv.math.QA/0202059). (2002). - ↑
B. Fauser: Grade Free product Formulae from Grassman--Hopf Gebras.
Ch. 18 in R. Ablamowicz, Ed.,
*Clifford Algebras: Applications to Mathematics, Physics and Engineering*, Birkh\"{a}user: Boston, Basel and Berlin, (2004). - ↑
J. M. G. Fell.: The Dual Spaces of C*--Algebras.,
*Transactions of the American Mathematical Society*,**94**: 365--403 (1960). - ↑
F.M. Fernandez and E. A. Castro.:
*(Lie) Algebraic Methods in Quantum Chemistry and Physics.*, Boca Raton: CRC Press, Inc (1996). - ↑
A.~Fr{\"o}hlich: Non--Abelian Homological Algebra. {I}.
{D}erived functors and satellites,
*Proc. London Math. Soc.*,**11**(3): 239--252 (1961). - ↑
R. Gilmore:
*Lie Groups, Lie Algebras and Some of Their Applications.*, Dover Publs., Inc.: Mineola and New York, 2005. - ↑
P. Hahn: Haar measure for measure groupoids,
*Trans. Amer. Math. Soc*.**242**: 1--33(1978). - ↑
P. Hahn: The regular representations of measure groupoids.,
*Trans. Amer. Math. Soc*.**242**:34--72(1978).

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