# Particle Sphere Theory

Particle Sphere Theory is a theory in quantum mechanics in which some bosons, such as the Higgs Boson and the Graviton (called Gravispheres), are made of particle-antiparticle pairs. Also, the theory states that fermions are made of preons and æons and vector bosons are made of preosons.

## Primons

Primons are particles that make up elementary particles; they are preons, preosons, and æons. Preons (p${\displaystyle \pm }$ ) are massless, ${\displaystyle \pm {\frac {1}{3}}}$  charged scalar bosons. Æons (Æ${\displaystyle \pm }$ ) are massless, chargeless scalar bosons that determine generation. The interaction between the two permeates the Preoson Web and yields a ${\displaystyle {\frac {1}{2}}}$  spin. Both of these particles are spheres with a diameter of the planck length.

The charge of preons is determine by the orbital direction (so charge is relative). Preons form a shell inside of the particle, called the preonic shell. A preonic shell is full when it has 3 preons of the same charge. When preons of opposite charge or æons of the opposite rotation collide, they annihilate and produce preosons.

Preosons (P) are spinless, chargeless, and massless and make up bosons. Some bosons are made of three loosely bound preons and preosons (which create a spin based on the amount of each). These are also spheres with a diameter of the planck length.

### Primordial Pairs

Primordial pairs are pairs of preons that create color charge. There are 2 primordial pairs in each color charged particle each in a different primordial shell. There can be any combination of two preons in either shell. However, the other shell must have the opposite combination. Primoridal Pairs can only go around an unfilled preonic shell (only 1 or 2 preons). Primordial pairs can also form around gluons. The scalar force causes the primordial pairs to create negative color charges around negative preonic shells, and likewise for positve preonic shells.

## Energons

Energons are point particles that make up Primons they are the xion (x) (pronounced zhon) and yon (y). The latter has two types: yoneg (y-), with a basic charge of negative one, and yonos (y+), with a basic charge of postive one. Both of these particles are only either particles or waves; xions are particles and yons are waves. The yoneg waves are perpendicular to the yonos waves, so when two yon waves of opposite come in they bond, and do not annihilate, but together a neutral basic and electric charge. Xion particles, when paired create a bond of energy which compounds, unlike that of the yons. However, two like yon waves will compound their basic charge. Such compounding yields an electric charge of plus or minus one (whichever the basic charge of the particles making up the compound are.) Further compounding of yon waves, while possible is short-lived, because high basic charges is highly unstable. This is due to like charges repelling. However, xian particles can further compound without creating a high basic charge, because xian particles do not have a basic charge. The compositions of primons are listed below:

• Preoson- x2
• Æon- x2y±
• Preon- x2y±2

## Scalar Charge

Æons, preons, and preosons have a scalar charge. Æons have a scalar charge of one and preons have a scalar charge of negative one. This creates an attraction that keeps the particles together. The æons in the center of the particle are held together, because of the preon- æon mechanism. This mechanism causes preons to attract more to larger clusters of æons. Preonsons have imaginary scalar charge. This charge allows preosons to stick to each other.

### Preoson Web

A network of preosons, called the preoson web, exists in the universe, which are bonded together by their scalar charges. When a large field of gravity is created in an area of space-time the preosons contract and the preosons in another area of space-time expand. This creates a simulated metric expansion of space in some areas and a simulated metric implosion of space in others.

## Elementary Particles

There are 54 different Elementary Particles, each of which are actually composite.

### Leptoquarks

Leptoquarks are made of an æon cluster (like a fermion) and 3 preons, where the preons are not all of the same charge. They transfer information between fermions of their generation. Since there are two different types of preons (positive and negative), a spin of one is created. The scalar force causes them to repel (and not annihilate eachother), as they have similar scalar charges. They are notated by the first two and forth Greek letters (α, β, and δ) and the charge in superscript.

### Antions

Antions are particle made of only preons. They can be made of anywhere from 1 to 3 preons.

#### Chameleons

Chameleons are antions that couple to the preosons in the Preoson Web. The are made up of 3 preons that do not all have the same electric charge. The types are Φ+ (Phi plus) and Φ- (Phi minus). They cause the preoson web to interact with the matter around it, because they have a complex scalar charge (of -i and i, respectively) and a real electric charge.

##### Bonds

Phi plus Chameleon particles will bond with and couple to the preoson web, as they have a Scalar charge of i. A phi minus cannot, because of a Scalar charge of -i. Phi minus chameleons can, however, bond with phi plus chameleons via the scalar and electromagnetic forces.

#### Primordions

Primordions are the only antions that interact with the strong force. They are made of two preons. The types are ϝ+ (digamma plus), ϝ0 (diggama null), and ϝ- (digamma minus).

### Compositions of Bosons

A chart of the compositions of bosons is as follows:

Bosonic Composition
Boson Composition
Preoson P
Higgon P3p${\displaystyle \pm }$
Photon 2P
Z0 3P
W${\displaystyle \pm }$  3P3p${\displaystyle \pm }$
Gluon 4P
Axion 5P
Graviton 5P3p${\displaystyle \pm }$

### Periodic Table of Elementary Particles

A table of a fermions is as follows (the columns represent the preons and the rows represent the æons/ generations):

III- II- I- 0- 0+ I+ II+ III+
I e- ${\displaystyle {\overline {\text{u}}}}$  d νe ${\displaystyle {\overline {\text{ν}}}}$ e ${\displaystyle {\overline {\text{d}}}}$  u e+
II µ- ${\displaystyle {\overline {\text{c}}}}$  s νµ ${\displaystyle {\overline {\text{ν}}}}$ µ ${\displaystyle {\overline {\text{s}}}}$  c µ+
III τ- ${\displaystyle {\overline {\text{t}}}}$  b ντ ${\displaystyle {\overline {\text{ν}}}}$ τ ${\displaystyle {\overline {\text{b}}}}$  t τ+

### Particle Spheres

#### Gravisphere

 Gravisphere Composition: A gravition and a negaton Group: Particle Sphere Interaction: Gravity and Electromagnetic Force Symbol(s): G0 Antiparticle: Self Theorized: Tyler Skywalker (2016) Mass: approx. 1.38 maeV/c2 Mean lifetime: 846.17 ns Decays into: Axion Spin: 2

 Graviton Composition: 5P3p+ Group: Gauge Boson Interaction: Gravity and Electromagnetic Force Symbol(s): G+ Antiparticle: Negaton (G-) Theorized: Tyler Skywalker (2016) Mass: 0 Mean lifetime: Stable Spin: 1

Gravispheres (G0) are hypothetical composite particles. They correlate with gravitons in theoretical physics, and are about 1.76714586764 fm3 in size. It has a mass of 221.021906 maag (milliattoattograms); this mass is comprised of the approximate 19.86445824 µaJ (microattojoules) of energy contained in the Gravisphere. They compose of two stable massless spin-1 particles, the Graviton (G+), with an electric charge of 1, and the Negaton (Anti-Graviton) (G-), with an electric charge of -1. It has a mean lifetime of about 846.1740097 ns, decaying into 2 Axions. It decays due to the light-speed collision of the graviton-negaton pair.

##### Axion

Axions are the decay products of gravispheres. They have no rest mass, but have 19.86445824 µaJ of energy. The axions attract other axions and the collisions produce one gravisphere for each axion. They are spin-2, electrically neutral particles. Axions pull particles (via gravity) together on there light speed journey through the universe.

#### Higgs Boson

 Higgon Composition: P3p+ Interaction: Electromagnetic Force and Gravity Symbol(s): H+ Antiparticle: Anti-Higgon (H-) Theorized: Tyler Skywalker (2016) Mass: 0 Mean lifetime: Stable Spin: 0

Higgs Bosons are made of a Higgon and an Anti-Higgon, both of which are spin-0 massless particles; with the higgon having a charge of 1 and the anti-higgon having a charge of -1.

## Supervectors

Supervectors, not to be confused with Super vector space, are the superpositions of particles. A particle's supervector is equal to:

${\displaystyle s=(|v+m\rangle +|{\hat {U}}+\lambda \rangle )*(|x\rangle +|y\rangle +|z\rangle +|t\rangle )}$

Where v is the velocity of the particle, m is the mass of the particle, Û is the amplitude of the wave, λ is the wavelength of the wave, x is the x coordinate of the center of the sphere relative to point (in Planck lengths), y is the y coordinate, z is the z coordinate, and t is the distance in time from said point (in Planck time). The ${\displaystyle |v+m\rangle }$  represents the potential that the object is a particle. The ${\displaystyle |{\hat {U}}+\lambda \rangle }$  represents the potential that the object is a wave.

Any given fundamental particle-wave cannot exist in 4 dimensional reality, instead one to four copies exist, each one a point on the given axis. The energy of the particle-wave is emitted in 4 dimensions, and the intersection(s) of the particle-wave's energy is where the particle-wave appears to be at any given point in space-time.

## Unification of the Forces

Unification of the Forces
Temperature Force
TP Grand Unified Force
1032K to TP [1] Scalar Force Gauge Force
1027K to 1032K [1] Gravitational Force Electronuclear Force
1015K to 1027K [1] Strong Force Electroweak Force
<1015K [1] Electromagnetic Force Weak Force

## Black Holes

Black holes are the result of an implosion of a super-massive star. When the stars implode the particles within the star are torn into energons. Since those listed particles are vector bosons, they do not obey the Pauli exclusion principle and, thus, can occupy the same quantum state. And as a result, they are contained in the same space. This space has no volume. The particles in this point interact with the Preoson Web and create mass. The interaction with the Preoson Web causes the web to collapse on this point of space and expand in another area, causing quantum tunneling to occur. Since the Preoson Web's density is lower in one area of space-time and higher in the area the particles are in, the particle have a higher chance of tunneling to said area. It should be noted that since the Preoson Web is a timeless network with 4 spatial dimensions, it cannot and will not be absorbed by the black hole.