# Physical Properties

## What are Physical Properties?

All matter has mass (it's made of stuff) and it has volume (takes up an amount of space).

Physical Properties: Descriptions of matter that can be observed without changing it into a new substance.

### What is Density?

Density describes how "packed in" the mass is within that volume. In other words, how compact is the stuff.

EX: A marshmallow and a golf ball have the same size, but different mass. The golf ball has higher density (has more mass)
EX: A kilogram of steel and a kilogram of feathers have the same weight, but different density. The kilogram of steel has a higher density.

Gases and Liquids have densities too! That's why they sometimes form layers when put in the same container.

### Vocab

• Density - Describes how compact the matter is in a substance. A bowling ball is more dense than a beach ball.
• Color - Describes how light reflects off a substance.
• Luster - Describes how shiny a substance is. A diamond has higher luster (more shinier) than a tree bark.
• Texture - Describes the smoothness/roughness of a substance.
• Odor - Describes the smell of a substance.
• Hardness - Describes a substance's ability to resist shape change. Doesn't always mean "strength".
• Conductivity - Describes how well a substance allows heat or electricity to flow through it. How conductivity substances are called insulators.
• Malleability - Describes how easily a substance can be formed into new shapes.
• Ductility - Describes how well a substance can be pulled into thin wires.
• Magnetism - Describes if a substance attracts or repels magnets
• Solubillity - Describes how well a substance dissolves in another substance like sugar stirred in water.
• State of Matter - Describes whether a substance is solid, liquid, or a gas.
• Melting/Freezing Point - Describes the temperature at which a solid turns liquid or vice versa.
• Boiling/Condensation Point - Describes the temperature at which a liquid turns gas or vice versa.