# Physics equations/Equations/Blank (no equations)

This equations contains the section dividers used to transclude, but no equations. Copies of this page residing in ../Equations space can be used to supplement Equations in creating user-oriented pages in ../Sheet space (for example calculus/trig supplements).

### 13-Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and Gas Laws

• ${\displaystyle T_{C}=T_{K}-273.15}$  converts from Celsius to Kelvins.
• ${\displaystyle T_{F}={\frac {9}{5}}T_{C}+32}$  converts from Celsius to Fahrenheit.

### 14-Heat and Heat Transfer

• ${\displaystyle Q=mc_{S}\Delta T}$  is the heat required to change the temperature of a substance of mass, m. The change in temperature is ΔT. The specific heat, cS, depends on the substance (and to some extent, its temperature and other factors such as pressure). Heat is the transfer of energy, usually from a hotter object to a colder one. The units of specfic heat are energy/mass/degree, or J/(kg-degree).
• ${\displaystyle Q=mL}$  is the heat required to change the phase of a a mass, m, of a substance (with no change in temperature). The latent heat, L, depends not only on the substance, but on the nature of the phase change for any given substance. LF is called the latent heat of fusion, and refers to the melting or freezing of the substance. LV is called the latent heat of vaporization, and refers to evaporation or condensation of a substance.

### 16-Oscillatory Motion and Waves

• ${\displaystyle x=X\cos {\frac {2\pi t}{T}}}$  describes oscillatory motion with period T. The amplitude, or maximum displacement is ${\displaystyle X}$ . Alternative notation includes the use of ${\displaystyle x_{0}}$  instead of ${\displaystyle X}$ ). Using by ${\displaystyle \omega _{0}T=2\pi }$  allows us to write this in terms of angular frequency, ω0:
• ${\displaystyle x(t)=x_{0}\cos \left(\omega _{0}t-\varphi \right)}$  , where we have introduced a phase shift to permit both sine and cosine waves. For example, ${\displaystyle \cos \left(\omega _{0}t-\varphi \right)=\sin \omega _{0}t}$ .
• ${\displaystyle \omega _{0}={\sqrt {\frac {k_{s}}{m}}}={\frac {2\pi }{T}}}$  holds for a mass-spring system with mass, m, and spring constant, ks.
• ${\displaystyle \omega _{0}={\sqrt {\frac {g}{L}}}={\frac {2\pi }{T}}}$  holds for a low amplitude pendulum of length, L, in a gravitational field, g.
• ${\displaystyle PE={\frac {1}{2}}k_{s}x^{2}}$  is the potential energy of a mass spring system. This equation can also be used for a pendulum if we replace the spring constant ${\displaystyle k_{s}}$  by an effective spring constant ${\displaystyle k_{eff}=mg/L}$ .

### 27-Wave Optics

===28-Special Relativity=== <section begin=28-Special_Relativity/> <section end=28-Special_Relativity/> ===29-Introduction to Quantum Physics=== <section begin=29-Introduction_to_Quantum_Physics/> <section end=29-Introduction_to_Quantum_Physics/> ===30-Atomic Physics=== <section begin=30-Atomic_Physics/> <section end=30-Atomic_Physics/> ===31-Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics=== <section begin=31-Radioactivity_and_Nuclear_Physics/> <section end=31-Radioactivity_and_Nuclear_Physics/> ===32-Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics=== <section begin=32-Medical_Applications_of_Nuclear_Physics/> *foo <section end=32-Medical_Applications_of_Nuclear_Physics/> ===33-Particle Physics=== <section begin=33-Particle_Physics/> *foo <section end=33-Particle_Physics/> ===34-Frontiers of Physics=== <section begin=34-Frontiers_of_Physics/> *foo <section end=34-Frontiers_of_Physics/>